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  • Glucocorticoids  (2)
  • Blutdruck  (1)
  • Endotoxin-Schock  (1)
  • Familial adenomatous polyposis  (1)
  • Glucocorticoid  (1)
  • Key words Nephrotic syndrome  (1)
  • Springer  (4)
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  • Springer  (4)
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  • 1
    ISSN: 1591-9528
    Keywords: Renin ; Endotoxin Shock ; Orthostatic Shock ; Glucocorticoids ; Renin ; Endotoxin-Schock ; Orthostase ; Glucocorticoid
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Sowohl im Endotoxinschock als auch unter orthostatischer Belastung kam es beim wachen Kaninchen zu einem deutlichen Anstieg der Plasma-Renin-Aktivität. Unter hohen Glucocorticoid-Dosen, die 5 min nach Endotoxin verabreicht wurden, normalisierte sich die Plasma-Renin-Aktivität innerhalb von 4 Std. Unter orthostatischer Belastung war mit der gleichen Glucocorticoid-Dosis keine statistisch gesicherte Wirkung auf den Anstieg der Plasma-Renin-Aktivität erreichbar.
    Notes: Summary The plasma-renin-activity was significantly increased in endotoxin as well as orthostatic shock in unanaesthesized rabbits. High doses of glucocorticoids, administered 5 min after the endotoxin-injection, normalized the plasma-renin-activity after 4 hrs. In orthostatic shock the same doses of glucocorticoids had only a mild effect on the increase of plasma-renin-activity, which was not of statistical significance.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1440
    Keywords: Wasserbilanz ; Blutdruck ; Steroidausscheidung im Urin ; Water balance ; Blood pressure ; Urinary steroid excretion
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Summary The effects of subcutaneous injections of synthetic ACTH during 14 subsequent days has been studied in the rat. ACTH caused a loss in body weight which was related to a negative water balance. Blood pressure rose rapidly and reached values higher than 180 mm Hg in all rats after 10 days of ACTH administration. During this period, urinary excretion of corticosterone and 18-hydroxy-deoxycorticosterone (18-OH-DOC) was increased more than ten times, while aldosterone excretion was increased only during the first two days. After withdrawal of ACTH, excretion of steroids normalized, or in some cases was even suppressed and water balance and body weight gain returned to normal values. However, blood pressure remained slightly higher than in controls after ten days. The effects of ACTH on water balance and blood pressure resemble those of corticosterone in the rat. The rapidly induced and sustained changes in blood pressure by ACTH administration suggest that this may be an useful model of experimental hypertension.
    Notes: Zusammenfassung ACTH in Depotform wurde Ratten subcutan 14 Tage lang injiziert. Gemessen wurden die Veränderungen des Körpergewichtes im Verhältnis zur Wasserbilanz, des Blutdruckes und der Steroidausscheidung im Urin. Es fand sich eine Gewichtsabnahme, vorwiegend durch Wasserverlust bedingt und ein schneller Blutdruckanstieg bis zum 10. Tag. Während der Behandlung waren die Urinausscheidung von Corticosteron und 18-OH-Desoxycorticosteron um mehr als das zehnfache erhöht; die Aldosteronausscheidung war nur während der ersten zwei Tage erhöht. Nach Absetzen der ACTH-Therapie normalisierten sich Wasserbilanz und Steroidausscheidung weitgehend, während der Blutdruck nach 10 Tagen noch leicht erhöht war. Die Wirkungen von ACTH auf Wasserbilanz und Blutdruck gleichen im wesentlichen denen von Corticosteron, dessen Exkretion auch am stärksten stimuliert wurde. Die ACTH-Hypertonie der Ratte scheint durch einheitlich schnelle und anhaltende Blutdruckerhöhung ein geeignetes Modell zum Studium der Hochdruckentstehung zu sein.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-198X
    Keywords: Key words Nephrotic syndrome ; Glucocorticoid receptors ; Glucocorticoids
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  The variable response of patients with idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (NS) to glucocorticoid (GC) treatment has not been explained. Earlier studies indicated that the response is limited by cellular GC receptors. We investigated these receptors in mononuclear leukocytes of 28 pediatric patients with NS divided into three groups: steroid-sensitive in relapse, steroid-sensitive in remission, and steroid-resistant. Density and binding affinity of GC receptors were determined by a dexamethasone binding assay; no significant differences were found between the three patient groups and between these and healthy controls, although a few patient values fell outside the range of controls. Total and free plasma concentrations of cortisol were low in all three patient groups. A weak positive correlation was found between the number of GC receptors and total plasma cortisol (r=0.36, P=0.03). The results suggest that factors other than GC receptors that mediate the cellular effects of GC are involved in the variable response of NS patients to GC.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1530-0358
    Keywords: Proctocolectomy ; Ileostomy ; Ulcerative colitis ; Familial adenomatous polyposis ; Aldosterone ; Renal function ; Acid-base balance
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract PURPOSE: Restorative proctocolectomy is a standard procedure in the surgical treatment of ulcerative colitis and familial adenomatous polyposis. The radical removal of the colorectum with construction of an ileostomy often results in high stoma losses. These may lead to changes in the electrolyte and acid-base balance and to alterations in renal and suprarenal gland function. METHODS: In this study 33 patients who received an ileoanal pouch before and after proctocolectomy were investigated at different time intervals for electrolyte changes, alteration of the acid-base balance, kidney function, and hormonal changes of the suprarenal glands. Measurements were performed before proctocolectomy, ten days after proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis under protective loop ileostomy, before ileostomy closure, and 6 to 12 months after ileostomy closure. Neither acute renal failure nor other vital complications were observed. RESULTS: Statistical analysis showed a significant decrease of urine pH to 5.4±0.22 (before ileostomy closure) and metabolic acidosis (pH 7.32±0.04; base excess −1.3±5.6 (before ileostomy closure)). Likewise, we found a decrease in renal clearance to 86 ml/minute (before ileostomy closure) without signs of tubular damage. The most important change during the phase with ileostomy was a functional secondary hyperaldosteronism with aldosterone levels of 63.2±70.8 ng/dl (before ileostomy closure). In comparison with preoperative levels, there was a ten-fold increase in mineralocorticoid adrenal activity. Additionally, during the period with protective ileostomy, the hepatic synthesis of aldosterone-18-glucuronide was only slightly increased, and the cortisol/cortisone ratio was extremely decreased. CONCLUSIONS: These results show that restorative proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis and protective loop ileostomy significantly influences fluid, electrolyte, and acid-base balance. Functional secondary hyperaldosteronism is of central importance for subsequent renal recompensation. Approximately one-half year after ileostomy closure, the endogenous hormones with mineralocorticoid effects returned to normal levels.
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