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  • EXPRESSION  (12)
  • 1
    Keywords: EXPRESSION ; tumor ; IDENTIFICATION ; PROGRESSION ; OVARIAN-CANCER ; PROGNOSTIC-FACTORS ; CHILDHOOD MEDULLOBLASTOMA ; STEM-CELL ; BREAST-CANCER CELLS ; INFLUENCES ZYXIN LOCALIZATION
    Abstract: Medulloblastoma is the most common malignant pediatric brain tumor and is one of the leading causes of cancer-related mortality in children. Treatment failure mainly occurs in children harboring metastatic tumors, which typically carry an isochromosome 17 or gain of 17q, a common hallmark of intermediate and high-risk medulloblastoma. Through mRNA expression profiling, we identified LIM and SH3 protein 1 (LASP1) as one of the most upregulated genes on chromosome 17q in tumors with 17q gain. In an independent validation cohort of 101 medulloblastoma samples, the abundance of LASP1 mRNA was significantly associated with 17q gain, metastatic dissemination, and unfavorable outcome. LASP1 protein expression was analyzed by immunohistochemistry in a large cohort of patients (n = 207), and high protein expression levels were found to be strongly correlated with 17q gain, metastatic dissemination, and inferior overall and progression-free survival. In vitro experiments in medulloblastoma cell lines showed a strong reduction of cell migration, increased adhesion, and decreased proliferation upon LASP1 knockdown by small interfering RNA-mediated silencing, further indicating a functional role for LASP1 in the progression and metastatic dissemination of medulloblastoma.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 20924110
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  • 2
    Keywords: CANCER ; EXPRESSION ; SURVIVAL ; GENES ; PROTEIN ; transcription ; TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR ; IDENTIFICATION ; PROMOTER ; chemotherapy ; MUTATIONS ; LOCALIZATION ; METHYLATION ; BRAIN-TUMORS ; ACUTE MYELOID-LEUKEMIA ; INTRACRANIAL EPENDYMOMAS ; MDS1/EVI1
    Abstract: Purpose: Ependymomas are glial tumors of presumably radial glial origin that share morphologic similarities with ependymal cells. The molecular genetics of ependymomas of supratentorial, infratentorial, and spinal location is heterogeneous. We aimed at identifying pathways operative in the development of infratentorial ependymomas. Experimental Design: To do so, gene expression profiles of tumor cells laser microdissected from infratentorial ependymomas (n = 15) were compared with that of nonneoplastic ependymal cells laser microdissected from autopsy tissue (n = 7). Results: Among 31 genes significantly overexpressed (〉5-fold) in ependymomas, transcription factor EVI1 (ecotropic viral integration site 1) showed the highest overexpression (35-fold). Evi-1 protein expression could be confirmed in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples of 26 of 28 infratentorial ependymomas but only in 7 of 47 nonependymal glial tumors (P 〈 0.001). Furthermore, MDS1/EVI1 fusion transcripts were detectable in 17 of 28 infratentorial ependymomas and significantly correlated with MGMT (O6-methylguanine-DNA-methyltransferase) promoter hypermethylation (P 〈 0.05). In primary infratentorial ependymoma cells, transfection with EVI1-specific siRNAs resulted in significant growth inhibition [48 hours: 87% +/- 2% and 74% +/- 10% as compared with control (mean +/- SD; P 〈 0.001)]. The prognostic role of EVI1 could further be validated in an independent cohort of 39 infratentorial and 26 supratentorial ependymomas on the basis of mRNA expression profiling. Although in supratentorial ependymomas EVI1 expression status had no prognostic impact, in infratentorial ependymomas, high EVI1 expression was associated with shorter overall survival and progression-free survival. Conclusions: To conclude, the transcription factor Evi-1 is overexpressed in infratentorial ependymomas, promotes proliferation of ependymal tumor cells, and is prognostically unfavorable.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 21493867
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  • 3
    Keywords: EXPRESSION ; TUMORS ; ABERRATIONS ; METHYLATION ; EMBRYONIC STEM-CELLS ; MULTIFORME ; HIGH-GRADE GLIOMAS ; TELOMERES ; INTEGRATED GENOMIC ANALYSIS ; ATRX
    Abstract: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a lethal brain tumour in adults and children. However, DNA copy number and gene expression signatures indicate differences between adult and paediatric cases(1-4). To explore the genetic events underlying this distinction, we sequenced the exomes of 48 paediatric GBM samples. Somatic mutations in the H3.3-ATRX-DAXX chromatin remodelling pathway were identified in 44% of tumours (21/48). Recurrent mutations in H3F3A, which encodes the replication-independent histone 3 variant H3.3, were observed in 31% of tumours, and led to amino acid substitutions at two critical positions within the histone tail (K27M, G34R/G34V) involved in key regulatory post-translational modifications. Mutations in ATRX (alpha-thalassaemia/mental retardation syndrome X-linked)(5) and DAXX (death-domain associated protein), encoding two subunits of a chromatin remodelling complex required for H3.3 incorporation at pericentric heterochromatin and telomeres(6,7), were identified in 31% of samples overall, and in 100% of tumours harbouring a G34R or G34V H3.3 mutation. Somatic TP53 mutations were identified in 54% of all cases, and in 86% of samples with H3F3A and/or ATRX mutations. Screening of a large cohort of gliomas of various grades and histologies (n = 784) showed H3F3A mutations to be specific to GBM and highly prevalent in children and young adults. Furthermore, the presence of H3F3A/ATRX-DAXX/TP53 mutations was strongly associated with alternative lengthening of telomeres and specific gene expression profiles. This is, to our knowledge, the first report to highlight recurrent mutations in a regulatory histone in humans, and our data suggest that defects of the chromatin architecture underlie paediatric and young adult GBM pathogenesis
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 22286061
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  • 4
    Keywords: EXPRESSION ; SURVIVAL ; IDENTIFICATION ; PROGRESSION ; COMPARATIVE GENOMIC HYBRIDIZATION ; ABERRATIONS ; PROGNOSTIC-FACTORS ; CHROMOSOMAL IMBALANCES ; CANDIDATE GENES ; PEDIATRIC EPENDYMOMA
    Abstract: PURPOSE: The biologic behavior of intracranial ependymoma is unpredictable on the basis of current staging approaches. We aimed at the identification of recurrent genetic aberrations in ependymoma and evaluated their prognostic significance to develop a molecular staging system that could complement current classification criteria. PATIENTS AND METHODS: As a screening cohort, we studied a cohort of 122 patients with ependymoma before standardized therapy by using array-based comparative genomic hybridization. DNA copy-number aberrations identified as possible prognostic markers were validated in an independent cohort of 170 patients with ependymoma by fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis. Copy-number aberrations were correlated with clinical, histopathologic, and survival data. RESULTS: In the screening cohort, age at diagnosis, gain of 1q, and homozygous deletion of CDKN2A comprised the most powerful independent indicators of unfavorable prognosis. In contrast, gains of chromosomes 9, 15q, and 18 and loss of chromosome 6 were associated with excellent survival. On the basis of these findings, we developed a molecular staging system comprised of three genetic risk groups, which was then confirmed in the validation cohort. Likelihood ratio tests and multivariate Cox regression also demonstrated the clear improvement in predictive accuracy after the addition of these novel genetic markers. CONCLUSION: Genomic aberrations in ependymomas are powerful independent markers of disease progression and survival. By adding genetic markers to established clinical and histopathologic variables, outcome prediction can potentially be improved. Because the analyses can be conducted on routine paraffin-embedded material, it will now be possible to prospectively validate these markers in multicenter clinical trials on population-based cohorts.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 20516456
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  • 5
    Keywords: EXPRESSION ; COHORT ; DISEASE ; TISSUE ; IDENTIFICATION ; COMPARATIVE GENOMIC HYBRIDIZATION ; chemotherapy ; MUTATIONS ; ABNORMALITIES ; CHILDREN ; IMBALANCES ; PEDIATRIC EPENDYMOMA ; INTRACRANIAL EPENDYMOMA ; CLASS DISCOVERY
    Abstract: Despite the histological similarity of ependymomas from throughout the neuroaxis, the disease likely comprises multiple independent entities, each with a distinct molecular pathogenesis. Transcriptional profiling of two large independent cohorts of ependymoma reveals the existence of two demographically, transcriptionally, genetically, and clinically distinct groups of posterior fossa (PF) ependymomas. Group A patients are younger, have laterally located tumors with a balanced genome, and are much more likely to exhibit recurrence, metastasis at recurrence, and death compared with Group B patients. Identification and optimization of immunohistochennical (IHC) markers for PF ependymoma subgroups allowed validation of our findings on a third independent cohort, using a human ependymonna tissue microarray, and provides a tool for prospective prognostication and stratification of PF ependymoma patients
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 21840481
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  • 6
    Keywords: EXPRESSION ; PATHWAY ; DISEASE ; DISTINCT ; GENE-EXPRESSION ; TUMORS ; prognosis ; MARKERS ; PRECURSORS ; MYCN ; N-MYC ; medulloblastoma ; CHILDHOOD MEDULLOBLASTOMA ; RISK STRATIFICATION ; MYC ; STRATIFICATION ; PEDIATRIC MEDULLOBLASTOMAS ; SHH pathway ; 10q loss ; MATRIX FACTORIZATION ; MULTICENTER TRIAL HIT91 ; SHH
    Abstract: Focal high-level amplifications of MYC (or MYCC) define a subset of high-risk medulloblastoma patients. However, the prognostic role of MYCN oncogene amplification remains unresolved. We aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of this alteration alone and in combination with biological modifiers in 67 pediatric medulloblastomas with MYCN amplification (MYCN-MB). Twenty-one MYCN-MB were examined using gene expression profiling and array-CGH, whereas for 46 tumors immunohistochemical analysis and FISH were performed. All 67 tumors were further subjected to mutational analyses. We compared molecular, clinical, and prognostic characteristics both within biological MYCN-MB groups and with non-amplified tumors. Transcriptomic analysis revealed SHH-driven tumorigenesis in a subset of MYCN-MBs indicating a biological dichotomy of MYCN-MB. Activation of SHH was accompanied by variant-specific cytogenetic aberrations including deletion of 9q in SHH tumors. Non-SHH MB were associated with gain of 7q and isochromosome 17q/17q gain. Among clinically relevant variables, SHH subtype and 10q loss for non-SHH tumors comprised the most powerful markers of favorable prognosis in MYCN-MB. In conclusion, we demonstrate considerable heterogeneity within MYCN-MB in terms of genetics, tumor biology, and clinical outcome. Thus, assessment of disease group and 10q copy-number status may improve risk stratification of this group and may delineate MYCN-MB with the same dismal prognosis as MYC amplified tumors. Furthermore, based on the enrichment of MYCN and GLI2 amplifications in SHH-driven medulloblastoma, amplification of these downstream signaling intermediates should be taken into account before a patient is enrolled into a clinical trial using a smoothened inhibitor
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 22160402
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  • 7
    Keywords: EXPRESSION ; CELL ; HEPATOCELLULAR-CARCINOMA ; COMPLEX ; inactivation ; RENAL-CARCINOMA ; GLIOBLASTOMA ; IDH1 ; ONCOMETABOLITE 2-HYDROXYGLUTARATE ; FREQUENT ATRX
    Abstract: Recurrent mutations affecting the histone H3.3 residues Lys27 or indirectly Lys36 are frequent drivers of pediatric high-grade gliomas (over 30 % of HGGs). To identify additional driver mutations in HGGs, we investigated a cohort of 60 pediatric HGGs using whole-exome sequencing (WES) and compared them to 543 exomes from non-cancer control samples. We identified mutations in SETD2, a H3K36 trimethyltransferase, in 15 % of pediatric HGGs, a result that was genome-wide significant (FDR = 0.029). Most SETD2 alterations were truncating mutations. Sequencing the gene in this cohort and another validation cohort (123 gliomas from all ages and grades) showed SETD2 mutations to be specific to high-grade tumors affecting 15 % of pediatric HGGs (11/73) and 8 % of adult HGGs (5/65) while no SETD2 mutations were identified in low-grade diffuse gliomas (0/45). Furthermore, SETD2 mutations were mutually exclusive with H3F3A mutations in HGGs (P = 0.0492) while they partly overlapped with IDH1 mutations (4/14), and SETD2-mutant tumors were found exclusively in the cerebral hemispheres (P = 0.0055). SETD2 is the only H3K36 trimethyltransferase in humans, and SETD2-mutant tumors showed a substantial decrease in H3K36me3 levels (P 〈 0.001), indicating that the mutations are loss-of-function. These data suggest that loss-of-function SETD2 mutations occur in older children and young adults and are specific to HGG of the cerebral cortex, similar to the H3.3 G34R/V and IDH mutations. Taken together, our results suggest that mutations disrupting the histone code at H3K36, including H3.3 G34R/V, IDH1 and/or SETD2 mutations, are central to the genesis of hemispheric HGGs in older children and young adults.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 23417712
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  • 8
    Keywords: pediatrics ; medulloblastoma ; pediatric ; EXPRESSION ; Germany
    Type of Publication: Meeting abstract published
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  • 9
    Keywords: EXPRESSION ; DELETION ; JUNCTIONS ; NAXOS-DISEASE ; ARRHYTHMIAS ; DYSPLASIA/CARDIOMYOPATHY ; PLAKOPHILIN-2 MUTATIONS ; HEART-MUSCLE CELLS ; AREA-COMPOSITA ; VERTEBRATES
    Abstract: OBJECTIVES: We used a murine model of arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) to test whether reducing ventricular load prevents or slows development of this cardiomyopathy. BACKGROUND: At present, no therapy exists to slow progression of ARVC. Genetically conferred dysfunction of the mechanical cell-cell connections, often associated with reduced expression of plakoglobin, is thought to cause ARVC. METHODS: Littermate pairs of heterozygous plakoglobin-deficient mice (plako(+/-)) and wild-type (WT) littermates underwent 7 weeks of endurance training (daily swimming). Mice were randomized to blinded load-reducing therapy (furosemide and nitrates) or placebo. RESULTS: Therapy prevented training-induced right ventricular (RV) enlargement in plako(+/-) mice (RV volume: untreated plako(+/-) 136 (+/-) 5 mi l; treated plako(+/-) 78 (+/-) 5mi l; WT 81 (+/-) 5 mi l; p 〈 0.01 for untreated vs. WT and untreated vs. treated; mean (+/-) SEM). In isolated, Langendorff-perfused hearts, ventricular tachycardias (VTs) were more often induced in untreated plako(+/-) hearts (15 of 25), than in treated plako(+/-) hearts (5 of 19) or in WT hearts (6 of 21, both p 〈 0.05). Epicardial mapping of the RV identified macro-re-entry as the mechanism of ventricular tachycardia. The RV longitudinal conduction velocity was reduced in untreated but not in treated plako(+/-) mice (p 〈 0.01 for untreated vs. WT and untreated vs. treated). Myocardial concentration of phosphorylated connexin43 was lower in plako(+/-) hearts with VTs compared with hearts without VTs and was reduced in untreated plako(+/-) compared with WT (both p 〈 0.05). Plako(+/-) hearts showed reduced myocardial plakoglobin concentration, whereas beta-catenin and N-cadherin concentration was not changed. CONCLUSIONS: Load-reducing therapy prevents training-induced development of ARVC in plako(+/-) mice.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 21292134
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  • 10
    Keywords: CANCER ; EXPRESSION ; SURVIVAL ; IN-VIVO ; TUMORS ; MUTATIONS ; DUPLICATION ; CENTRAL-NERVOUS-SYSTEM ; LOW-GRADE ASTROCYTOMAS ; CHILDREN ; CHILDHOOD ; PEDIATRIC GLIOMAS ; BRAF FUSION GENE ; MAMMARY TUMORIGENESIS
    Abstract: Purpose: Oncogenic BRAF/Ras or NF1 loss can potentially trigger oncogene-induced senescence (OIS) through activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. Somatic genetic abnormalities affecting this pathway occur in the majority of pilocytic astrocytomas (PA), the most prevalent brain neoplasm in children. We investigated whether OIS is induced in PA. Experimental Design: We tested expression of established senescence markers in three independent cohorts of sporadic PA. We also assessed for OIS in vitro, using forced expression of wild-type and V600E-mutant BRAF in two astrocytic cell lines: human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT)-immortalized astrocytes and fetal astrocytes. Results: Our results indicate that PAs are senescent as evidenced by marked senescence-associated acidic beta-galactosidase activity, low KI-67 index, and induction of p16(INK4a) but not p53 in the majority of 52 PA samples (46 of 52; 88.5%). Overexpression of a number of senescence-associated genes [CDKN2A (p16), CDKN1A (p21), CEBPB, GADD45A, and IGFBP7] was shown at the mRNA level in two independent PA tumor series. In vitro, sustained activation of wild-type or mutant BRAF induced OIS in both astrocytic cell lines. Loss of p16(INK4a) in immortalized astrocytes abrogated OIS, indicative of the role of this pathway in mediating this phenomenon in astrocytes. OIS is a mechanism of tumor suppression that restricts the progression of benign tumors. We show that it is triggered in PAs through p16(INK4a) pathway induction following aberrant MAPK activation. Conclusions: OIS may account for the slow growth pattern in PA, the lack of progression to higher-grade astrocytomas, and the high overall survival of affected patients.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 21610151
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