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  • GENOME-WIDE ASSOCIATION  (18)
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  • 1
    Keywords: OBESITY ; HUMAN BREAST ; EPIDEMIOLOGIC EVIDENCE ; EUROPEAN POPULATIONS ; COMMON DISEASES ; GENOME-WIDE ASSOCIATION ; GENETIC-VARIATION ; NATURAL-SELECTION ; HUMAN ANGIOTENSINOGEN ; K121Q POLYMORPHISM
    Abstract: Background: The majority of non-syndromic colorectal cancers (CRCs) can be described as a complex disease. A two-stage case-control study on CRC susceptibility was conducted to assess the influence of the ancestral alleles in the polymorphisms previously associated with nutrition-related complex diseases. Methods: In stage I, 28 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped in a hospital-based Czech population (1025 CRC cases, 787 controls) using an allele-specific PCR-based genotyping system (KASPar (R)). In stage II, replication was carried out for the five SNPs with the lowest p values. The replication set consisted of 1798 CRC cases and 1810 controls from a population-based German study (DACHS). Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for associations between genotypes and CRC risk were estimated using logistic regression. To identify signatures of selection, Fay-Wu's H and Integrated Haplotype Score (iHS) were estimated. Results: In the Czech population, carriers of the ancestral alleles of AGT rs699 and CYP3A7 rs10211 showed an increased risk of CRC (OR 1.26 and 1.38, respectively; two-sided p 〈= 0.05), whereas carriers of the ancestral allele of ENPP1 rs1044498 had a decreased risk (OR 0.79; p 〈= 0.05). For rs1044498, the strongest association was detected in the Czech male subpopulation (OR 0.61; p=0.0015). The associations were not replicated in the German population. Signatures of selection were found for all three analyzed genes. Conclusions: Our study showed evidence of association for the ancestral alleles of polymorphisms in AGT and CYP3A7 and for the derived allele of a polymorphism in ENPP1 with an increased risk of CRC in Czechs, but not in Germans. The ancestral alleles of these SNPs have previously been associated with nutrition-related diseases hypertension (AGT and CYP3A7) and insulin resistance (ENPP1). Future studies may shed light on the complex genetic and environmental interactions between different types of nutrition-related diseases.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 23036011
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  • 2
    Keywords: MUTATIONS ; SURVEILLANCE ; CARRIERS ; PREDICTION ; FAMILY-HISTORY ; susceptibility loci ; GENOME-WIDE ASSOCIATION ; DISEASE RISK ; ADENOMATOUS POLYPS ; TYPE-2 DIABETES RISK
    Abstract: Objective Colorectal cancer (CRC) has a substantial heritable component. Common genetic variation has been shown to contribute to CRC risk. A study was conducted in a large multi-population study to assess the feasibility of CRC risk prediction using common genetic variant data combined with other risk factors. A risk prediction model was built and applied to the Scottish population using available data. Design Nine populations of European descent were studied to develop and validate CRC risk prediction models. Binary logistic regression was used to assess the combined effect of age, gender, family history (FH) and genotypes at 10 susceptibility loci that individually only modestly influence CRC risk. Risk models were generated from case-control data incorporating genotypes alone (n=39 266) and in combination with gender, age and FH (n=11 324). Model discriminatory performance was assessed using 10-fold internal cross-validation and externally using 4187 independent samples. The 10-year absolute risk was estimated by modelling genotype and FH with age- and gender-specific population risks. Results The median number of risk alleles was greater in cases than controls (10 vs 9, p〈2.2x10(-16)), confirmed in external validation sets (Sweden p=1.2x10(-6), Finland p-2x10(-5)). The mean per-allele increase in risk was 9% (OR 1.09; 95% CI 1.05 to 1.13). Discriminative performance was poor across the risk spectrum (area under curve for genotypes alone 0.57; area under curve for genotype/age/gender/FH 0.59). However, modelling genotype data, FH, age and gender with Scottish population data shows the practicalities of identifying a subgroup with 〉5% predicted 10-year absolute risk. Conclusion Genotype data provide additional information that complements age, gender and FH as risk factors, but individualised genetic risk prediction is not currently feasible. Nonetheless, the modelling exercise suggests public health potential since it is possible to stratify the population into CRC risk categories, thereby informing targeted prevention and surveillance.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 22490517
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  • 3
    Keywords: DISEASE ; HEALTH ; DESIGN ; COLON-CANCER ; PANCREATIC-CANCER ; susceptibility loci ; GENOME-WIDE ASSOCIATION ; RISK LOCI ; COMMON SNPS ; HUMAN HEIGHT
    Abstract: A sizable fraction of colorectal cancer (CRC) is expected to be explained by heritable factors, with heritability estimates ranging from 12 to 35% twin and family studies. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have successfully identified a number of common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with CRC risk. Although it has been shown that these CRC susceptibility SNPs only explain a small proportion of the genetic risk, it is not clear how much of the heritability these SNPs explain and how much is left to be detected by other, yet to be identified, common SNPs. Therefore, we estimated the heritability of CRC under different scenarios using Genome-Wide Complex Trait Analysis in the Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium including 8025 cases and 10 814 controls. We estimated that the heritability explained by known common CRC SNPs identified in GWAS was 0.65% (95% CI:0.3-1%; P = 1.11 x 10-16), whereas the heritability explained by all common SNPs was at least 7.42% (95% CI: 4.71-10.12%; P = 8.13 x 10(-8)), suggesting that many common variants associated with CRC risk remain to be detected. Comparing the heritability explained by the common variants with that from twin and family studies, a fraction of the heritability may be explained by other genetic variants, such as rare variants. In addition, our analysis showed that the gene x smoking interaction explained a significant proportion of the CRC variance (P = 1.26 x 10(-2)). In summary, our results suggest that known CRC SNPs only explain a small proportion of the heritability and more common SNPs have yet to be identified
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 24562164
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  • 4
    Keywords: HEALTH ; PROSTATE-CANCER ; COLON-CANCER ; PREDICTION ; MUTATION CARRIERS ; METAANALYSIS ; GENOME-WIDE ASSOCIATION ; TASK-FORCE ; CHROMOSOME 8Q24 ; AMERICAN-COLLEGE
    Abstract: BACKGROUND & AIMS: Risk for colorectal cancer (CRC) can be greatly reduced through screening. To aid in the development of screening strategies, we refined models designed to determine risk of CRC by incorporating information from common genetic susceptibility loci. METHODS: By using data collected from more than 12,000 participants in 6 studies performed from 1990 through 2011 in the United States and Germany, we developed risk determination models based on sex, age, family history, genetic risk score (number of risk alleles carried at 27 validated common CRC susceptibility loci), and history of endoscopic examinations. The model was validated using data collected from approximately 1800 participants in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial, conducted from 1993 through 2001 in the United States. RESULTS: We identified a CRC genetic risk score that independently predicted which patients in the training set would develop CRC. Compared with determination of risk based only on family history, adding the genetic risk score increased the discriminatory accuracy from 0.51 to 0.59 (P = .0028) for men and from 0.52 to 0.56 (P = .14) for women. We calculated age-and sex-specific 10-year CRC absolute risk estimates based on the number of risk alleles, family history, and history of endoscopic examinations. A model that included a genetic risk score better determined the recommended starting age for screening in subjects with and without family histories of CRC. The starting age for high-risk men (family history of CRC and genetic risk score, 90%) was 42 years, and for low-risk men (no family history of CRC and genetic risk score, 10%) was 52 years. For men with no family history and a high genetic risk score (90%), the starting age would be 47 years; this is an intermediate value that is 5 years earlier than it would be for men with a genetic risk score of 10%. Similar trends were observed in women. CONCLUSIONS: By incorporating information on CRC risk alleles, we created a model to determine the risk for CRC more accurately. This model might be used to develop screening and prevention strategies.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 25683114
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  • 5
    Keywords: INSULIN-RESISTANCE ; metabolic syndrome ; susceptibility loci ; SERUM ADIPONECTIN ; GENOME-WIDE ASSOCIATION ; MENDELIAN RANDOMIZATION ; CIRCULATING ADIPONECTIN ; PLASMA ADIPONECTIN ; SOLUBLE LEPTIN RECEPTOR ; MOLECULAR-WEIGHT ADIPONECTIN
    Abstract: Circulating adiponectin has been associated with lower risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). Genome-wide association studies have identified several single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with adiponectin levels. However, it is unclear whether these SNPs are associated with CRC risk. In addition, previous data on SNPs in the adiponectin pathway and their associations with CRC are inconsistent. Therefore, we examined 19 SNPs in genes related to adiponectin or its receptors and their associations with CRC using logistic regression among 7,020 cases and 7,631 controls drawn from ten studies included in the Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium. Using data from a subset of two large cohort studies, we also assessed the contribution of individual SNPs and an adiponectin genetic score to plasma adiponectin after accounting for lifestyle factors among 2,217 women and 619 men. We did not find any statistically significant association between the 19 adiponectin-associated SNPs and CRC risk (multivariable-adjusted odds ratios ranged from 0.89 to 1.05, all p 〉 0.05). Each SNP explained less than 2.50% of the variance of plasma adiponectin, and the genetic score collectively accounted for 2.95 and 1.42% of the variability of adiponectin in women and men, respectively, after adjustment for age, body mass index, physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption, regular use of aspirin or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug and postmenopausal hormone use. In conclusion, our findings do not support an association between known adiponectin-related common SNPs and CRC incidence. However, known common SNPs account for only a limited proportion of the interindividual variance in circulating adiponectin. Further work is warranted to investigate the relationship between adiponectin and CRC while accounting for other components in the pathway.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 25431318
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  • 6
    Keywords: COLON-CANCER ; microsatellite instability ; POPULATION-BASED SAMPLE ; ULCERATIVE-COLITIS ; CROHNS-DISEASE ; susceptibility loci ; GENOME-WIDE ASSOCIATION ; ISLAND METHYLATOR PHENOTYPE ; MOLECULAR-FEATURES ; MAIT CELLS
    Abstract: We identified the minor allele (T) in SNP rs11676348 to have pleiotropic effect on risk of UC and CRC, particularly in tumors with an inflammatory component. Our findings offer the promise of risk stratification of UC patients for developing CRC.Although genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have separately identified many genetic susceptibility loci for ulcerative colitis (UC), Crohn's disease (CD) and colorectal cancer (CRC), there has been no large-scale examination for pleiotropy, or shared genetic susceptibility, for these conditions. We used logistic regression modeling to examine the associations of 181 UC and CD susceptibility variants previously identified by GWAS with risk of CRC using data from the Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium and the Colon Cancer Family Registry. We also examined associations of significant variants with clinical and molecular characteristics in a subset of the studies. Among 11794 CRC cases and 14190 controls, rs11676348, the susceptibility single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) for UC, was significantly associated with reduced risk of CRC (P = 7E-05). The multivariate-adjusted odds ratio of CRC with each copy of the T allele was 0.93 (95% CI 0.89-0.96). The association of the SNP with risk of CRC differed according to mucinous histological features (P (heterogeneity) = 0.008). In addition, the (T) allele was associated with lower risk of tumors with Crohn's-like reaction but not tumors without such immune infiltrate (P (heterogeneity) = 0.02) and microsatellite instability-high (MSI-high) but not microsatellite stable or MSI-low tumors (P (heterogeneity) = 0.03). The minor allele (T) in SNP rs11676348, located downstream from CXCR2 that has been implicated in CRC progression, is associated with a lower risk of CRC, particularly tumors with a mucinous component, Crohn's-like reaction and MSI-high. Our findings offer the promise of risk stratification of inflammatory bowel disease patients for complications such as CRC.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 26071399
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  • 7
    Keywords: HEALTH ; DESIGN ; CIGARETTE-SMOKING ; OBESITY ; COLON-CANCER ; microsatellite instability ; PHYSICAL-ACTIVITY ; susceptibility loci ; GENOME-WIDE ASSOCIATION ; INSTRUMENTAL VARIABLES
    Abstract: Background: High body mass index (BMI) is consistently linked to increased risk of colorectal cancer for men, whereas the association is less clear for women. As risk estimates from observational studies may be biased and/or confounded, we conducted a Mendelian randomization study to estimate the causal association between BMI and colorectal cancer. Methods: Weused data from 10,226 colorectal cancer cases and 10,286 controls of European ancestry. The Mendelian randomization analysis used a weighted genetic risk score, derived from 77 genome-wide association study-identified variants associated with higher BMI, as an instrumental variable (IV). We compared the IV odds ratio (IV-OR) with the OR obtained using a conventional covariate-adjusted analysis. Results: Individuals carrying greater numbers of BMI-increasing alleles had higher colorectal cancer risk[ per weighted allele OR, 1.31; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.10-1.57]. Our IV estimation results support the hypothesis that genetically influenced BMI is directly associated with risk for colorectal cancer (IV-OR per 5 kg/m(2), 1.50; 95% CI, 1.13-2.01). In the sex-specific IV analyses higher BMI was associated with higher risk of colorectal cancer among women (IV-OR per 5 kg/m(2), 1.82; 95% CI, 1.26-2.61). For men, genetically influenced BMI was not associated with colorectal cancer (IV-OR per 5 kg/m(2), 1.18; 95% CI, 0.73-1.92). Conclusions: High BMI was associated with increased colorectal cancer risk for women. Whether abdominal obesity, rather than overall obesity, is a more important risk factor for men requires further investigation. Impact: Overall, conventional epidemiologic and Mendelian randomization studies suggest a strong association between obesity and the risk of colorectal cancer.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 25976416
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  • 8
    Keywords: CANCER ; FOLLOW-UP ; NEW-YORK ; RISK ; SAMPLE ; ASSOCIATION ; SUSCEPTIBILITY ; VARIANTS ; DISCOVERY ; BREAST-CANCER ; genetics ; meta-analysis ; SNP ; colorectal cancer ; etiology ; COLORECTAL-CANCER ; PROSTATE-CANCER ; REPLICATION ; INDIVIDUALS ; beta-catenin ; SERIES ; germline mutations ; heredity ; RE ; VARIANT ; SNPs ; METAANALYSIS ; POWER ; USA ; ENGLAND ; COMMON VARIANT ; SAMPLE-SIZE ; 8Q24 ; GENOME-WIDE ASSOCIATION ; genetic variants ; CADHERIN GENE CDH1 ; CDH1 ; FAMILIAL GASTRIC-CANCER ; GENOME-WIDE ; JUVENILE POLYPOSIS
    Abstract: Genome-wide association (GWA) studies have identified multiple loci at which common variants modestly influence the risk of developing colorectal cancer (CRC). To enhance power to identify additional loci with similar effect sizes, we conducted a meta-analysis of two GWA studies, comprising 13,315 individuals genotyped for 38,710 common tagging SNPs. We undertook replication testing in up to eight independent case-control series comprising 27,418 subjects. We identified four previously unreported CRC risk loci at 14q22.2 (rs4444235, BMP4; P = 8.1 x 10(-10)), 16q22.1 (rs9929218, CDH1; P = 1.2 x 10(-8)), 19q13.1 (rs10411210, RHPN2; P = 4.6 x 10(-9)) and 20p12.3 (rs961253; P = 2.0 x 10(-10)). These findings underscore the value of large sample series for discovery and follow-up of genetic variants contributing to the etiology of CRC
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 19011631
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  • 9
    Keywords: EXPRESSION ; VARIANTS ; BREAST-CANCER ; COLON-CANCER ; MUTATIONS ; CELL-GROWTH ; METAANALYSIS ; susceptibility loci ; GENOME-WIDE ASSOCIATION ; LYMPHOTOXIN-BETA-RECEPTOR
    Abstract: Known genetic loci explain only a small proportion of the familial relative risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). We conducted a genome-wide association study of CRC in East Asians with 14,963 cases and 31,945 controls and identified 6 new loci associated with CRC risk (P = 3.42 x 10(-8) to 9.22 x 10(-21)) at 10q22.3, 10q25.2, 11q12.2, 12p13.31, 17p13.3 and 19q13.2. Two of these loci map to genes (TCF7L2 and TGFB1) with established roles in colorectal tumorigenesis. Four other loci are located in or near genes involved in transcriptional regulation (ZMIZ1), genome maintenance (FEN1), fatty acid metabolism (FADS1 and FADS2), cancer cell motility and metastasis (CD9), and cell growth and differentiation (NXN). We also found suggestive evidence for three additional loci associated with CRC risk near genome-wide significance at 8q24.11, 10q21.1 and 10q24.2. Furthermore, we replicated 22 previously reported CRC-associated loci. Our study provides insights into the genetic basis of CRC and suggests the involvement of new biological pathways.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 24836286
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  • 10
    Keywords: COHORT ; HETEROCYCLIC AMINES ; POLYMORPHISMS ; smoking ; COLON-CANCER ; CONSUMPTION ; EXCISION-REPAIR ; GENETIC SUSCEPTIBILITY ; GENOME-WIDE ASSOCIATION ; POULTRY INTAKE
    Abstract: Background: Red meat intake has been associated with risk of colorectal cancer, potentially mediated through heterocyclic amines. The metabolic efficiency of N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) required for the metabolic activation of such amines is influenced by genetic variation. The interaction between red meat intake, NAT2 genotype, and colorectal cancer has been inconsistently reported. Methods: We used pooled individual-level data from the Colon Cancer Family Registry and the Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium. Red meat intake was collected by each study. We inferred NAT2 phenotype based on polymorphism at rs1495741, highly predictive of enzyme activity. Interaction was assessed using multiplicative interaction terms in multivariate-adjusted models. Results: From 11 studies, 8,290 colorectal cancer cases and 9,115 controls were included. The highest quartile of red meat intake was associated with increased risk of colorectal cancer compared with the lowest quartile [ OR, 1.41; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.29-1.55]. However, a significant association was observed only for studies with retrospective diet data, not for studies with diet prospectively assessed before cancer diagnosis. Combining all studies, high red meat intake was similarly associated with colorectal cancer in those with a rapid/intermediate NAT2 genotype (OR, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.20-1.59) as with a slow genotype (OR, 1.43; 95% CI, 1.28-1.61; P interaction = 0.9). Conclusion: We found that high red meat intake was associated with increased risk of colorectal cancer only from retrospective case-control studies and not modified by NAT2 enzyme activity. Impact: Our results suggest no interaction between NAT2 genotype and red meat intake in mediating risk of colorectal cancer.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 25342387
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