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  • 1
    ISSN: 1069-8299
    Keywords: substructure ; frontal technique ; heat transfer ; moisture transfer ; displacement ; Engineering ; Numerical Methods and Modeling
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mathematics , Technology
    Notes: This paper presents a substructuring-frontal combined algorithm for the analysis of fully coupled heat, moisture and displacement problems in unsaturated soil. The method adopted for solving the assembled matrix equations has a significant bearing on the computer storage requirement and execution time. Numerical examples are given to validate the proposed model. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0029-5981
    Keywords: Engineering ; Engineering General
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mathematics , Technology
    Notes: A control-volume-based finite-difference formulation is developed for heat transfer and fluid flow in arbitrary three-dimensional parallelepiped enclosures. The governing equations in Cartesian co-ordinates are first transformed to those in non-orthogonal curvilinear co-ordinates by tensor transformations. After introducing the properties of the parallelepiped geometry, equations are obtained in the primitive variables for which all vectors and tensors are based on the curvilinear co-ordinates. With proper treatment of the heat flux and stress tensor terms, the finite-difference equations, analogous to those in the Cartesian coordinates, are formed. Examples are utilized to show the validity of the methodology and the results are found to compare well with existing experimental data. The differences in heat transfer and fluid flow inside parallelepiped enclosures and rectangular enclosures are delineated and discussed from a physical point of view.
    Additional Material: 12 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Chichester [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0029-5981
    Keywords: finite elements ; pneumatics ; air springs ; containers ; Engineering ; Engineering General
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mathematics , Technology
    Notes: Many engineering structures completely surround and enclose gas filled volumes. The enclosed gas adds additional stiffness to the surrounding structure. This paper shows how to account for this effect by means of an augmented virtual work principle. The additional term augmenting the virtual work equilibrium statement for the structure is the virtual boundary work done by the pressure of the enclosed gas. The augmented equations are discretized using standard finite element methods, and the additional terms are discussed. The resulting ‘pneumatic’ finite element is shown to be analogous to regular structural finite elements. To assess the accuracy and efficiency and also to illustrate the applicability of the present formulation, a series of four examples was selected. In two of the examples, the behaviour of the end cap of a partially filled plastic food product container is studied. The numerical results using the pneumatic element compare well with an alternative Rayleigh-Ritz solution of the end cap behaviour. The other two examples represent the behaviour of a double bellows air spring shock absorber under static isothermal and dynamic adiabatic conditions. For the static isothermal case, an experimental study was performed with results in good agreement with the pneumatic element solutions. For the dynamic adiabatic loading case, the dynamic stiffness of the air spring was predicted using the pneumatic element. The numerical results agree with experimental data published in an air spring application guide. The examples illustrate that the pneumatic element formulation can be applied to the large deflection analysis of structures that enclose gas filled volumes.
    Additional Material: 9 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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