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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2016-03-17
    Description: CD8(+) T cells have a central role in antitumour immunity, but their activity is suppressed in the tumour microenvironment. Reactivating the cytotoxicity of CD8(+) T cells is of great clinical interest in cancer immunotherapy. Here we report a new mechanism by which the antitumour response of mouse CD8(+) T cells can be potentiated by modulating cholesterol metabolism. Inhibiting cholesterol esterification in T cells by genetic ablation or pharmacological inhibition of ACAT1, a key cholesterol esterification enzyme, led to potentiated effector function and enhanced proliferation of CD8(+) but not CD4(+) T cells. This is due to the increase in the plasma membrane cholesterol level of CD8(+) T cells, which causes enhanced T-cell receptor clustering and signalling as well as more efficient formation of the immunological synapse. ACAT1-deficient CD8(+) T cells were better than wild-type CD8(+) T cells at controlling melanoma growth and metastasis in mice. We used the ACAT inhibitor avasimibe, which was previously tested in clinical trials for treating atherosclerosis and showed a good human safety profile, to treat melanoma in mice and observed a good antitumour effect. A combined therapy of avasimibe plus an anti-PD-1 antibody showed better efficacy than monotherapies in controlling tumour progression. ACAT1, an established target for atherosclerosis, is therefore also a potential target for cancer immunotherapy.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4851431/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4851431/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Yang, Wei -- Bai, Yibing -- Xiong, Ying -- Zhang, Jin -- Chen, Shuokai -- Zheng, Xiaojun -- Meng, Xiangbo -- Li, Lunyi -- Wang, Jing -- Xu, Chenguang -- Yan, Chengsong -- Wang, Lijuan -- Chang, Catharine C Y -- Chang, Ta-Yuan -- Zhang, Ti -- Zhou, Penghui -- Song, Bao-Liang -- Liu, Wanli -- Sun, Shao-cong -- Liu, Xiaolong -- Li, Bo-liang -- Xu, Chenqi -- HL 60306./HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL060306/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2016 Mar 31;531(7596):651-5. doi: 10.1038/nature17412. Epub 2016 Mar 16.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉State Key Laboratory of Molecular Biology, National Center for Protein Science Shanghai, Shanghai Science Research Center, Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200031, China. ; State Key Laboratory of Molecular Biology, CAS Center for Excellence in Molecular Cell Science, Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200031, China. ; Institute for Nutritional Sciences, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200031, China. ; MOE Key Laboratory of Protein Science, School of Life Sciences, Collaborative Innovation Center for Infectious Diseases, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China. ; Department of Biochemistry, Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Hanover, New Haven 03755, USA. ; Rheumatology and Immunology Department of ChangZheng Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200433, China. ; Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, Guangzhou 510060, China. ; College of Life Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei Province 430072, China. ; Department of Immunology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77054, USA. ; State Key Laboratory of Cell Biology, CAS Center for Excellence in Molecular Cell Science, Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200031, China. ; School of Life Science and Technology, ShanghaiTech University, 100 Haike Road, Shanghai 201210, China.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26982734" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Acetates/*pharmacology/therapeutic use ; Acetyl-CoA C-Acetyltransferase/antagonists & ; inhibitors/deficiency/genetics/metabolism ; Animals ; Atherosclerosis/drug therapy ; CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/*drug effects/*immunology/metabolism ; Cell Membrane/drug effects/metabolism ; Cholesterol/*metabolism ; Esterification/drug effects ; Female ; Immunological Synapses/drug effects/immunology/metabolism ; Immunotherapy/*methods ; Male ; Melanoma/*drug therapy/*immunology/metabolism/pathology ; Mice ; Programmed Cell Death 1 Receptor/antagonists & inhibitors/immunology ; Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell/immunology/metabolism ; Signal Transduction/drug effects ; Sulfonic Acids/*pharmacology/therapeutic use
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    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2016-04-07
    Description: How tissue regeneration programs are triggered by injury has received limited research attention. Here we investigate the existence of enhancer regulatory elements that are activated in regenerating tissue. Transcriptomic analyses reveal that leptin b (lepb) is highly induced in regenerating hearts and fins of zebrafish. Epigenetic profiling identified a short DNA sequence element upstream and distal to lepb that acquires open chromatin marks during regeneration and enables injury-dependent expression from minimal promoters. This element could activate expression in injured neonatal mouse tissues and was divisible into tissue-specific modules sufficient for expression in regenerating zebrafish fins or hearts. Simple enhancer-effector transgenes employing lepb-linked sequences upstream of pro- or anti-regenerative factors controlled the efficacy of regeneration in zebrafish. Our findings provide evidence for 'tissue regeneration enhancer elements' (TREEs) that trigger gene expression in injury sites and can be engineered to modulate the regenerative potential of vertebrate organs.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4844022/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4844022/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Kang, Junsu -- Hu, Jianxin -- Karra, Ravi -- Dickson, Amy L -- Tornini, Valerie A -- Nachtrab, Gregory -- Gemberling, Matthew -- Goldman, Joseph A -- Black, Brian L -- Poss, Kenneth D -- F32 HL120494/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- K08 HL116485/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- P01 HL089707/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM074057/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL064658/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL081674/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL089707/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2016 Apr 14;532(7598):201-6. doi: 10.1038/nature17644. Epub 2016 Apr 6.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Cell Biology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA. ; Cardiovascular Research Institute, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94143, USA. ; Department of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27049946" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Acetylation ; Animal Fins/injuries/metabolism ; Animals ; Animals, Newborn ; Cell Proliferation ; Chromatin Assembly and Disassembly/genetics ; Enhancer Elements, Genetic/*genetics ; Epigenesis, Genetic/genetics ; Female ; Gene Expression Profiling ; Gene Expression Regulation/genetics ; Heart ; Histones/chemistry/metabolism ; Leptin/biosynthesis/genetics ; Lysine/metabolism ; Male ; Mice ; Myocytes, Cardiac/cytology ; Organ Specificity/*genetics ; Promoter Regions, Genetic/genetics ; Regeneration/*genetics/*physiology ; Transgenes/genetics ; Wound Healing/*genetics ; Zebrafish/*genetics/*physiology ; Zebrafish Proteins/genetics
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2011-08-26
    Description: Genetic manipulations of insect populations for pest control have been advocated for some time, but there are few cases where manipulated individuals have been released in the field and no cases where they have successfully invaded target populations. Population transformation using the intracellular bacterium Wolbachia is particularly attractive because this maternally-inherited agent provides a powerful mechanism to invade natural populations through cytoplasmic incompatibility. When Wolbachia are introduced into mosquitoes, they interfere with pathogen transmission and influence key life history traits such as lifespan. Here we describe how the wMel Wolbachia infection, introduced into the dengue vector Aedes aegypti from Drosophila melanogaster, successfully invaded two natural A. aegypti populations in Australia, reaching near-fixation in a few months following releases of wMel-infected A. aegypti adults. Models with plausible parameter values indicate that Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes suffered relatively small fitness costs, leading to an unstable equilibrium frequency 〈30% that must be exceeded for invasion. These findings demonstrate that Wolbachia-based strategies can be deployed as a practical approach to dengue suppression with potential for area-wide implementation.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Hoffmann, A A -- Montgomery, B L -- Popovici, J -- Iturbe-Ormaetxe, I -- Johnson, P H -- Muzzi, F -- Greenfield, M -- Durkan, M -- Leong, Y S -- Dong, Y -- Cook, H -- Axford, J -- Callahan, A G -- Kenny, N -- Omodei, C -- McGraw, E A -- Ryan, P A -- Ritchie, S A -- Turelli, M -- O'Neill, S L -- England -- Nature. 2011 Aug 24;476(7361):454-7. doi: 10.1038/nature10356.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Bio21 Institute, Department of Genetics, The University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010, Australia.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21866160" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Aedes/*microbiology/physiology/*virology ; Animals ; Dengue/microbiology/*prevention & control/*transmission/virology ; Dengue Virus/isolation & purification/*physiology ; Drosophila melanogaster/microbiology ; Female ; Humans ; Insect Vectors/microbiology/physiology/virology ; Male ; Pest Control, Biological/*methods ; Queensland ; Time Factors ; Wolbachia/isolation & purification/*physiology
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    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2011-09-02
    Description: Both obesity and being underweight have been associated with increased mortality. Underweight, defined as a body mass index (BMI) 〈/= 18.5 kg per m(2) in adults and 〈/= -2 standard deviations from the mean in children, is the main sign of a series of heterogeneous clinical conditions including failure to thrive, feeding and eating disorder and/or anorexia nervosa. In contrast to obesity, few genetic variants underlying these clinical conditions have been reported. We previously showed that hemizygosity of a approximately 600-kilobase (kb) region on the short arm of chromosome 16 causes a highly penetrant form of obesity that is often associated with hyperphagia and intellectual disabilities. Here we show that the corresponding reciprocal duplication is associated with being underweight. We identified 138 duplication carriers (including 132 novel cases and 108 unrelated carriers) from individuals clinically referred for developmental or intellectual disabilities (DD/ID) or psychiatric disorders, or recruited from population-based cohorts. These carriers show significantly reduced postnatal weight and BMI. Half of the boys younger than five years are underweight with a probable diagnosis of failure to thrive, whereas adult duplication carriers have an 8.3-fold increased risk of being clinically underweight. We observe a trend towards increased severity in males, as well as a depletion of male carriers among non-medically ascertained cases. These features are associated with an unusually high frequency of selective and restrictive eating behaviours and a significant reduction in head circumference. Each of the observed phenotypes is the converse of one reported in carriers of deletions at this locus. The phenotypes correlate with changes in transcript levels for genes mapping within the duplication but not in flanking regions. The reciprocal impact of these 16p11.2 copy-number variants indicates that severe obesity and being underweight could have mirror aetiologies, possibly through contrasting effects on energy balance.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3637175/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3637175/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Jacquemont, Sebastien -- Reymond, Alexandre -- Zufferey, Flore -- Harewood, Louise -- Walters, Robin G -- Kutalik, Zoltan -- Martinet, Danielle -- Shen, Yiping -- Valsesia, Armand -- Beckmann, Noam D -- Thorleifsson, Gudmar -- Belfiore, Marco -- Bouquillon, Sonia -- Campion, Dominique -- de Leeuw, Nicole -- de Vries, Bert B A -- Esko, Tonu -- Fernandez, Bridget A -- Fernandez-Aranda, Fernando -- Fernandez-Real, Jose Manuel -- Gratacos, Monica -- Guilmatre, Audrey -- Hoyer, Juliane -- Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta -- Kooy, R Frank -- Kurg, Ants -- Le Caignec, Cedric -- Mannik, Katrin -- Platt, Orah S -- Sanlaville, Damien -- Van Haelst, Mieke M -- Villatoro Gomez, Sergi -- Walha, Faida -- Wu, Bai-Lin -- Yu, Yongguo -- Aboura, Azzedine -- Addor, Marie-Claude -- Alembik, Yves -- Antonarakis, Stylianos E -- Arveiler, Benoit -- Barth, Magalie -- Bednarek, Nathalie -- Bena, Frederique -- Bergmann, Sven -- Beri, Mylene -- Bernardini, Laura -- Blaumeiser, Bettina -- Bonneau, Dominique -- Bottani, Armand -- Boute, Odile -- Brunner, Han G -- Cailley, Dorothee -- Callier, Patrick -- Chiesa, Jean -- Chrast, Jacqueline -- Coin, Lachlan -- Coutton, Charles -- Cuisset, Jean-Marie -- Cuvellier, Jean-Christophe -- David, Albert -- de Freminville, Benedicte -- Delobel, Bruno -- Delrue, Marie-Ange -- Demeer, Benedicte -- Descamps, Dominique -- Didelot, Gerard -- Dieterich, Klaus -- Disciglio, Vittoria -- Doco-Fenzy, Martine -- Drunat, Severine -- Duban-Bedu, Benedicte -- Dubourg, Christele -- El-Sayed Moustafa, Julia S -- Elliott, Paul -- Faas, Brigitte H W -- Faivre, Laurence -- Faudet, Anne -- Fellmann, Florence -- Ferrarini, Alessandra -- Fisher, Richard -- Flori, Elisabeth -- Forer, Lukas -- Gaillard, Dominique -- Gerard, Marion -- Gieger, Christian -- Gimelli, Stefania -- Gimelli, Giorgio -- Grabe, Hans J -- Guichet, Agnes -- Guillin, Olivier -- Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa -- Heron, Delphine -- Hippolyte, Loyse -- Holder, Muriel -- Homuth, Georg -- Isidor, Bertrand -- Jaillard, Sylvie -- Jaros, Zdenek -- Jimenez-Murcia, Susana -- Helas, Geraldine Joly -- Jonveaux, Philippe -- Kaksonen, Satu -- Keren, Boris -- Kloss-Brandstatter, Anita -- Knoers, Nine V A M -- Koolen, David A -- Kroisel, Peter M -- Kronenberg, Florian -- Labalme, Audrey -- Landais, Emilie -- Lapi, Elisabetta -- Layet, Valerie -- Legallic, Solenn -- Leheup, Bruno -- Leube, Barbara -- Lewis, Suzanne -- Lucas, Josette -- MacDermot, Kay D -- Magnusson, Pall -- Marshall, Christian -- Mathieu-Dramard, Michele -- McCarthy, Mark I -- Meitinger, Thomas -- Mencarelli, Maria Antonietta -- Merla, Giuseppe -- Moerman, Alexandre -- Mooser, Vincent -- Morice-Picard, Fanny -- Mucciolo, Mafalda -- Nauck, Matthias -- Ndiaye, Ndeye Coumba -- Nordgren, Ann -- Pasquier, Laurent -- Petit, Florence -- Pfundt, Rolph -- Plessis, Ghislaine -- Rajcan-Separovic, Evica -- Ramelli, Gian Paolo -- Rauch, Anita -- Ravazzolo, Roberto -- Reis, Andre -- Renieri, Alessandra -- Richart, Cristobal -- Ried, Janina S -- Rieubland, Claudine -- Roberts, Wendy -- Roetzer, Katharina M -- Rooryck, Caroline -- Rossi, Massimiliano -- Saemundsen, Evald -- Satre, Veronique -- Schurmann, Claudia -- Sigurdsson, Engilbert -- Stavropoulos, Dimitri J -- Stefansson, Hreinn -- Tengstrom, Carola -- Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur -- Tinahones, Francisco J -- Touraine, Renaud -- Vallee, Louis -- van Binsbergen, Ellen -- Van der Aa, Nathalie -- Vincent-Delorme, Catherine -- Visvikis-Siest, Sophie -- Vollenweider, Peter -- Volzke, Henry -- Vulto-van Silfhout, Anneke T -- Waeber, Gerard -- Wallgren-Pettersson, Carina -- Witwicki, Robert M -- Zwolinksi, Simon -- Andrieux, Joris -- Estivill, Xavier -- Gusella, James F -- Gustafsson, Omar -- Metspalu, Andres -- Scherer, Stephen W -- Stefansson, Kari -- Blakemore, Alexandra I F -- Beckmann, Jacques S -- Froguel, Philippe -- 090532/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 1RL1MH083268-01/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- 5R01HL087679-02/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- 5R01MH63706:02/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- AS2173/Autism Speaks/ -- G0500539/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- G0600705/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- G0801056/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- GM061354/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- MH071425/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- MOP 74502/Canadian Institutes of Health Research/Canada -- Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- England -- Nature. 2011 Aug 31;478(7367):97-102. doi: 10.1038/nature10406.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Service of Medical Genetics, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, 1011 Lausanne, Switzerland.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21881559" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adolescent ; Adult ; Aged ; Aging ; Body Height/genetics ; *Body Mass Index ; Case-Control Studies ; Child ; Child, Preschool ; Chromosomes, Human, Pair 16/*genetics ; Cohort Studies ; Comparative Genomic Hybridization ; Developmental Disabilities/genetics ; Energy Metabolism/genetics ; Europe ; Female ; Gene Dosage/*genetics ; Gene Duplication/genetics ; Gene Expression Profiling ; Genetic Predisposition to Disease/genetics ; Genome-Wide Association Study ; Head/anatomy & histology ; Heterozygote ; Humans ; Infant ; Infant, Newborn ; Male ; Mental Disorders/genetics ; Middle Aged ; Mutation/genetics ; North America ; Obesity/*genetics ; *Phenotype ; RNA, Messenger/analysis/genetics ; Sequence Deletion/genetics ; Thinness/*genetics ; Transcription, Genetic ; Young Adult
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    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2012-12-14
    Description: The clinical efficacy and safety of a drug is determined by its activity profile across many proteins in the proteome. However, designing drugs with a specific multi-target profile is both complex and difficult. Therefore methods to design drugs rationally a priori against profiles of several proteins would have immense value in drug discovery. Here we describe a new approach for the automated design of ligands against profiles of multiple drug targets. The method is demonstrated by the evolution of an approved acetylcholinesterase inhibitor drug into brain-penetrable ligands with either specific polypharmacology or exquisite selectivity profiles for G-protein-coupled receptors. Overall, 800 ligand-target predictions of prospectively designed ligands were tested experimentally, of which 75% were confirmed to be correct. We also demonstrate target engagement in vivo. The approach can be a useful source of drug leads when multi-target profiles are required to achieve either selectivity over other drug targets or a desired polypharmacology.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3653568/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3653568/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Besnard, Jeremy -- Ruda, Gian Filippo -- Setola, Vincent -- Abecassis, Keren -- Rodriguiz, Ramona M -- Huang, Xi-Ping -- Norval, Suzanne -- Sassano, Maria F -- Shin, Antony I -- Webster, Lauren A -- Simeons, Frederick R C -- Stojanovski, Laste -- Prat, Annik -- Seidah, Nabil G -- Constam, Daniel B -- Bickerton, G Richard -- Read, Kevin D -- Wetsel, William C -- Gilbert, Ian H -- Roth, Bryan L -- Hopkins, Andrew L -- 083481/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- BB/FOF/PF/15/09/Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council/United Kingdom -- BB/J010510/1/Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council/United Kingdom -- MH082441/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- R01 DA017204/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- R01 MH061887/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- U19 MH082441/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- WT 083481/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- England -- Nature. 2012 Dec 13;492(7428):215-20. doi: 10.1038/nature11691.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Division of Biological Chemistry and Drug Discovery, College of Life Sciences, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 5EH, UK.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23235874" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Automation ; Drug Delivery Systems ; *Drug Design ; Female ; *Ligands ; Male ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; Models, Theoretical ; Pharmacological Phenomena ; Reproducibility of Results
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2013-11-10
    Description: A heterogeneous population of inhibitory neurons controls the flow of information through a neural circuit. Inhibitory synapses that form on pyramidal neuron dendrites modulate the summation of excitatory synaptic potentials and prevent the generation of dendritic calcium spikes. Precisely timed somatic inhibition limits both the number of action potentials and the time window during which firing can occur. The activity-dependent transcription factor NPAS4 regulates inhibitory synapse number and function in cell culture, but how this transcription factor affects the inhibitory inputs that form on distinct domains of a neuron in vivo was unclear. Here we show that in the mouse hippocampus behaviourally driven expression of NPAS4 coordinates the redistribution of inhibitory synapses made onto a CA1 pyramidal neuron, simultaneously increasing inhibitory synapse number on the cell body while decreasing the number of inhibitory synapses on the apical dendrites. This rearrangement of inhibition is mediated in part by the NPAS4 target gene brain derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf), which specifically regulates somatic, and not dendritic, inhibition. These findings indicate that sensory stimuli, by inducing NPAS4 and its target genes, differentially control spatial features of neuronal inhibition in a way that restricts the output of the neuron while creating a dendritic environment that is permissive for plasticity.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4169177/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4169177/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Bloodgood, Brenda L -- Sharma, Nikhil -- Browne, Heidi Adlman -- Trepman, Alissa Z -- Greenberg, Michael E -- NS028829/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- P01 NS047572/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- P30 HD018655/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/ -- P30 NS047101/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2013 Nov 7;503(7474):121-5. doi: 10.1038/nature12743.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉1] Department of Neurobiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA [2] Division of Biological Sciences, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093, USA [3].〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24201284" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors/deficiency/genetics/*metabolism ; Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor/genetics/metabolism ; Dendrites/physiology ; Female ; Hippocampus/*cytology ; Male ; Mice ; Mice, Knockout ; *Neural Inhibition ; Neuronal Plasticity ; Neurons/cytology/*metabolism ; Pyramidal Cells/cytology/metabolism ; Synapses/*metabolism
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2014-07-06
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Huang, Bau-Lin -- Mackem, Susan -- England -- Nature. 2014 Jul 3;511(7507):34-5. doi: 10.1038/nature13509. Epub 2014 Jun 18.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Cancer and Developmental Biology Laboratory, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, Frederick, Maryland 21702, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24990735" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Biological Evolution ; *Body Patterning ; *Chondrogenesis ; Extremities/*anatomy & histology/*embryology ; Female ; Hedgehog Proteins/*metabolism ; Male ; Mammals/*anatomy & histology/*embryology ; Receptors, Cell Surface/*metabolism
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2015-05-21
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Hogan, Benjamin M -- Black, Brian L -- England -- Nature. 2015 Jun 4;522(7554):37-8.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25992543" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Cell Differentiation ; *Cell Lineage ; Endothelial Cells/*cytology ; Female ; Humans ; *Lymphangiogenesis ; Lymphatic Vessels/*cytology/*injuries ; Male ; Myocardium/*cytology ; Stem Cells/*cytology ; Veins/*cytology
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2015-11-10
    Description: At least 120 non-olfactory G-protein-coupled receptors in the human genome are 'orphans' for which endogenous ligands are unknown, and many have no selective ligands, hindering the determination of their biological functions and clinical relevance. Among these is GPR68, a proton receptor that lacks small molecule modulators for probing its biology. Using yeast-based screens against GPR68, here we identify the benzodiazepine drug lorazepam as a non-selective GPR68 positive allosteric modulator. More than 3,000 GPR68 homology models were refined to recognize lorazepam in a putative allosteric site. Docking 3.1 million molecules predicted new GPR68 modulators, many of which were confirmed in functional assays. One potent GPR68 modulator, ogerin, suppressed recall in fear conditioning in wild-type but not in GPR68-knockout mice. The same approach led to the discovery of allosteric agonists and negative allosteric modulators for GPR65. Combining physical and structure-based screening may be broadly useful for ligand discovery for understudied and orphan GPCRs.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Huang, Xi-Ping -- Karpiak, Joel -- Kroeze, Wesley K -- Zhu, Hu -- Chen, Xin -- Moy, Sheryl S -- Saddoris, Kara A -- Nikolova, Viktoriya D -- Farrell, Martilias S -- Wang, Sheng -- Mangano, Thomas J -- Deshpande, Deepak A -- Jiang, Alice -- Penn, Raymond B -- Jin, Jian -- Koller, Beverly H -- Kenakin, Terry -- Shoichet, Brian K -- Roth, Bryan L -- GM59957/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- GM71896/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- P01 HL114471/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01 DA017204/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- R01 DA027170/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- U01 MH104974/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- U19MH082441/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- U54 HD079124/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2015 Nov 26;527(7579):477-83. doi: 10.1038/nature15699. Epub 2015 Nov 9.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Pharmacology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, 27599-7365, USA. ; National Institute of Mental Health Psychoactive Drug Screening Program (NIMH PDSP), School of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599-7365, USA. ; Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, University of California at San Francisco, Byers Hall, 1700 4th Street, San Francisco, California 94158-2550, USA. ; Center for Integrative Chemical Biology and Drug Discovery (CICBDD), University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599-7363, USA. ; Division of Chemical Biology and Medicinal Chemistry, Eshelman School of Pharmacy, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599-7360, USA. ; Department of Psychiatry and Carolina Institute for Developmental Disabilities (CIDD), University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599-7146, USA. ; Center for Translational Medicine and Department of Medicine, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19107, USA. ; Department of Genetics, School of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599-7264, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26550826" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Allosteric Regulation/drug effects ; Allosteric Site ; Animals ; Anti-Anxiety Agents/analysis/chemistry/metabolism/pharmacology ; Benzyl Alcohols/analysis/*chemistry/metabolism/*pharmacology ; Conditioning, Classical ; *Drug Discovery ; Fear ; Female ; HEK293 Cells ; Humans ; Ligands ; Lorazepam/analysis/*chemistry/metabolism/*pharmacology ; Male ; Memory/drug effects ; Mice ; Mice, Knockout ; Models, Molecular ; Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled/agonists/antagonists & ; inhibitors/chemistry/deficiency/*metabolism ; Signal Transduction/drug effects ; Triazines/analysis/*chemistry/metabolism/*pharmacology
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2015-08-27
    Description: The GGGGCC (G4C2) repeat expansion in a noncoding region of C9orf72 is the most common cause of sporadic and familial forms of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal dementia. The basis for pathogenesis is unknown. To elucidate the consequences of G4C2 repeat expansion in a tractable genetic system, we generated transgenic fly lines expressing 8, 28 or 58 G4C2-repeat-containing transcripts that do not have a translation start site (AUG) but contain an open-reading frame for green fluorescent protein to detect repeat-associated non-AUG (RAN) translation. We show that these transgenic animals display dosage-dependent, repeat-length-dependent degeneration in neuronal tissues and RAN translation of dipeptide repeat (DPR) proteins, as observed in patients with C9orf72-related disease. This model was used in a large-scale, unbiased genetic screen, ultimately leading to the identification of 18 genetic modifiers that encode components of the nuclear pore complex (NPC), as well as the machinery that coordinates the export of nuclear RNA and the import of nuclear proteins. Consistent with these results, we found morphological abnormalities in the architecture of the nuclear envelope in cells expressing expanded G4C2 repeats in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, we identified a substantial defect in RNA export resulting in retention of RNA in the nuclei of Drosophila cells expressing expanded G4C2 repeats and also in mammalian cells, including aged induced pluripotent stem-cell-derived neurons from patients with C9orf72-related disease. These studies show that a primary consequence of G4C2 repeat expansion is the compromise of nucleocytoplasmic transport through the nuclear pore, revealing a novel mechanism of neurodegeneration.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4631399/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4631399/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Freibaum, Brian D -- Lu, Yubing -- Lopez-Gonzalez, Rodrigo -- Kim, Nam Chul -- Almeida, Sandra -- Lee, Kyung-Ha -- Badders, Nisha -- Valentine, Marc -- Miller, Bruce L -- Wong, Philip C -- Petrucelli, Leonard -- Kim, Hong Joo -- Gao, Fen-Biao -- Taylor, J Paul -- AG019724/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- N079725/PHS HHS/ -- NS079725/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- P01 AG019724/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- R01 NS057553/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- R01 NS079725/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2015 Sep 3;525(7567):129-33. doi: 10.1038/nature14974. Epub 2015 Aug 26.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, St Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee 38105, USA. ; Department of Neurology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts 01605, USA. ; Memory and Aging Center, Department of Neurology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94158, USA. ; Department of Pathology, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA. ; Department of Neuroscience, Mayo Clinic Florida, Jacksonville, Florida 32224, USA. ; Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, St Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee 38105, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26308899" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Active Transport, Cell Nucleus/*genetics ; Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis/genetics/pathology ; Animals ; Animals, Genetically Modified ; DNA Repeat Expansion/*genetics ; Drosophila melanogaster/*cytology/genetics/*metabolism ; Eye/metabolism ; Female ; Frontotemporal Dementia/genetics/pathology ; HeLa Cells ; Humans ; Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells/cytology/metabolism ; Male ; Muscles/cytology/metabolism ; Neurons/cytology/metabolism ; Nuclear Pore/genetics/metabolism/pathology ; Open Reading Frames/*genetics ; Phenotype ; Protein Biosynthesis ; Proteins/*genetics ; RNA/genetics/metabolism ; RNA Transport/*genetics ; Salivary Glands/cytology/metabolism/pathology
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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