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  • Edema  (5)
  • Keywords: Amino acids  (5)
  • Carbon monoxide  (2)
  • 1
    ISSN: 1438-2199
    Keywords: Keywords: Amino acids ; Nerve lesion ; Neuropathic pain ; Heme oxygenase ; Carbon monoxide ; Cell injury ; Immunohistochemistry
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary. The influence of carbon monoxide (CO) on chronic spinal nerve lesion induced spinal cord neurodegeneration was examined using immunohistochemical expression of the constitutive isoform of its synthesising enzyme, hemeoxygenase-2 (HO-2) in a rat model. Spinal nerve lesion at L-5 and L-6 level was produced according to the Chung model of neuropathic pain and rats were allowed to survive for 8 weeks. Sham operated rats, in which the spinal nerves were exposed but not ligated, served as controls. Ligation of spinal nerves in rats resulted in an upregulation of HO-2 expression which was most pronounced in the ipsilateral gray matter of the spinal cord compared to the contralateral side. In these rats, morphological investigations showed distorted neurons, membrane disruption, synaptic damage and myelin vesiculation. Sham operated rats did not show an upregulation of HO-2 expression and the structural changes in the spinal cord were absent. These observations strongly suggest that spinal nerve lesion is associated with an increased production of CO which is somehow contributing to the neurodegenerative changes in the spinal cord, not reported earlier.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1438-2199
    Keywords: Keywords: Amino acids ; Hyperthermia ; Heat stress ; Brain edema ; Nitric oxide synthase ; Heme oxygenase ; Oxidative stress ; H-290/51 ; Cell injury
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary. Influence of a new anti-oxidant compound H-290/51 on expression of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and heme oxygenase (HO) enzymes responsible for nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO) production, respectively was examined in the CNS following heat stress in relation to cell injury. Exposure of rats to 4 h heat stress at 38°C in a biological oxygen demand (BOD) incubator (relative humidity 50–55%, wind velocity 20–25 cm/sec) resulted in profound edema and cell injury in many parts of the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, cerebellum, thalamus, hypothalamus and brain stem. Immunostaining of constitutive isoforms of neuronal NOS (nNOS) and HO-2 revealed marked upregulation in damaged and distorted neurons located within the edematous brain regions. Pretreatment with H-290/51 (50 mg/kg, p.o., 30 min before heat stress) significantly reduced the edematous swelling and cell injury and resulted in a marked attenuation of nNOS and HO-2 expression. These observations suggest that upregulation of NOS and HO is associated with cell injury, and the antioxidant compound H-290/51 is neuroprotective in heat stress.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1438-2199
    Keywords: Brain derived neurotrophic factor ; Insulin like growth factor-1 ; Nitric oxide ; Spinal cord injury ; Edema ; Cell injury ; Blood-spinal cord barrier ; Immunohistochemistry
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The possibility that brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF) induced neuroprotectivn is influenced by mechanisms involving nitric oxide was examined in a rat model of focal spinal cord injury. BDNF or IGF-I (0.1 μg/10 [1 in phosphate buffer saline) was applied topically 30 min before injury on the exposed spinal cord followed by repeated doses of growth factors immediately before and 30 min after injury. Thereafter application of BDNF or IGF was carried out at every 1 h interval until sacrifice. Five hours after injury, the tissue pieces from the T9 segment were processed for nNOS immunostaining, edema and cell injury. Untreated injured rats showed a profound upregulation of nNOS which was most pronounced in the nerve cells of the ipsilateral side. A marked increase in the blood-spinal cord barrier (BSCB) permeability to125I-albumin, water content and cell injury in these perifocal segments was also found. Pretreatment with BDNF and IGF significantly reduced the upregulation of nNOS in the spinal cord. This effect of the growth factors was most pronounced in the contralateral side. Rats treated with these neurotrophic factors showed much less signs of BSCB damage, edema and cell injury. These results suggest that BDNF and IGF pretreatment is neuroprotective in spinal cord injury and that these neurotrophic factors have the capacity to down regulate nNOS expression following trauma to the spinal cord. Our data provide new experimental evidences which suggest that BDNF and IGF may exert their potential neuroprotective effects probably via regulation of NOS activity.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1438-2199
    Keywords: Nitric oxide ; Spinal cord evoked potentials ; Edema ; Cell changes ; p-CPA ; Diazepam ; Immunohistochemistry
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The possibility that nitric oxide is somehow involved in the early bioelectrical disturbances following spinal cord injury in relation to the later pathophysiology of the spinal cord was examined in a rat model of spinal cord trauma. A focal trauma to the rat spinal cord was produced by an incision of the right dorsal horn of the T 10–11 segments under urethane anaesthesia. The spinal cord evoked potentials (SCEP) were recorded using epidural electrodes placed over the T9 and T12 segments of the cord following supramaximal stimulation of the right tibial and sural nerves in the hind leg. Trauma to the spinal cord significantly attenuated the SCEP amplitude (about 60%) immediately after injury which persisted up to 1h. However, a significant increase in SCEP latency was seen at the end of 5h after trauma. These spinal cord segments exhibited profound upregulation of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (NOS) immunoreactivity, and the development of edema and cell injury. Pretreatment with a serotonin synthesis inhibitor drug p-chlorophenylalanine (p-CPA) or an anxiolytic drug diazepam significantly attenuated the decrease in SCEP amplitude, upregulation of NOS, edema and cell injury. On the other hand, no significant reduction in SCEP amplitude, NOS immunolabelling, edema or cell changes were seen after injury in rats pretreated with L-NAME. These observations suggest that nitric oxide is somehow involved in the early disturbances of SCEP and contribute to the later pathophysiology of spinal cord injury.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1438-2199
    Keywords: Keywords: Amino acids ; Hyperthermia ; Heat stress ; Heat shock protein (HSP 72 kD) ; Edema ; Cell injury ; Antioxidants ; EGB-761-BN 52021
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary. Influence of the extract of Gingko biloba (EGB-761) and one of its constituent Gingkolide B (BN-52021) on hyperthermia induced cellular damage and heat shock protein (HSP 72 kD) response was examined in a rat model. Rats subjected to 4 h heat stress at 38°C in a biological oxygen demand (BOD) incubator (relative humidity 50–55%, wind velocity 20–25 cm/sec) resulted in profound edema and cell injury in many parts of the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, cerebellum, thalamus, hypothalamus and brain stem. Immunostaining of HSP 72 kD showed marked upregulation in the damaged and distorted neurons located within the edematous area. Pretreatment with EGB-761 (50 mg/kg/day, p.o.) and BN-520 21 (2 mg/kg, p.o.) per day for 5 days significantly reduced HSP expression and attenuated cell damage. Our results show that EGB-761 and its component Gingkolide B (BN-52021) has the capacity to reduce edema and cell injury following hyperthermia and this effect of the compound is somehow associated with a reduction in cellular stress response as evidenced with a reduction in HSP expression.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1438-2199
    Keywords: Keywords: Amino acids ; Spinal cord injury ; Heme oxygenase ; Heat shock protein ; Carbon monoxide ; Growth factors ; BDNF ; IGF-1 ; Immunohistochemistry ; Cell injury ; Spinal cord edema
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary. The influence of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) or insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) on spinal cord trauma induced carbon monoxide (CO) production and cellular stress response was examined using immunostaining of the constitutive isoform of the hemeoxygenase (HO-2) enzyme and the heat shock protein (HSP 72 kD) expression in a rat model. Subjection of rats to a 5 h spinal trauma inflicted by an incision into the right dorsal horn at T10–11 segment markedly upregulated the HO-2 and HSP expression in the adjacent spinal cord segments (T9 and T12). Pretreatment with BDNF or IGF-1 significantly attenuated the trauma induced HSP expression. The upregulation of HO-2 was also considerably reduced. These results show that BDNF and IGF-1 attenuate cellular stress response and production of CO following spinal cord injury which seems to be the key factors in neurotrophins induced neuroprotection.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1438-2199
    Keywords: Keywords: Amino acids ; Growth hormone ; Spinal cord injury ; Edema formation ; Spinal cord evoked potentials ; Spinal cord edema ; Cell injury
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary. The influence of exogenous rat growth hormone on spinal cord injury induced alterations in spinal cord evoked potentials (SCEP) and edema formation was examined in a rat model. Repeated topical application of rat growth hormone (20 μl of 1 μg/ml solution) applied 30 min before injuryand at 0 min (at the time of injury), 10 min, 30 min, 60 min, 120 min, 180 min, and 240 min, resulted in a marked preservation of SCEP amplitude after injury. In addition, the treated traumatised cord showed significantly less edema and cell changes. These observations suggest that growth hormone has the capacity to improve spinal cord conduction and attenuate edema formation and cell injury in the cord indicating a potential therapeutic implication of this peptide in spinal cord injuries.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Spinal cord trauma ; Edema ; Myelin basic protein ; Indomethacin ; Prostaglandins
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The possibility that prostaglandins participate in the formation of perifocal edema and cell changes following a localized trauma to the spinal cord was investigated in a rat model. A laminectomy was performed in urethane-anesthetized animals at the thoracic T10–11 segment. Using a scalpel blade a unilateral lesion, about 2 mm deep and 5 mm long was made 1 mm to the right of the midline. The deepest part of the injury occupied Rexed's lamina VII of the dorsal horn. Animals were pretreated with the prostaglandin synthesis inhibitor, indomethacin (10 mg/kg, i.p. 30 min prior to trauma). Five hours after the injury the water content was determined and cell changes in and around the primary lesion were examined by light and electron microscopy. Normal and injured rats without indomethacin pretreatment served as controls. Untreated injured rats showed a profound increase of water content in the traumatized T10–11, the rostral (T9) and caudal (T12) segments compared with normal rats. These segments also exhibited marked cell changes in ipsilateral and contralateral dorsal and ventral horns. The gray matter had a spongy appearance and some nerve cells were condensed and distorted. The white matter contained many distorted fibers. Immunostaining for myelin basic protein showed a marked reduction of reaction product in the injured animals compared with normal rats. Ultrastructurally widened extracellular spaces, cytoplasmic vacuolation, swollen and condensed neurons, swollen astrocytes and vesiculation of myelin were frequent findings. Pretreatment of rats with indomethacin significantly reduced the accumulation of water in the traumatized and in the rostral and caudal segments. The structural changes were less pronounced particularly in the cranial and caudal segments. The results indicate that prostaglandins somehow are involved in the pathophysiology of perifocal spinal cord injury and influence both the fluid microenvironment and the early cell changes.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Trauma ; Spinal cord injury ; Edema ; Serotonin ; p-CPA
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The possibility that serotonin can modify the early pathological sequences occurring in spinal cord trauma was investigated in a rat model. To that end we took advantage of the possibility of influencing serotonin pharmacologically by treating animals with a serotonin synthesis inhibitor, p-chlorophenylalanine (p-CPA) before the production of the injury and compared the results with injured, untreated controls. A unilateral incision was made into the dorsal horn of the lower thoracic cord (about 2.5 mm deep, 4.5 mm long) and the trauma. The injured region from untreated animals showed macroscopically at that time a pronounced swelling and the water content had increased by 3.5% as compared to intact controls. The segments rostral and caudal to the lesion also exhibited a profound increase in water content. Light microscopy revealed a significant expansion of the spinal cord as compared to controls. The swelling was most pronounced in the gray matter on the injured side. Electron microscopy showed distorted neurons, swollen astrocytes and extracellular edema in the gray matter in and around the primary lesion. There was also a sponginess in the surrounding white matter with disruption of myelin, collapsed axons and widened periaxonal spaces. Pretreatment of the rats with p-CPA significantly reduced the swelling of the injured spinal cord and there was no visible expansion. The ipsilateral edema in the central gray matter was considerable less pronounced as compared to that in untreated animals. The increase in water content was less than 1% in these animals. The neuronal and glial cell changes were also markedly reduced in the drugtreated rats. The disruption of myelin and the vacuolation of the gray matter were much less severe. Our results show that p-CPA can markedly modify the edema and the cellular changes occurring in the traumatic spinal injury and indicate that serotonin is somehow involved in the production of the early, and thus important, pathological events.
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