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  • Egg-cylinder  (2)
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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Anatomy and embryology 132 (1970), S. 291-298 
    ISSN: 1432-0568
    Keywords: Egg-cylinder ; Mouse ; Germ layers ; Differentiation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The mouse egg-cylinder prior to and after mesoderm formation was studied by means of electron microscopy. The ultrastructural appearance of the proximal entoderm of both embryonic and extraembryonic segments suggests an intensive absorptive and nutritional activity. Numerous pinocytotic vacuoles, microvilli, primary and secondary lysosomes and fair amounts of rough endoplasmic reticulum and free ribosomes were the most important characteristics of these cells. After mesoderm formation, the extraembryonic entoderm showed the aforementioned characteristics even more prominently, while the cells of embryonic entoderm became flattened and depleted of microvilli and of almost all organelles. The cells of the extraembryonic and embryonic ectoderm prior to and after mesoderm formation had the same ultrastructural appearance as mesodermal cells. The cytoplasm of these cells was replete with free ribosomes, but other organelles such as mitochondria and rough endoplasmic reticulum were few in number. The architecture of all cells of the egg-cylinder except those of the extraembryonic entoderm suggested a very low level of differentiation. The criteria and possibilities for the determination of the degree of differentiation on the ultrastructural level and possible differences in protein synthesis in extraembryonic entoderm as compared with other parts of the embryo are considered.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-0568
    Keywords: Cleavage stages ; Egg-cylinder ; Mouse ; Rat ; Hydrolytic enzymes distribution ; Differentiation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The time of appearance and the distribution of alkaline and acid phosphatase and nonspecific esterase was investigated in cleavage and early postimplantation stages of mouse and rat embryos. Alkaline and acid phosphatase appeared for the first time in 8-cell embryos. Activity of both enzymes grew progressively stronger to blastocyst stage. Acid phosphatase activity was revealed in the form of fine and coarse granules distributed evenly in the cytoplasm. Alkaline phosphatase was predominantly localized in plasma membranes. There was no difference in intensity of reaction between trophoblastic cells and the inner cell mass. After implantation acid phosphatase was localized in coarse granules in the apical portion of entodermal cells. With the appearance of mesoderm, the cells of embryonal entoderm became flattened and devoid of acid phosphatase activity which was restricted to cells of extraembryonic entoderm. The activity of nonspecific esterase was not detected in preimplantation stages. In postimplantation embryos it roughly corresponded to the activity of acid phosphatase. Alkaline phosphatase was localized in cell membranes of ectodermal cells. The mesodermal cells of mouse embryo displayed a somewhat weaker activity than ectodermal cells, while in the rat embryo the same layer remained completely nonreactive. Our findings on the distribution of the enzymes mentioned did not reveal any kind of polarity or bilateral symmetry in preimplantation stages. In postimplantation stages acid phosphatase and nonspecific esterase are probably bound to lysosomes and play an important role in embryonic nutrition. The absence of alkaline phosphatase from entodermal cells is somewhat puzzling and suggests that the process of molecular transport in those cells is most probably restricted to endocytosis. Our results suggest that all blastomeres are identical with respect to enzyme distribution and that the first signs of differentiation of enzyme content appear with the formation of germ layers.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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