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  • Embolisation  (2)
  • Afferent connection  (1)
  • Artery  (1)
  • Springer  (4)
  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Cat locus coeruleus ; Antidromic activation ; Afferent connection ; Visual inputs ; Catecholamine histofluorescence
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary A total of 208 single neurons were extracellularly recorded in the locus coeruleus (LC) of 11 cats. In later histofluorescence studies, greenish fluorescent LC neurons, from which we believed to have recorded well-isolated action potentials, were always found in or close to the center of red fluorescent halo due to an injected dye which marked the recording site. One hundred twelve of these 208 neurons were further subjected to electrical stimulation of the dorsal bundle of ascending axons originating from the norepinephrine (NE)-containing LC neurons and thus activated antidromically with a mean latency of 8.9 ms (the remaining neurons were lost before this examination). The mean conduction velocity was 1.2 m/s. Furthermore, it is suggested that 22% of thus antidromically identified NE neurons in the cat LC had an ascending axon of the conduction velocity faster than 2.4 m/s. This finding may be related with an electron-microscopic observation which indicated the presence of myelinated catecholamine (CA) axons, though not many in number, in the cat visual cortex. Responses by the NE-containing LC neurons to various natural visual stimuli, such as flashlight, moving and stationary light-slit, multiple spots, and gratings were examined. It turned out, however, that flash alone was effective to activate LC neurons. The latency of flash evoked activity was between 48 and 96 ms (N = 12; mean: 60 ms). Furthermore, the following areas in the central visual pathway were electrically stimulated to activate LC neurons orthodromically: the optic chiasm (OX), the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN), the superior colliculus (SC), and the visual cortex (VC). The range and the mean of the latency for orthodromic responses were as follows: OX (N = 36, 8.4–42 ms; mean: 21 ms); LGN (N = 17, 6.0–17 ms; mean: 8.1 ms); SC (N = 12, 3.6–12 ms; mean: 5.6 ms); VC (N = 10, 7.8–40 ms; mean: 16.4 ms). The long latency of these orthodromic responses and its wide distribution suggest that afferents to the LC from the above-mentioned visual structures are most likely polysynaptic in nature. The extensive input convergence, including acoustic and nociceptive afferents, and the polysynaptic connection in each afferent pathway indicated a strong similarity between the afferent connectivity of NE-containing LC neurons revealed in the present study and that known for reticular formation neurons. Then, we would like to suggest that visual signals from the eyes impinge upon the NE-containing LC neurons via the reticular formation and that the afferents from the LGN, the SC, and the VC also join this common path through the reticular formation to reach the LC.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1920
    Keywords: Key words Caroticocavernous fistula ; Complication ; Embolisation ; Mechanical detachable coil ; Snare wire
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract A transjugular snare technique was used to retrieve a stretched, residual mechanical detachable coil which extended from the cavernous sinus to the femoral vein, obliterating the transpetrosal route for further embolisation. The coil was snared by a microguidewire. Our new technique is described in this paper.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-1920
    Keywords: Key words Aneurysm intracranial ; Magnetic resonance imaging ; Embolisation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract To determine when and how intracranial aneurysms causing mass effect change following endovascular treatment, we used MRI to assess patients for 2–3 years after the interventional procedure. Nine patients who had aneurysms compressing the surrounding structures underwent endovascular treatment. Proximal occlusion of the parent artery was performed in seven cases, and in two the aneurysm was embolised with microcoils. After embolisation, signal intensity within aneurysms tended to be high on both T1- and T2-weighted images. When there was rapid reduction in size high-signal zones within aneurysms became isointense or gave low signal on T1-weighted images. On T2-weighted images, isointense or low-signal foci appeared within high-signal areas in the aneurysm, giving mixed intensity. In typical cases, the mean volume of the aneurysm fell to approximately 30 % of its initial value 2–12 months after treatment. After this, no additional reduction was observed. The aneurysms which showed little signal intensity change tended to shrink more slowly and to a lesser degree than the more typical cases. Aneurysms which gave high signal on both T1- and T2-weighted images early following embolisation shrank more quickly than those showing little signal change.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-1920
    Keywords: Key words Angioplasty ; Endarterectomy ; carotid ; Artery ; internal carotid ; Restenosis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The efficacy of repeated percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) and carotid endarterectomy (CEA) was examined in patients with restenosis after PTA for carotid stenosis. After percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) for 63 cases of internal carotid stenoses 13 cases of restenosis appeared. They were treated by PTA or carotid endarterectomy. The treatment was chosen by the patient after explanation of each treatment. We initially treated seven patients by repeat PTA and six by carotid endarterectomy. The degree of stenosis improved from 82 % to 30 % on average after repeated PTA. However, one patient in the PTA group had restenosis, and carotid endarterectomy was then performed. The other cases also had restenosis and were treated by PTA. The six cases treated by carotid endarterectomy were successfully treated without difficulty. The success rate of PTA was 5/7 (71 %) in the restenosis cases. Patients with a greater residual stenosis after initial PTA had significantly more frequent restenosis. Repeat PTA and CEA both appeared effective treatment for restenosis after initial PTA, although PTA had a restenosis rate similar to that of initial PTA.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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