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  • Life and Medical Sciences  (6)
  • Fertilization  (1)
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  • 1
    ISSN: 1615-6102
    Keywords: Centrosome ; Centriole ; Microtubule ; Sperm ; Oocyte ; Fertilization
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Mammalian gametogenesis results in the production of highly specialized cells, sperm and oocytes, that are complementary in their arsenal of organelles and molecules necessary for normal embryonic development. Consequently, some of the zygotic structures, as illustrated in this review on the centrosome, are a combination of complementary paternal and maternal contributions. Mammalian oocytes are deprived of their centrioles during oogenesis, yet at the same time they generate a huge cytoplasmic reserve of centrosomal proteins. The active centrosome of spermatogenic stem cells is reduced to a single centriole that does not possess microtubule-nucle-ating activity. This centrosomal activity is restored at fertilization, when the sperm centriole is released into the oocyte cytoplasm, from which it attracts the oocyte-derived proteins of pericentriolar material and ultimately converts itself into an active zygotic centrosome. Subsequently, the microtubules around the zygotic centrosome are organized into a radial array called the sperm aster, that guides the apposition of male and female pronuclei, and the union of paternal and maternal genomes in the cytoplasm of a fertilized oocyte. The original sperm centriole duplicates and gives rise to the first mitotic spindle. This biparental mode of centrosome inheritance is seen in most mammals, except for rodents, where both centrioles are degraded during spermiogenesis and the zygotic centrosome is organized without any paternal contributions. The studies of centrosomal inheritance at fertilization provide the platform for designing new safe methods of assisted-reproduction and infertility treatments in humans.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0741-0581
    Keywords: Confocal microscopy ; Fluorescence ; Three-dimensional imaging ; Laser scanning ; Tandem scanning ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Notes: Several recent technological advances have considerably improved the field of confocal fluorescence microscopy. Improvements in confocal microscope design, new fluorescent probes and indicators, more sensitive imaging devices, and computer advances which allow for data manipulation and storage provide a convenient method to acquire complex three-dimensional (3-D) architectural details which previously were difficult or impossible to obtain from biological specimens. Applications of the laser scanning and tandem scanning confocal microscopes offer the potential for gaining powerful insights into the complex relationship of cellular structure and function. Confocal microscopy generates optical sections free from out-of-focus blur. With the development of new visualization tools to render and display complex 3-D data, a set of optical sections taken at different focal planes can be three-dimensionally reconstructed to create an animated sequence which can reveal latent features of the specimen. The combination of confocal microscopy and 3-D reconstruction provides a powerful new imaging tool to advance knowledge about structural and functional cellular properties as they occur dynamically in three dimensions.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0021-9541
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: This study concerned changes in the motional properties of cellular water during the first cell cycle of fertilized sea urchin eggs (Lytechinus variegatus). There was a significant decrease in proton NMR T1 relaxation time and in cytoplasmic ice crystal growth during mitosis and a significant increase in T1 time and cytoplasmic ice crystal size during cleavage. This was not caused by egg water content changes as reflected by egg volume measurements. Removal of both the fertilization membrane and the hyaline layer shortly after fertilization did not alter the pattern of T1 time changes at mitosis and cleavage as compared to whole eggs; thus, the pattern of T1 time changes was attributed to intracellular events. Treatment of fertilized eggs with cytochalasin B, an inhibitor of actin polymerization, did not block the fall in T1 time at mitosis, but did block cytokinesis and the increase in T1 time, which normally occurred at cleavage. A significant pattern of actin disassembly and reassembly at mitosis and cytokinesis was found by studies on the total amount of monomeric actin (G actin) using the DNase I assay. This led to the hypothesis that the observed changes in T1 time and ice crystal size during the first cell cycle were due to the depolymerization and polymerization of cytoplasmic actin. To test this, the effect of the in vitro polymerization of purified actin on the T1 time and on ice crystal growth was examined. It was concluded that changes in the T1 time and ice crystal growth upon polymerization of actin in vitro resembled the changes seen in vivo. These results suggest that changes in the motional properties of cytoplasmic water during the first cell cycle are due, at least in part, to the state of polymerization of cytoplasmic actin.
    Additional Material: 8 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Gamete Research 14 (1986), S. 277-291 
    ISSN: 0148-7280
    Keywords: rhodaminyl-labeled phalloidin ; cytochalasin E ; microfilament distribution ; fertilization ; cell division ; sea urchin ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Rhodaminyl-labeled phalloidin is used to demonstrate the distribution of microfilaments during fertilization and early development in eggs of the sea urchins Arbacia punctulata and Lytechinus variegatus. The surface of unfertilized eggs have numerous punctate fluorescence sites at which rhodaminyl phalloidin binds, indicating the presence of actin oligomers or polymers. During fertilization this punctate pattern of fluorescence begins to change. Within thirty seconds of insemination, the fertilization cone is first detectable with this technique as an erect structure on the surface of the egg. The fertilization cone grows to a maximum size by 8-9 minutes, and is resorbed by 16 minutes after insemination. The surface of the fertilized egg displays numerous fluorescent fibers by 10 minutes after insemination rather than the punctate fluorescence observed in unfertilized eggs, indicative of the burst of microfilament assembly resulting in microvillar elongation. The elongated microfilaments persist through cytokinesis. Staining is also detected throughout the cortices of unfertilized, fertilized, and cleaving eggs. Cytochalasin E (10 μM, 30 min) prevents microfilament elongation and cytokinesis and reduces the cortical staining intensity after fertilization. At cleavage, contractile rings, appearing as narrow equatorial bundles of fibers, have been detected in Lytechinus variegatus as transient structures.
    Additional Material: 9 Ill.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: actin ; actin-membrane interactions ; coelomocytes ; calmodulin ; cytoskeleton ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Coelomocytes from several echinoderm species undergo an actin-mediated cytoskeletal transformation once subjected to hypotonic shock. In this study, coelomocytes from the sea urchins Lytechinus variegatus and Arbacia punctulata were induced to “transform” by treatment with 〉 5 μM of the calcium ionophore A23187 in the presence of external Ca++. The dependence of ionophore transformation on external Ca++ and the lack of chlorotetracycline staining indicates that these cells rely on external Ca++ sources. NBD-phallacidin (7-Nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazole-phallacidin) staining of lysolecithin permeabilized cells and wholemount transmission electron microscopy (TEM) show that similar reorganizations of the actin cytoskeleton take place during hypotonic shock and ionophore transformation, although actin filament bundling is less apparent in A23187-treated cells. As has been shown with hypotonic shock transformation, the ionophore elicited shape change is inhibited by anticalmodulin drugs. Greater than 10 μM concentrations of W 13 inhibit filopod formation, while this drug's less active structural analogue, W 12, exhibits no effects. W 13 also appears to disrupt actin filament-membrane associations in the cells. Fluorescent localization of calmodulin using a photooxidized derivative of trifluoperazine indicates a general cytoplasmic distribution with some concentration in filopod core bundles. Coelomocyte transformation may be an example of a cellular shape change regulated by Ca++ through the action of calmodulin modulation of actin-membrane interactions.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1040-452X
    Keywords: Sperm ; Actin ; Tubulin-like protein ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Sperm from the decapod crustacean Rhynchocinetes typus undergo dramatic shape changes as they pass from the vas deferens to seawater and interact with the oocyte envelopes. Using FITC-phalloidin and antitubulin antibodies, we were able to localize microfilaments and a tubulin-like protein in R. typus spermatozoon. Microfilaments and the tubulin-like protein were associated with the sperm rays and spines, but were absent at the spike and at its base. Folded and unfolded spermatozoa display similar fluorescence patterns. SDS-PAGE of whole spermatozoa and electrotransfer to nitrocellulose confirmed the presence of actin and two proteins at 97 kd and 120 kd that bind to tubulin antibodies (tubulin-like proteins). These results demonstrate the presence of actin, but not tubulin, and localize microfilaments in these sperm. It is proposed that this cytoskeletal component is active in sperm during crustacean fertilization.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1040-452X
    Keywords: DNA ; RNA ; P1 ; PI1 ; PI2 ; Lamin B ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: The nuclear matrix is thought to be responsible for DNA organization, DNA replication, RNA synthesis, and RNA processing. We have looked for the presence of nuclear matrix antigens during early mouse embryogenesis. Antibodies to peripheral and interior antigens (P1, PI1, PI2, and lamin B) were used to immunolocalize nuclear matrix antigens in germinal vesicle oocytes, metaphase II oocytes, zygotes, two-cell-stage embryos, and eight-cell stage embryos. All antibodies reacted with the nuclei of germinal vesicle oocytes, and two- and eight-cell-stage embryos; however, only P1 and lamin B were present at the pronuclear stage. In eggs collected at the pronuclear stage and cultured to the late two-cell stage in the presence of α-amanitin, the matrix morphology was altered for PI1 and PI2. α-Amanitin had no affect on the distribution of P1 or lamin B antigens. If α-amanitin was added 2 hr after cleavage to the two-cell stage, the normal staining pattern of PI2 was retained. These results suggest that the presence of specific components of an internal matrix is correlated with normal genomic activity.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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