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  • 1
    ISSN: 1433-2965
    Keywords: Direct costs ; Epidemiology ; Fractures ; Health economics ; Osteoporosis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Osteoporosis is an increasing health care problem in all aging populations, but overall direct costs associated with the total fracture burden of osteoporosis remain uncertain. We have examined direct costs associated with 151 osteoporotic fractures occurring between 1989 and 1992 in a large cohort of elderly men and women followed prospectively as part of the Dubbo Osteoporosis Epidemiology Study. The median cost of hospital treated fractures was $A10 511 per fracture and for fractures treated on an outpatient basis $A455 in 1992 Australian dollars. Femoral neck fractures were the most expensive fractures ($15984 median cost). There was no significant difference in costs between men and women for either hospital- or outpatient-treated fractures. Rehabilitation hospital costs comprised the largest proportion of costs (49%) for hospital-treated fractures. Community services comprised the major cost (40%) of outpatient-treated fractures. Univariate predictors of costs were quadriceps strength and bone density, although multivariate analysis showed quadriceps strength to be the best overall predictor of costs. The predicted annual treatment costs in Australia for atraumatic fractures occurring in subjects ⩾60 years was $A779 million or approximately $A44 million per million of population per annum. Estimated total osteoporotic fracture-related costs for the Australian population were much higher than previously reported. The majority of direct costs (95%) were incurred by hospitalized patients and related to hospital and rehabilitation costs. Extrapolation of these data suggests that the direct costs for hip fracture alone will increase approximately twofold in most Western countries by 2025. Improving the cost-effectiveness of treating osteoporotic fractures should involve reduced hospitalization and/or greater efficiency in community rehabilitation services. The costs of various approaches to osteoporosis prevention must be placed into the context of these direct costs and prevention should target men as well as women.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1433-2965
    Keywords: Osteoporosis ; Vertebral ; Fractures
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The aims of this study were to ascertain vertebral deformity prevalence in elderly men and women and to describe the association between bone mineral density (BMD) at the lumbar spine and femoral neck, severity of spinal degenerative disease and vertebral deformity prevalence. We performed standardized spinal radiographs in a random sample of 300 elderly men and women participating in the Dubbo Osteoporosis Epidemiology Study, a population-based study of fracture risk factors. Radiographs were read independently by masked observers for the prevalence of vertebral deformity and severity of osteophytosis. BMD was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The prevalence of vertebral deformities was critically dependent on the criterion used. The less strict criteria seemed to overestimate deformities at either end of the spine region analysed. However, irrespective of the criterion used, prevalence of deformity was higher in men than in women (25% vs 20% for the 3 SD criterion, 17% vs 12% for the 4 SD criterion and 27% vs 25% for the 25% criterion). Femoral neck BMD was more strongly associated with vertebral deformities than spinal BMD for the 25% criterion (OR/SD change in BMD 1.39 (p=0.02) vs 1.20 (p=0.19)), 3 SD criterion (OR/SD change in BMD 1.45 (p=0.01) vs 1.10 (p=0.34)) and 4 SD criterion (OR/SD change in BMD 1.98 (p=0.0002) vs 1.68 (p=0.008)). BMD was also more strongly associated with biconcave deformities than either wedge or crush deformities and more so in men than in women. Severity of spinal osteophytosis was not associated with vertebral deformity. In conclusion, femoral neck BMD is at least equivalent to the lumbar spine BMD in strength of association with prevalent vertebral fractures. Spinal osteophytosis falsely elevates BMD without a concomitant decrease in fracture risk, indicating that any interpretation of spinal BMD needs to be adjusted for osteophytosis. These findings support the use of femoral neck bone densitometry in older men and women. Moreover, these data indicate that current criteria for radiological assessment of vertebral deformity are sufficiently loose to include a substantial proportion of non-fractures in the elderly, with important implications for the design of clinical trials. However, irrespective of the criterion used, vertebral deformities in men are at least as common, if not more so, than in women, suggesting that vertebral osteoporotic fractures are overlooked in men.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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