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  • 1
    Keywords: EXPRESSION ; IN-VIVO ; ACTIVATION ; cytoskeleton ; INVOLVEMENT ; VEGF ; INTEGRINS ; STABILIZATION ; VASCULAR MORPHOGENESIS ; ALPHA-3-BETA-1-INTEGRIN
    Abstract: BACKGROUND: Angiogenesis is crucial for many pathological processes and becomes a therapeutic strategy against diseases ranging from inflammation to cancer. The regulatory mechanism of angiogenesis remains unclear. Although tetraspanin CD82 is widely expressed in various endothelial cells (ECs), its vascular function is unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: Angiogenesis was examined in Cd82-null mice with in vivo and ex vivo morphogenesis assays. Cellular functions, molecular interactions, and signaling were analyzed in Cd82-null ECs. Angiogenic responses to various stimuli became markedly increased upon Cd82 ablation. Major changes in Cd82-null ECs were enhanced migration and invasion, likely resulting from the upregulated expression of cell adhesion molecules such as CD44 and integrins at the cell surface and subsequently elevated outside-in signaling. Gangliosides, lipid raft clustering, and CD44-membrane microdomain interactions were increased in the plasma membrane of Cd82-null ECs, leading to less clathrin-independent endocytosis and then more surface presence of CD44. CONCLUSIONS: Our study reveals that CD82 restrains pathological angiogenesis by inhibiting EC movement, that lipid raft clustering and cell adhesion molecule trafficking modulate angiogenic potential, that transmembrane protein modulates lipid rafts, and that the perturbation of CD82-ganglioside-CD44 signaling attenuates pathological angiogenesis.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 25149363
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  • 2
    Keywords: CANCER ; EXPRESSION ; POPULATION ; RISK ; TUMORS ; PROFILES ; GENOME-WIDE ASSOCIATION ; KORA
    Abstract: We have previously identified tagSNPs at 8q24.21 influencing glioma risk. We have sought to fine-map the location of the functional basis of this association using data from four genome-wide association studies, comprising a total of 4147 glioma cases and 7435 controls. To improve marker density across the 700 kb region, we imputed genotypes using 1000 Genomes Project data and high-coverage sequencing data generated on 253 individuals. Analysis revealed an imputed low-frequency SNP rs55705857 (P = 2.24 x 10(-38)) which was sufficient to fully capture the 8q24.21 association. Analysis by glioma subtype showed the association with rs55705857 confined to non-glioblastoma multiforme (non-GBM) tumours (P = 1.07 x 10(-67)). Validation of the non-GBM association was shown in three additional datasets (625 non-GBM cases, 2412 controls; P = 1.41 x 10(-28)). In the pooled analysis, the odds ratio for low-grade glioma associated with rs55705857 was 4.3 (P = 2.31 x 10(-94)). rs55705857 maps to a highly evolutionarily conserved sequence within the long non-coding RNA CCDC26 raising the possibility of direct functionality. These data provide additional insights into the aetiological basis of glioma development.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 23399484
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  • 3
    Keywords: EXPRESSION ; BLOOD ; TISSUE ; OSTEOPOROSIS ; TOF-SIMS ; NEURONS ; osteoblast ; DEFICIENT ; HOMEOSTASIS ; FUNCTIONAL-ROLE
    Abstract: BACKGROUND: Recently, analysis of bone from knockout mice identified muscarinic acetylcholine receptor subtype M3 (mAChR M3) and nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunit alpha2 as positive regulator of bone mass accrual whereas of male mice deficient for alpha7-nAChR (alpha7KO) did not reveal impact in regulation of bone remodeling. Since female sex hormones are involved in fair coordination of osteoblast bone formation and osteoclast bone degradation we assigned the current study to analyze bone strength, composition and microarchitecture of female alpha7KO compared to their corresponding wild-type mice (alpha7WT). METHODS: Vertebrae and long bones of female 16-week-old alpha7KO (n = 10) and alpha7WT (n = 8) were extracted and analyzed by means of histological, radiological, biomechanical, cell- and molecular methods as well as time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). RESULTS: Bone of female alpha7KO revealed a significant increase in bending stiffness (p 〈 0.05) and cortical thickness (p 〈 0.05) compared to alpha7WT, whereas gene expression of osteoclast marker cathepsin K was declined. ToF-SIMS analysis detected a decrease in trabecular calcium content and an increase in C4H6N(+) (p 〈 0.05) and C4H8N(+) (p 〈 0.001) collagen fragments whereas a loss of osteoid was found by means of TEM. CONCLUSIONS: Our results on female alpha7KO bone identified differences in bone strength and composition. In addition, we could demonstrate that alpha7-nAChRs are involved in regulation of bone remodelling. In contrast to mAChR M3 and nAChR subunit alpha2 the alpha7-nAChR favours reduction of bone strength thereby showing similar effects as alpha7beta2-nAChR in male mice. nAChR are able to form heteropentameric receptors containing alpha- and beta-subunits as well as the subunits alpha7 can be arranged as homopentameric cation channel. The different effects of homopentameric and heteropentameric alpha7-nAChR on bone need to be analysed in future studies as well as gender effects of cholinergic receptors on bone homeostasis.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 25636336
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  • 4
    Keywords: CANCER ; EXPRESSION ; COMBINATION ; LUNG ; MODEL ; MODELS ; TOXICITY ; CLASSIFICATION ; liver ; GENE ; GENE-EXPRESSION ; microarray ; validation ; QUALITY ; BREAST ; breast cancer ; BREAST-CANCER ; PERFORMANCE ; gene expression ; MICROARRAY DATA ; HUMANS ; microarrays ; PREDICTION ; PROJECT ; FOLLICULAR LYMPHOMA ; MULTIPLE-MYELOMA ; rodent ; neuroblastoma ; development ; methods ; GENE-EXPRESSION DATA ; DNA MICROARRAYS ; rodents ; RECOMMENDATIONS ; EXPRESSION DATA ; CONTROL MAQC PROJECT ; PUBLISHED MICROARRAY ; RISK-STRATIFICATION
    Abstract: Gene expression data from microarrays are being applied to predict preclinical and clinical endpoints, but the reliability of these predictions has not been established. In the MAQC-II project, 36 independent teams analyzed six microarray data sets to generate predictive models for classifying a sample with respect to one of 13 endpoints indicative of lung or liver toxicity in rodents, or of breast cancer, multiple myeloma or neuroblastoma in humans. In total, 〉30,000 models were built using many combinations of analytical methods. The teams generated predictive models without knowing the biological meaning of some of the endpoints and, to mimic clinical reality, tested the models on data that had not been used for training. We found that model performance depended largely on the endpoint and team proficiency and that different approaches generated models of similar performance. The conclusions and recommendations from MAQC-II should be useful for regulatory agencies, study committees and independent investigators that evaluate methods for global gene expression analysis
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
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  • 5
    Keywords: EXPRESSION ; COLORECTAL-CANCER ; MYOCARDIAL-INFARCTION ; COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR ; CORONARY-HEART-DISEASE ; ATHEROSCLEROSIS RISK ; GENOME-WIDE ASSOCIATION ; LYMPHOCYTE ; CHARGE CONSORTIUM ; DIFFERENTIAL LEUKOCYTE COUNT ; GENETIC-VARIANTS ; PROSTATE-CANCER SUSCEPTIBILITY
    Abstract: White blood cell (WBC) count is a common clinical measure from complete blood count assays, and it varies widely among healthy individuals. Total WBC count and its constituent subtypes have been shown to be moderately heritable, with the heritability estimates varying across cell types. We studied 19,509 subjects from seven cohorts in a discovery analysis, and 11,823 subjects from ten cohorts for replication analyses, to determine genetic factors influencing variability within the normal hematological range for total WBC count and five WBC subtype measures. Cohort specific data was supplied by the CHARGE, HeamGen, and INGI consortia, as well as independent collaborative studies. We identified and replicated ten associations with total WBC count and five WBC subtypes at seven different genomic loci (total WBC count-6p21 in the HLA region, 17q21 near ORMDL3, and CSF3; neutrophil count-17q21; basophil count- 3p21 near RPN1 and C3orf27; lymphocyte count-6p21, 19p13 at EPS15L1; monocyte count-2q31 at ITGA4, 3q21, 8q24 an intergenic region, 9q31 near EDG2), including three previously reported associations and seven novel associations. To investigate functional relationships among variants contributing to variability in the six WBC traits, we utilized gene expression- and pathways-based analyses. We implemented gene-clustering algorithms to evaluate functional connectivity among implicated loci and showed functional relationships across cell types. Gene expression data from whole blood was utilized to show that significant biological consequences can be extracted from our genome-wide analyses, with effect estimates for significant loci from the meta-analyses being highly corellated with the proximal gene expression. In addition, collaborative efforts between the groups contributing to this study and related studies conducted by the COGENT and RIKEN groups allowed for the examination of effect homogeneity for genome-wide significant associations across populations of diverse ancestral backgrounds.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 21738480
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  • 6
    Keywords: EXPRESSION ; SITE ; GENOME ; PROTEIN ; PROTEINS ; RELEASE ; DOMAIN ; CARCINOGENESIS ; SIGNAL ; GLYCOPROTEIN ; MEMBRANE ; RETROVIRAL VECTORS ; INFECTIVITY ; FELINE FOAMY VIRUS ; FEATURES ; assembly ; RETROVIRUS ; LEADER PROTEIN ; REPEAT ; budding ; myristoylation ; sub-viral particles
    Abstract: Foamy viruses (FVs) are distinct retroviruses classified as Spumaretrovirinae in contrast to the other retroviruses, the Orthoretrovirinae. As a unique feature of FVs, Gag is not sufficient for sub-viral particle (SVP) release. In primate and feline FVs (PFV and FFV), particle budding completely depends on the cognate FV Env glycoproteins. It was recently shown that an artificially added N-terminal Gag myristoylation signal (myr-signal) overcomes this restriction in PFV inducing an Orthoretrovirus-like budding phenotype. Here we show that engineered, heterologous N-terminal myr-signals also induce budding of the distantly related FFV Gag. The budding efficiency depends on the myr-signal and its location relative to the N-terminus of Gag. When the first nine amino acid residues of FFV Gag were replaced by known myr-signals, the budding efficiency as determined by the detection of extracellular SVPs was low. In contrast, adding myr-signals to the intact N-terminus of FFV Gag resulted in a more efficient SVP release. Importantly, budding of myr-Gag proteins was sensitive towards inhibition of cellular N-myristoyltransferases. As expected, the addition or insertion of myr-signals that allowed Env-independent budding of FFV SVPs also retargeted Gag to plasma membrane-proximal sites and other intracellular membrane compartments. The data confirm that membrane-targeted FV Gag has the capacity of SVP formation.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 22163342
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