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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1440
    Keywords: Epithelial transport ; Kidney ; Lactate transport ; Electrolyte transport ; Epithelialer Transport ; Niere ; Laktattransport ; Elektrolyttransport
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Resorption bzw. Sekretion im proximalen Nierentubulus läuft einmal passiv auf dem parazellulären Weg, d.i. zwischen den Zellen hindurch, ab, zum anderen aktiv, transzellulär, durch die Zellen hindurch. Der transzelluläre aktive Transport ist in der Regel sekundär aktiv. Er verläuft gekoppelt an den Fluß von Na+-Ionen, wobei ein transzellulärer Gradient von Na+-Ionen, der seinerseits durch die kontraluminal gelegene (Na+-K+)-ATPase geschaffen wird, die Triebkraft liefert. Einmal in der Zelle, verlassen die Substanzen die kontraluminale Zellseite vermittels Karrier, die Na+-unabhängig sind. Mit Hilfe von Mikroperfusions- und elektrophysiologischen Techniken sowie mit Hilfe von Bürstensaumvesikeln wurde der Na+-Kotransport von Aminosäuren, Phosphat, Sulfat, Thiosulfat, Gallensäuren, aliphatischen und aromatischen Monokarboxylsäuren (Laktat) sowie der von Dikarboxylsäuren untersucht. Besonderes Augenmerk wurde dem bidirektionalen Transport von Thiosulfat sowie der Spezifität des Mono- und Dikarboxylsäure-Transportsystems gewidmet.
    Notes: Summary The transport through the epithelial cell layer of the renal proximal tubule proceeds in principle by passive paracellular and active transcellular transport. The active transcellular transport is mostly secondary active. This means it proceeds coupled with the flux of Na+ ions, where-by the transcellular gradient of sodium, created by the (Na++K+)-ATPase, located at the contraluminal cell side, provides the main driving force. Once in the cell the substances leave the other cell side by a Na+-independent, but carrier-mediated transport system. Using microperfusion and electrophysiological techniques as well as brush border membrane vesicle preparation the Na+-H+ countertransport and the Na+-cotransport of amino acids, phosphate, sulfate, thiosulfate, bile acids, aliphatic-aromatic monocarboxylic acids (lactate) and dicarboxylic acids was studied. Special emphasis will be given to the bidirectional transport of thiosulfate as well as to the specificity of the monocarboxylic acid and dicarboxylic acid transport system.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-2013
    Keywords: Epithelial transport ; Contraluminal cell membrane ; Dietary adaptation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract In order to study the characteristics of contraluminal phosphate transport the stopped flow microperfusion technique [13] has been applied. By measuring the time-dependent decrease of interstitial33Pi concentration at different starting concentrations a simple diffusion kinetics with a permeability coefficient of 7.5±1.0 · 10−8 cm2 s−1 was found. Such a kinetic was so far only observed with 2-deoxy-d-glucose. This substance, however, is transported in addition by facilitated diffusion as was seen by paraaminohippurate, methylsuccinate and sulfate. The contraluminal transport of phosphate was inhibited by H2-DIDS (5 mmol/l). It was, however, not influenced by omission of Na+ from the perfusates, by addition of sulfate (150 mmol/l), methylsuccinate (50 mmol/l), arsenate (50 mmol/l), the Hg-compound mersalyl (5 mmol/l), high and low phosphate diet and pH changes between 6.0 and 8.0. The data indicate that phosphate, which is reabsorbed from the lumen by a Na+-dependent transport system, leaves the cell by a rather unspecific contraluminal diffusion pathway.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-2013
    Keywords: Epithelial transport ; Contraluminal cell membrane ; Anion exchange
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract In order to study contraluminal sulfate transport the influx rate of35SO 4 2− from the interstitium into cortical tubular cells has been determined. Preloading of the rat with sulfate augmented contraluminal35SO 4 2− influx; preperfusion with sulfate-free solutions diminished it. The contraluminal35SO 4 2− influx in sulfate-loaded animals followed two parameter kinetics (K m 1.4 mmol/l,J max 1.2 pmol·s−1·cm−1). The contraluminal35SO 4 2− influx (starting concentration 10 μmol/l) did not change when the K+ concentration was varied between 4 and 40 mmol/l and the Ca2+ concentration from zero to 3 mmol/l. Omission of Na+ from the perfusates augmented contraluminal35SO 4 2− influx markedly. The increase is larger at pH 6 than at pH 7.4. Changes of pH affect contraluminal35SO 4 2− influx only when the solutions are Na+- and K+-free. Under these conditions the35SO 4 2− influx decreased when the ambient pH was raised from pH 6.0 to pH 8.0. Thiosulfate, selenate, molybdate, oxalate, phosphate, arsenate, and bicarbonate exerted competitive inhibition, while formate, 2-oxoglutarate and paraaminohippurate showed a biphasic response: inhibition at 50 mmol/l, no inhibition at 150 mmol/l. Chloride and bicarbonate inhibited35SO 4 2− influx at 10 μmol/l35SO 4 2− , but augmented sulfate influx at 5 mmol/l35SO 4 2− concentration in rats not preloaded with sulfate. The data indicate the presence of a contraluminal sulfate transport system which is shared by a variety of inorganic and organic anions. The biphasic behaviour of some anions suggests parallel pathways leading to a cis-inhibition at small and trans-stimulation at high anion concentrations. Na+ and H+ may be cotransported or interact with the transport system at a modifier site.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-2013
    Keywords: Epithelial transport ; Contraluminal cell membrane
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract In order to study the specificity of the contraluminal sulfate transport system the inhibitory potency of salicylate analogs (5 mmol/l each) on the35SO 4 2− influx from the interstitium into cortical tubular cells in situ has been determined. The following was found: 2-hydroxybenzoate (salicylate), per se, did not inhibit contraluminal35SO 4 2− influx. The same holds when an additional NH2-group was introduced in position 4 or 5, or when an additional Cl-group was introduced in position 4. When an additional Cl- or NO2-group was introduced in position 5 a moderate inhibition was seen (app.K i≈4 mmol/l). However, introduction of 2 Cl- or 2 NO2-groups in position 3 and 5 creates compounds with strong inhibitory potency (app.K i≈0.5 mmol/l). 2-hydroxy-3,5-iodobenzoate inhibited too, but with a smaller inhibitory potency (app.K i≈2.3 mmol/l). 2-hydroxybenzoate analogs, which have a carboxy- or sulfo-group in position 5, exerted strong inhibition, those with a acetyl- or butyryl-group exerted moderate inhibition. 1-Naphthol-2-carboxylate did not inhibit, while 1-naphthol-4-sulfamoyl-2-carboxylate did. Amongst the dihydroxybenzoates, 2,3- and 2,5-dihydroxybenzoate did not inhibit contraluminal35SO 4 2− influx, while 2,4- and 2,6-dihydroxybenzoate did. The data indicate that a hydroxy-group in ortho-position and an electro-negative group in the meta-position to the carboxyl group and paraposition to the hydroxy-group are essential for interaction with the contraluminal sulfate transport system. The ability of 2,6-dihydroxybenzoate to inhibit might be explained by its ability to undergo mesomeric conformation.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-2013
    Keywords: Epithelial transport ; Contraluminal cell membrane
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract In order to study the specificity for the contraluminal sulfate transport system the inhibitory potency of disulfonates, di-, tricarboxylates and sulfocarboxylates on the35SO 4 2− influx from the interstitium into cortical tubular cells in situ has been determined. The following was found: 1) Methane- and ethane-disulfonate as well as benzene-1,3-disulfonate inhibit contraluminal35SO 4 2− influx (with an (app.K i of 〈6 mmol/l), while benzene-1,2- and 1,4-disulfonate do not. 2) The inhibitory potency of 1,3-benzene disulfonate is slightly augmented by an additional NH2 − or OH-group in position 4. However, OH-groups at position 4 and 5 or 4 and 6 abolish the inhibitory potency. 3) The naphthalene disulfonates tested inhibit only if they have an OH-group in ortho-position to one SO3H group. 4) The stilbene disulfonates H2DIDS and DNDS inhibit the contraluminal35SO 4 2− influx with high (app.K i≈0.8 mmol/l), DADS with lower potency (app.K i≈6 mmol/l). 5) Amongst the tested aliphatic di- and tricarboxylates inhibition was exerted by oxalate (app.K i 1.1 mmol/l) and maleate (app.K i 3.8 mmol/l), but not by malonate, hydroxymalonate and citrate. 6) Out of the tested benzenedicarboxylates only those inhibit which have the COO−-groups directly on the ring in 1,2 and 1,3 position (app.K i 4.0 and 2.7 mmol/l), but not in the 1,4 position. An additional OH-group in position 4 augments the inhibitory potency of 1,3 benzene-dicarboxylates (app.K i 0.8 mmol/l), while an OH group on position 5 abolishes it. 7) The benzene tricarboxylates (BTC) inhibit in the sequence 1,2,3-BTC〉1,3,5-BTC〉1,2,4-BTC (app.K i 0.9, 1.5 and 4.2 mmol/l, respectively). 8) The carboxy-benzene-sulfonates inhibit also in the 1,2 and 1,3 position only (app.K i 6.7 and 5 mmol/l), but not in the 1,4 position. Addition of an −OH-group to the 3-carboxy-1-benzene-sulfonate forming 4-hydroxy-3-carboxy-1-benzene-sulfate augments the inhibitory potency drastically (app.K i 0.32 mmol/l), while a NH2 substitution at the same position leaves it unchanged (app.K i 4.7 mmol/l). If, however, ethylamine instead of NH2 is used as substituent, the inhibitory potency is almost as high as of 4-hydroxy-3-carboxy-1-benzene-sulfonate (app.K i≈0.6 mmol/l). Amongst the dicarboxy-benzene-sulfonates, 3,4-carboxy-benzene-1-sulfonate inhibits (app.K i ca. 2 mmol/l), while 3,5-carboxy-benzene-1-sulfonate does not. The data indicate that a strong interaction of substrate with the sulfate transporter is given, when two charged groups (COO− and/or SO 3 − ) are present in a distance equivalent to the meta-position on the benzene ring and an additional hydrogen bond forming OH- or −NH-group. Hydrogen bond forming groups and charged groups in other positions usually abolish the inhibitory potency.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-2013
    Keywords: Epithelial transport ; Contraluminal cell membrane
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract In order to evaluate the specificity for the contraluminal sulfate transport system the inhibitory potency of phenol- and sulfonphthaleins, of sulfamoyl-compounds (diuretics) as well as diphenylamine-2-carboxylates (Cl− channel blockers) on the35SO 4 2− influx from the interstitium into cortical tubular cells in situ has been determined. The following was found: 1) Phenolsulfonphthalein (phenol-red) inhibited with an app.K i-value of 1.7 mmol/l, while analogs which had additional Br-atoms in position 3 and/or 5, i.e. bromphenol-blue, bromcresol-purple and bromcresol-green, inhibited with an apparentK i of 0.1 and 0.5 mmol/l respectively. 2) Phenolphthalein and tetrabromphenolphthalein did not inhibit, while the disulfonate dyes bromsulfalein, fuchsin acid and indigocarmine inhibited with aK i between ≈1 and 3 mmol/l. The highest inhibitory potency in this class of compounds was seen with orange G (app.K i 0.07 mmol/l). The monosulfonate dyes tested, fluoresceinsulfonate and orange I inhibited moderately with an app.K i of ≈5 mmol/l. 3) The 3-sulfamoyl compounds inhibited to a varying degree, when they had a neighbouring −NH-group (furylmethylamino-group), i.e. in position 6 to the COOH or SO3H-group, or when they had a phenoxy-group in position 4. 4) 4-sulfamoylbenzoate and the related compounds probenecid, acetazolamide and hydrochlorothiazide inhibited with an app.K i between 4 and 7 mmol/l. 5) All diphenylamine-2-carboxylate analogs inhibited with an app.K i between 3 and 5 mmol/l, even when the −NH-group was replaced by an =O-group or the benzene ring was replaced by a pyrimidine ring, but not when it was replaced by a thiophen ring. In contrast, 4-phenylaminepyridine-3-sulfonate was ineffective, while diphenylamine-2-amino sulfonate exerted the highest inhibition of this group with an app.K i of 1.4 mmol/l. When, however, the aminosulfonate group was replaced by a methylsulfonamide, the inhibitory potency disappeared. The data can be explained by inhibitory patterns found in previous papers for disulfonates [29], sulfonates with a hydrophobic moiety [28] or neighbouring OH-group [28, 29], carboxylates with a neighbouring −NH- or OH-group in position 2- and an electron-attracting group in position 5 [30].
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-2013
    Keywords: Epithelial transport ; Contraluminal cell membrane
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract In order to study the specificity for the contraluminal sulfate transport system the inhibitory potency of sulfate esters and sulfonate compounds on the35SO 4 2− influx from the interstitium into cortical tubular cells in situ has been determined. The following was found: 1. From 10 sulfate monoesters tested 9 inhibited contraluminal sulfate influx with an app.K i between 0.6 and 6 mmol/l; the two sulfate diesters tested, however, did not. 2. Out of 8 aliphatic sulfonate compounds only three, having a NH- or OH-group in a suitable position, exerted a moderate inhibition (app.K i ca. 2–6 mmol/l). 3. Amongst 14 benzene sulfonates tested only 2 compounds (5-nitrobenzene-sulfonate and 2-hydroxy-5-nitrobenzenesulfonate) inhibited with aK i〈5 mmol/l. 4. Out of 10 naphthalene sulfonates tested 8 inhibited with aK i〈5; the highest inhibition was seen with the NH-containing 8-anilinonaphthalene-1-sulfonate (ANS), but no inhibition with 2 compounds containing an amino group. 5. From the polycyclic sulfonates pyrene-3-sulfonate and anthracene-1-sulfonate inhibited with aK i of approximately 2 mmol/l, while no inhibition was seen with anthracene-2-sulfonate. 6. Out of 4 amino-sulfonates tested benzene-1-amino-sulfonate and a similar benzyl-analog inhibited with aK i of 1 mmol/l and smaller; cyclohexyl-1-amino-sulfonate (cyclamate), however, inhibited only slightly (app.K i of 6 mmol/l). The data indicate that sulfate monoesters are well accepted by the contraluminal sulfate transport system. The affinity of sulfonate compounds to this system depends on neighbouring OH-groups −NH-groups, meta-positioned electronegative groups or a hydrophobic moiety in an appropriate position.
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