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  • 1
    ISSN: 0748-8025
    Keywords: Engineering ; Engineering General
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mathematics , Technology
    Notes: A new analysis technique has been developed to study the non-linear elastic mode interaction in thin-walled beam columns under ground excitation. The technique is capable of handling arbitrary cross-sectional shapes and end conditions. In the analysis of P - Δ effects in the building frames, the technique incorporates the instantaneous loss of stiffness due to local buckling of the individual plates in a rational and convenient manner. The latter is achieved via use of the finite-strip technique which is found to be extremely efficient in the local and post-local buckling analysis of prismatic plate structures. The overall behaviour is modelled by a one-dimensional finite element in which the effects of local buckling are appropriately incorporated. It is observed that moment frames lose stability at an axial load significantly lower than the static buckling load, even for moderate levels of earthquake.
    Additional Material: 12 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0029-5981
    Keywords: Engineering ; Engineering General
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mathematics , Technology
    Notes: A set of three new hybrid elements with rotational degrees-of-freedom (d.o.f.'s) is introduced. The solid, 8-node, hexahedron element is developed for solving three-dimensional elasticity problems. This element has three translational and three rotational d.o.f.'s at each node and is based on a 42-parameter. three-dimensional stress field in the natural convected co-ordinate system. For two-dimensional, plane elasticity problems, an improved triangular hybrid element and a quadrilateral hybrid element are presented. These elements use two translational and one rotational d.o.f. at each node. Three different sets of five-parameter stress fields defined in a natural convected co-ordinate system for the entire element are used for the mixed triangular element. The mixed quadrilateral element is based on a nine-parameter complete linear stress field in natural space. The midside translational d.o.f.'s are expressed in terms of the corner nodal translations and rotations using appropriate transformations. The stiffness matrix is derived based on the Hellinger-Reissner variational principle. The elements pass the patch test and demonstrate an improved performance over the existing elements for prescribed test examples.
    Additional Material: 10 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0029-5981
    Keywords: Engineering ; Engineering General
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mathematics , Technology
    Notes: This is the second part of a two part paper on three-dimensional finite elements with rotational degrees of freedom (DOF). Part II introduces a solid tetrahedron element having 3 translational and 3 rotational DOF per node. The corner rotations are introduced by transformation of the midside translational DOF of a 10-node tetrahedron element. To further enhance the element performance a least squares strain extraction technique is also implemented to develop the stiffness matrix with a desired field. The strain smoothing improves performance without causing a loss in generality.As with the hexahedron in Part I, the element stiffness is augmented with a small penalty stiffness to eliminate any possible spurious zero energy modes. The new tetrahedron element passes the patch test and demonstrates much improved performance over the 4-node translational DOF only (constant strain) tetrahedron element.
    Additional Material: 11 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0029-5981
    Keywords: Engineering ; Engineering General
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mathematics , Technology
    Notes: This is the first of a two part paper on three-dimensional finite elements with rotational degrees of freedom (DOF). Part I introduces an 8-node solid hexahedron element having three translational and three rotational DOF per node. The corner rotations are introduced by transformation of the midside translational DOF of a 20-node hexahedron element. The new element produces a much smaller effective band width of the global system equations than does the 20-node hexahedron element having midside nodes.A small penalty stiffness is introduced to augment the usual element stiffness so that no spurious zero energy modes are present. The new element passes the patch test and demonstrates greatly improved performance over elements of identical shape but having only translational DOF at the corner nodes.
    Additional Material: 12 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0029-5981
    Keywords: Engineering ; Engineering General
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mathematics , Technology
    Notes: Acoustic algebraic eigenvalue analysis by the Boundary Element Method (BEM) can be formulated by the Dual Reciprocity Method (DRM) of Nardini and Brebbia or by the Complementary Function-Particular Integral Method (PIM) proposed by Ahmad and Banerjee. But both DRM and PIM require inversion of a matrix of size at least as large as the system matrices before the equations can be cast in the form of generalized eigensystem. This makes these methods inefficient for large problems of practical interest. In this paper, a rather simple technique is proposed which eliminates the need to invert any matrix in the process of setting up the algebraic eigenvalue problem, especially for the most important case where all the boundary walls are acoustically hard (∂P/∂n = 0). A few example problems having known analytical and experimental results are solved in order to demonstrate the validity of the new technique. It is also demonstrated that, unlike in elasticity, here the boundary element domain must be adequately zoned or an adequate number of internal points must be incorporated in order to solve truly 2-D or 3-D problems.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0029-5981
    Keywords: Engineering ; Engineering General
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mathematics , Technology
    Notes: Numerical results using uniform h-refinement approaches to the solution of a pair of elasticity problems with singularities are presented and compared to recently published results based on the uniform p-refinement approaches.
    Additional Material: 9 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0029-5981
    Keywords: Engineering ; Engineering General
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mathematics , Technology
    Notes: This paper presents an efficient numerical integration scheme for evaluating the matrices (stiffness, mass, stress-stiffness and thermal load) for a doubly curved, multilayered, composite, quadrilateral shell finite element. The element formulation is based on three-dimensional continuum mechanics theory and it is applicable to the analysis of thin and moderately thick composite shells.The conventional formulation requires a 2 × 2 × 2 or 2 × 2 × 1 Gauss integration per layer for the calculation of element matrices. This method becomes uneconomical when a large number of layers is used owing to an excessive amount of computations. The present formulation is based on explicit separation of the thickness variable from the shell surface parallel variables. With the through-thickness variables separated, they are combined with the thickness dependent material properties and integrated separately. The element matrices are computed using the integrated material matrices and only a 2 × 2 spatial Gauss integration scheme. The response results using the present formulation are identical to those obtained using the conventional formulation. For a small number of layers, the present method requires slightly more CPU time. However, for a larger number of layers, numerical data are presented to demonstrate that the present formulation is an order-of-magnitude economical compared to the conventional scheme.
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0029-5981
    Keywords: Engineering ; Engineering General
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mathematics , Technology
    Notes: A new comprehensive acoustic 2-D interface element capable of coupling the boundary element (BE) and finite element (FE) discretizations has been formulated for fluid-structure interaction problems. The Helmholtz equation governing the acoustic pressure in a fluid is discretized using the BE method and coupled to the FE discretization of a vibrating structure that is in contact with the fluid. Since the BE method naturally maps the infinite fluid domain into finite node points on the fluid-structure interface, the formulation is especially useful for problems where the fluid domain extends to infinity. Details of the BE matrix computation process adapted to FE code architecture are included for easy incorporation of the interface element in FE codes. The interface element has been used to solve a few simple fluid-structure problems to demonstrate the validity of the formulation. Also, the vibration response of a submerged cylindrical shell has been computed and compared with the results from an entirely finite element formulation.
    Additional Material: 10 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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