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  • Amino Acid Sequence  (6)
  • EXPRESSION  (6)
  • Protein Binding  (6)
  • 1
    Keywords: CANCER ; EXPRESSION ; COMBINATION ; LUNG ; MODEL ; MODELS ; TOXICITY ; CLASSIFICATION ; liver ; GENE ; GENE-EXPRESSION ; microarray ; validation ; QUALITY ; BREAST ; breast cancer ; BREAST-CANCER ; PERFORMANCE ; gene expression ; MICROARRAY DATA ; HUMANS ; microarrays ; PREDICTION ; PROJECT ; FOLLICULAR LYMPHOMA ; MULTIPLE-MYELOMA ; rodent ; neuroblastoma ; development ; methods ; GENE-EXPRESSION DATA ; DNA MICROARRAYS ; rodents ; RECOMMENDATIONS ; EXPRESSION DATA ; CONTROL MAQC PROJECT ; PUBLISHED MICROARRAY ; RISK-STRATIFICATION
    Abstract: Gene expression data from microarrays are being applied to predict preclinical and clinical endpoints, but the reliability of these predictions has not been established. In the MAQC-II project, 36 independent teams analyzed six microarray data sets to generate predictive models for classifying a sample with respect to one of 13 endpoints indicative of lung or liver toxicity in rodents, or of breast cancer, multiple myeloma or neuroblastoma in humans. In total, 〉30,000 models were built using many combinations of analytical methods. The teams generated predictive models without knowing the biological meaning of some of the endpoints and, to mimic clinical reality, tested the models on data that had not been used for training. We found that model performance depended largely on the endpoint and team proficiency and that different approaches generated models of similar performance. The conclusions and recommendations from MAQC-II should be useful for regulatory agencies, study committees and independent investigators that evaluate methods for global gene expression analysis
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
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  • 2
    Keywords: EXPRESSION ; tumor ; POPULATION ; chromosome ; LYMPHOCYTES ; OUTCOMES ; LOCUS ; GENOME-WIDE ASSOCIATION ; CONFER SUSCEPTIBILITY ; COMMON VARIANTS
    Abstract: Large population-based registry studies have shown that breast cancer prognosis is inherited. Here we analyse single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of genes implicated in human immunology and inflammation as candidates for prognostic markers of breast cancer survival involving 1,804 oestrogen receptor (ER)-negative patients treated with chemotherapy (279 events) from 14 European studies in a prior large-scale genotyping experiment, which is part of the Collaborative Oncological Gene-environment Study (COGS) initiative. We carry out replication using Asian COGS samples (n=522, 53 events) and the Prospective Study of Outcomes in Sporadic versus Hereditary breast cancer (POSH) study (n=315, 108 events). Rs4458204_A near CCL20 (2p36.3) is found to be associated with breast cancer-specific death at a genome-wide significant level (n=2,641, 440 events, combined allelic hazard ratio (HR)=1.81 (1.49-2.19); P for trend=1.90 x 10(-9)). Such survival-associated variants can represent ideal targets for tailored therapeutics, and may also enhance our current prognostic prediction capabilities.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 24937182
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  • 3
    Keywords: EXPRESSION ; screening ; DISEASE ; CDNA ; GENE ; GENE-EXPRESSION ; GENES ; HYBRIDIZATION ; PROTEIN ; PROTEINS ; RNA ; TISSUE ; DNA ; MARKER ; DOMAIN ; BINDING ; BIOLOGY ; cell cycle ; CELL-CYCLE ; CYCLE ; SEQUENCE ; IN-SITU ; PATTERNS ; CHROMATIN ; gene expression ; IN-SITU HYBRIDIZATION ; MARKERS ; DATABASE ; DNA-BINDING ; XENOPUS ; PREDICTION ; epidermis ; FUNCTIONAL GENOMICS ; REGULATOR ; ENDOPLASMIC-RETICULUM ; EMBRYOS ; TRANSCRIPTIONAL REGULATION ; embryogenesis ; CLUSTER ; clustering ; in situ hybridization ; molecular ; Xenopus laevis ; XENOPUS-LAEVIS ; EXPRESSED SEQUENCE TAGS ; SCREEN ; endoplasmic reticulum ; LAEVIS ; synexpression ; SYNEXPRESSION GROUP ; cluster analysis ; EXPRESSION PATTERNS ; GENE ONTOLOGY ; EXPRESSION PROFILES ; protein domain ; amphibian ; cDNA sequencing ; partial cDNA sequencing ; pattern formation ; regionalization
    Abstract: We have carried out a large-scale, semi-automated whole-mount in situ hybridization screen of 8369 cDNA clones in Xenopus laevis embryos. We confirm that differential gene expression is prevalent during embryogenesis since 24% of the clones are expressed nonubiquitously and 8% are organ or cell type specific marker genes. Sequence analysis and clustering yielded 723 unique genes displaying a differential expression pattern. Of these, 18% were already described in Xenopus, 47% have homologs and 35% are lacking significant sequence similarity in databases. Many of them encode known developmental regulators. We classified 363 of the 723 genes for which a Gene Ontology annotation for molecular function could be attributed and found 'DNA binding' and 'enzyme' the most represented terms. The most common protein domains encoded in these embryonic, differentially expressed genes are the homeobox and RNA Recognition Motif (RRM). Fifty-nine Putative orthologs of human disease genes, and 254 organ or cell specific marker genes were identified. Markers were found for nasal placode and archenteron roof, organs for which a specific marker was previously unavailable. Markers were also found for novel subdomains of various other organs. The tissues for which most markers were found are muscle and epidermis. Expression of cell cycle regulators fell in two classes, containing proliferation-promoting and anti-proliferative genes, respectively. We identified 66 new members of the BMP4, chromatin, endoplasmic reticulum, and karyopherin synexpression groups, thus providing a first glimpse of their probable cellular roles. Cluster analysis of tissues to measure tissue relatedness yielded some unorthodox affinities besides expectable lineage relationships. In conclusion, this study represents an atlas of gene expression patterns, which reveals embryonic regionalization, provides novel marker genes, and makes predictions about the functional role of unknown genes. (c) 2004 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 15763213
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  • 4
    Keywords: CELLS ; EXPRESSION ; Germany ; COHORT ; POPULATION ; RISK ; PROTEIN ; ASSOCIATION ; LINKAGE ; polymorphism ; POLYMORPHISMS ; VARIANTS ; PROMOTER ; SNP ; OBESITY ; LINKAGE DISEQUILIBRIUM ; EPITHELIAL-CELLS ; cholesterol ; case-control studies ; BODY ; DIABETES-MELLITUS ; SMALL-INTESTINE ; TYPE-2 ; INITIATION ; case-control study ; VARIANT ; INCREASE ; SNPs ; LEVEL ; case control studies ; INSULIN-RESISTANCE ; BMI ; SUBSTITUTION ; type 2 diabetes ; LINKAGE-DISEQUILIBRIUM ; HUMAN CELL LINES ; ALA54THR POLYMORPHISM ; FATTY-ACID-BINDING ; PROTEIN-2 GENE ; PROMOTER POLYMORPHISMS ; ATCC STOCKS ; CODON-54 ; fatty acid-binding protein ; SEAP assay
    Abstract: Fatty acid-binding protein 2 (FABP2) is a cytosolic protein expressed exclusively in epithelial cells of the small intestine. Some, albeit not conclusive, evidence indicates that the Thr-allele of FABP2 Ala54Thr polymorphism is associated with type 2 diabetes. More recently, common FABP2 promoter polymorphisms have shown association with postprandial increase of triglycerides, body composition and plasma lipid levels. Therefore, we reasoned that variants in the FABP2 promoter may also predispose to type 2 diabetes mellitus. In our Caucasian study population, we found three SNPs and three insertion-deletion polymorphisms that are in complete linkage disequilibrium defining promoter haplotype A and B within 1kb5' of the FABP2 initiation codon. Haplotype calculations indicated that the FABP2 promoter and Ala54Thr variants were strongly linked. Functional analysis of promoter fragments demonstrated that haplotype difference is caused by polymorphisms within 260 bp downstream of the FABP2 initiation codon. Using a prospective case-control study nested within the EPIC-Potsdam cohort of 192 incident type 2 diabetes cases and 384 sex-/age-matched controls, male subjects carrying the FABP2 haplotype B allele showed significantly decreased risk of type 2 diabetes when adjusted for BMI (OR = 0.50, 95% CI = 0.28-0.87, p 〈 0.05) and additional covariates (OR = 0.42, 95% CI 0.22-0.81, p 〈 0.01). Further adjustment for the Ala54Thr polymorphism revealed an OR of 0.18 (95% CI 0.06-0.49, p 〈 0.001). Similarly, Ala/Ala homozygote males carrying the promoter haplotype B had decreased risk (0.33, 0.11-0.94, p 〈 0.05) of type 2 diabetes after stratification for the Ala54Thr polymorphism. FABP2 promoter haplotypes or genotype combinations defined by the promoter and Ala54Thr polymorphism were not associated with BMI, body fat, leptin, HbA(1c), total cholesterol or HDL. In conclusion, our findings suggest that the functional FABP2 promoter haplotype may contribute to type 2 diabetes in a sex-specific manner
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 16718625
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  • 5
    Keywords: PEPTIDE ; RECEPTOR ; CELLS ; EXPRESSION ; Germany ; human ; MODEL ; COMMON ; COHORT ; DISEASE ; RISK ; SITE ; GENE ; GENES ; PROTEIN ; RELEASE ; RISK-FACTORS ; ASSOCIATION ; polymorphism ; POLYMORPHISMS ; ACID ; NO ; AGE ; MUTATION ; SNP ; OBESITY ; risk factors ; REGION ; REGIONS ; EPIC-GERMANY ; insulin ; ASSOCIATIONS ; RE ; VARIANT ; ALLELE ; SNPs ; CARDIOVASCULAR-DISEASE ; AMINO-ACID ; interaction ; pancreatic ; GENOTYPE ; metabolic syndrome ; RISK-FACTOR ; cardiovascular disease ; EPIC-Potsdam ; DEPENDENT INSULINOTROPIC POLYPEPTIDE ; diabetes type 2 ; GASTRIC-INHIBITORY POLYPEPTIDE ; GIP receptor ; gluocose-dependent insulinotropic peptide
    Abstract: Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) stimulates insulin release via interaction with its pancreatic receptor (GIP receptor (GIPR)). GIP also acts as vasoactive protein. To investigate whether variations in GIP and GIPR genes are associated with risk factors of the metabolic syndrome we sequenced gene regions and identified two coding SNPs (GIP Ser103Gly, GIPR Glu354Gln) and one splice site SNP (GIP rs2291726) in 47 subjects. Interestingly, in silico analyses revealed that splice site SNP rs2291726 results in a truncated protein and classified GIPR variant Glu354Gln as a functional amino acid change. Association analyses were performed in a case-cohort study of incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) nested in the EPIC-Potsdam cohort. No significant associations between incident CVD and GIP Ser103Gly and rs2291726 were found. For GIPR Glu354Gln, we obtained a nominal association of heterozygous minor allele carrier with CVD in a codominant model adjusted for BMI, sex, and age (OR: 0.67, Cl: 0.50-0.91,p = 0.01) or additional covariates of CVD (OR: 0.72, Cl: 0.52-0.97,p = 0.03). In conclusion, we identified a common splice site mutation (rs2291726) of the GIP gene which results in a truncated protein and provide preliminary evidence for an association of the heterozygous GIPR Glu354Gln genotype with CVD
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 17624916
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  • 6
    Keywords: EXPRESSION ; Germany ; segmentation ; GENE ; GENES ; PROTEIN ; PROTEINS ; DIFFERENTIATION ; FAMILY ; DOMAIN ; MEMBER ; MEMBERS ; MOUSE ; CLOCK ; EMBRYO ; CONSERVATION ; XENOPUS ; DE-NOVO ; REPRESSION ; CHICKEN ; EMBRYOS ; MORPHOGENESIS ; NOTCH PATHWAY ; PARAXIAL MESODERM ; SOMITE SEGMENTATION ; SOMITOGENESIS
    Abstract: During somitogenesis, the cycling expression of members of the Notch signalling cascade is involved in a segmentation clock that regulates the periodic budding of somites in chicken, mouse, and zebrafish. In frog, genes with cycling expression in the presomitic mesoderm have not been reported. Here, we describe the expression of Xenopus esr9 and esr10, two new members of the Hairy/Enhancer of split related family of bHLH proteins. We show that they are expressed in a highly dynamic fashion, with their mRNA levels oscillating periodically in the presomitic mesoderm during somitogenesis. This dynamic expression is independent of de novo protein synthesis. Thus, expression of esr9 and esr10 is an indicator of the segmentation clock in the amphibian embryo. This confirms the evolutionary conservation of a molecular pathway involved in vertebrate segmentation clock
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 12558606
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2013-10-22
    Description: A large number of cis-regulatory sequences have been annotated in the human genome, but defining their target genes remains a challenge. One strategy is to identify the long-range looping interactions at these elements with the use of chromosome conformation capture (3C)-based techniques. However, previous studies lack either the resolution or coverage to permit a whole-genome, unbiased view of chromatin interactions. Here we report a comprehensive chromatin interaction map generated in human fibroblasts using a genome-wide 3C analysis method (Hi-C). We determined over one million long-range chromatin interactions at 5-10-kb resolution, and uncovered general principles of chromatin organization at different types of genomic features. We also characterized the dynamics of promoter-enhancer contacts after TNF-alpha signalling in these cells. Unexpectedly, we found that TNF-alpha-responsive enhancers are already in contact with their target promoters before signalling. Such pre-existing chromatin looping, which also exists in other cell types with different extracellular signalling, is a strong predictor of gene induction. Our observations suggest that the three-dimensional chromatin landscape, once established in a particular cell type, is relatively stable and could influence the selection or activation of target genes by a ubiquitous transcription activator in a cell-specific manner.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3838900/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3838900/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Jin, Fulai -- Li, Yan -- Dixon, Jesse R -- Selvaraj, Siddarth -- Ye, Zhen -- Lee, Ah Young -- Yen, Chia-An -- Schmitt, Anthony D -- Espinoza, Celso A -- Ren, Bing -- P50 GM085764/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- P50 GM085764-03/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- T32 GM008666/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- U01 ES017166/ES/NIEHS NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2013 Nov 14;503(7475):290-4. doi: 10.1038/nature12644. Epub 2013 Oct 20.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉1] Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, California 92093, USA [2].〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24141950" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Cell Line ; Chromatin/chemistry/genetics/*metabolism ; *Chromosome Mapping ; Enhancer Elements, Genetic/physiology ; Gene Expression Regulation ; *Genome, Human ; Humans ; Imaging, Three-Dimensional ; Promoter Regions, Genetic/physiology ; Protein Binding ; Signal Transduction ; Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2015-12-25
    Description: The carboxy-terminal domain (CTD) of the RNA polymerase II (RNAP II) subunit POLR2A is a platform for modifications specifying the recruitment of factors that regulate transcription, mRNA processing, and chromatin remodelling. Here we show that a CTD arginine residue (R1810 in human) that is conserved across vertebrates is symmetrically dimethylated (me2s). This R1810me2s modification requires protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5) and recruits the Tudor domain of the survival of motor neuron (SMN, also known as GEMIN1) protein, which is mutated in spinal muscular atrophy. SMN interacts with senataxin, which is sometimes mutated in ataxia oculomotor apraxia type 2 and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Because POLR2A R1810me2s and SMN, like senataxin, are required for resolving RNA-DNA hybrids created by RNA polymerase II that form R-loops in transcription termination regions, we propose that R1810me2s, SMN, and senataxin are components of an R-loop resolution pathway. Defects in this pathway can influence transcription termination and may contribute to neurodegenerative disorders.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Zhao, Dorothy Yanling -- Gish, Gerald -- Braunschweig, Ulrich -- Li, Yue -- Ni, Zuyao -- Schmitges, Frank W -- Zhong, Guoqing -- Liu, Ke -- Li, Weiguo -- Moffat, Jason -- Vedadi, Masoud -- Min, Jinrong -- Pawson, Tony J -- Blencowe, Benjamin J -- Greenblatt, Jack F -- Canadian Institutes of Health Research/Canada -- England -- Nature. 2016 Jan 7;529(7584):48-53. doi: 10.1038/nature16469. Epub 2015 Dec 23.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Donnelly Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3E1, Canada. ; Lunenfeld-Tanenbaum Research Institute, Mount Sinai Hospital, 600 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1X5, Canada. ; Department of Molecular Genetics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A8, Canada. ; Department of Computer Science, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3G4, Canada. ; Structural Genomics Consortium, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1L7, Canada.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26700805" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Arginine/*metabolism ; Cell Line ; DNA Damage ; Humans ; Methylation ; Neurodegenerative Diseases/genetics ; Protein Binding ; Protein Structure, Tertiary ; Protein-Arginine N-Methyltransferases/genetics/metabolism ; RNA Helicases/genetics/metabolism ; RNA Polymerase II/*chemistry/*metabolism ; Survival of Motor Neuron 1 Protein/genetics/*metabolism ; Transcription Elongation, Genetic ; *Transcription Termination, Genetic
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2011-05-21
    Description: The transmission of information from DNA to RNA is a critical process. We compared RNA sequences from human B cells of 27 individuals to the corresponding DNA sequences from the same individuals and uncovered more than 10,000 exonic sites where the RNA sequences do not match that of the DNA. All 12 possible categories of discordances were observed. These differences were nonrandom as many sites were found in multiple individuals and in different cell types, including primary skin cells and brain tissues. Using mass spectrometry, we detected peptides that are translated from the discordant RNA sequences and thus do not correspond exactly to the DNA sequences. These widespread RNA-DNA differences in the human transcriptome provide a yet unexplored aspect of genome variation.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3204392/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3204392/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Li, Mingyao -- Wang, Isabel X -- Li, Yun -- Bruzel, Alan -- Richards, Allison L -- Toung, Jonathan M -- Cheung, Vivian G -- R01 HG005854/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HG005854-01/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2011 Jul 1;333(6038):53-8. doi: 10.1126/science.1207018. Epub 2011 May 19.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Biostatistics, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21596952" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adult ; Aged ; Amino Acid Sequence ; B-Lymphocytes ; Base Sequence ; Cell Line ; Cerebral Cortex/cytology ; DNA/chemistry/*genetics ; Exons ; Expressed Sequence Tags ; Fibroblasts ; Gene Expression Profiling ; *Genetic Variation ; *Genome, Human ; Genotype ; Humans ; Mass Spectrometry ; Middle Aged ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide ; Protein Biosynthesis ; Proteins/chemistry ; Proteome/chemistry ; RNA, Messenger/chemistry/*genetics ; Sequence Analysis, DNA ; Sequence Analysis, RNA ; Skin/cytology ; Untranslated Regions
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2013-07-09
    Description: The newly emergent Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) can cause severe pulmonary disease in humans, representing the second example of a highly pathogenic coronavirus, the first being SARS-CoV. CD26 (also known as dipeptidyl peptidase 4, DPP4) was recently identified as the cellular receptor for MERS-CoV. The engagement of the MERS-CoV spike protein with CD26 mediates viral attachment to host cells and virus-cell fusion, thereby initiating infection. Here we delineate the molecular basis of this specific interaction by presenting the first crystal structures of both the free receptor binding domain (RBD) of the MERS-CoV spike protein and its complex with CD26. Furthermore, binding between the RBD and CD26 is measured using real-time surface plasmon resonance with a dissociation constant of 16.7 nM. The viral RBD is composed of a core subdomain homologous to that of the SARS-CoV spike protein, and a unique strand-dominated external receptor binding motif that recognizes blades IV and V of the CD26 beta-propeller. The atomic details at the interface between the two binding entities reveal a surprising protein-protein contact mediated mainly by hydrophilic residues. Sequence alignment indicates, among betacoronaviruses, a possible structural conservation for the region homologous to the MERS-CoV RBD core, but a high variation in the external receptor binding motif region for virus-specific pathogenesis such as receptor recognition.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Lu, Guangwen -- Hu, Yawei -- Wang, Qihui -- Qi, Jianxun -- Gao, Feng -- Li, Yan -- Zhang, Yanfang -- Zhang, Wei -- Yuan, Yuan -- Bao, Jinku -- Zhang, Buchang -- Shi, Yi -- Yan, Jinghua -- Gao, George F -- England -- Nature. 2013 Aug 8;500(7461):227-31. doi: 10.1038/nature12328. Epub 2013 Jul 7.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉CAS Key Laboratory of Pathogenic Microbiology and Immunology, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23831647" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Conserved Sequence/genetics ; Coronavirus/*chemistry/genetics/*metabolism ; Dipeptidyl Peptidase 4/*chemistry/metabolism ; Humans ; Protein Binding ; Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs/genetics ; Protein Structure, Tertiary/genetics ; Receptors, Virus/*chemistry/*metabolism ; *Virus Attachment
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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