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  • Chronic acidosis  (1)
  • Endogenous galactose synthesis  (1)
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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    ISSN: 0304-4165
    Keywords: (Renal tubule) ; Ammoniagenesis ; Chronic acidosis ; GC-MS ; NMR ; Tricarboxylic acid cycle ; ^1^3C-
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1076
    Keywords: Key words Galactosemia ; [13C]galactose (stable ; isotope) ; Breath test ; Endogenous galactose synthesis ; GALT genotype
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract We employed [1-13C]galactose in isotope kinetic studies to delineate whole body galactose metabolism in vivo in patients with galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALT) deficiency. The data in three control and three adult galactosemic subjects, homozygous for the most common GALT gene defect, the Q188R mutation, and with absent RBC GALT activity, revealed an apparent endogenous galactose synthesis rate of 0.53-1.05 mg/kg per hour. Unlike normal children and adults who eliminated 3%– 6% and 21%–47% of an intravenous bolus of [1-13C] galactose as 13CO2 in expired air in 1 and 5 h respectively, classic galactosemic patients, either Q188R/Q188R or Q188R/unknown, released almost none in 1h and 3%–6% in 5h. In contrast, an African-American galactosemic variant patient with a S135L/S135L mutation and no residual RBC GALT activity oxidized [1-13C]galactose to 13CO2 at a rate comparable to control subjects. Individuals homozygous for the Duarte mutation, N314D/N314D and Q188R/ N314D, Q188R/+ and S135L/+ subjects also had normal breath test results. Not surprisingly, the Q188R/Q188R classic galactosemic patient cannot handle an acute galactose load, failing to match a control subject in the rapid conversion of [1-13C]galactose to [13C]glucose and 13CO2. However, classic patients synthesize substantial quantities of galactose de novo and on a lactose-free diet must oxidize comparable amounts of galactose to maintain steady-state levels of galactose and galactose metabolites such as galactose-1-phosphate, galactitol and galactonate. In vivo isotope kinetic analyses may allow us to understand better these aspects of galactose metabolism and, through the use of studies in variant galactosemics, perhaps allow us to begin to unravel the pathophysiology of galactosemia.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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