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  • GROWTH  (16)
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  • 1
    Keywords: RECEPTOR ; CANCER ; GROWTH ; GROWTH-FACTOR ; proliferation ; tumor ; CELL-PROLIFERATION ; PATHWAY ; RISK ; GENE ; GENES ; PROTEIN ; TUMORS ; RELEASE ; PATIENT ; BINDING ; ASSOCIATION ; polymorphism ; POLYMORPHISMS ; single nucleotide polymorphism ; VARIANTS ; BREAST ; breast cancer ; BREAST-CANCER ; hormone ; COLORECTAL-CANCER ; PROSTATE-CANCER ; cancer risk ; case-control studies ; SOMATOSTATIN ; CANCER PATIENTS ; nutrition ; FACTOR-I ; BINDING PROTEIN ; SERUM ; SINGLE ; IGF-I ; BINDING-PROTEIN ; case-control study ; ASSOCIATIONS ; RE ; VARIANT ; SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE POLYMORPHISMS ; cell proliferation ; development ; GROWTH-FACTOR-I ; BINDING PROTEIN-3 ; LEVEL ; case control studies ; GENOTYPE DATA ; FACTOR (IGF)-I ; PREMENOPAUSAL WOMEN ; IGFBP3 ; insulin-like growth factor ; PLASMA-LEVELS ; SERUM-LEVELS
    Abstract: Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) stimulates cell proliferation and can enhance the development of tumors in different organs. Epidemiologic studies have shown that an elevated level of circulating IGF-I is associated to increased risk of breast cancer as well as other cancers. Genetic variants affecting the release or biological action of growth hormone (GH), the main stimulator of IGF-I production, may predict circulating levels of IGF-I and have an effect on cancer risk. We tested this hypothesis with a large case-control study of 807 breast cancer patients and 1,588 matched control subjects nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. We genotyped 22 common single nucleotide polymorphisms in 10 genes involved in GH production and action (GHRH, GHRHR, SST, SSTR1-SSTR5, POU1F1, and GH1), and in parallel, we measured serum levels of IGF-I and IGFBP-3, its major binding protein, in samples of cases and controls. SST and SSTR2 polymorphisms showed weak but statistically significant associations with breast cancer risk. SSTR5 polymorphisms were associated with IGF-I levels, whereas one polymorphism in GHRHR and one in POU1F1 were associated with IGFBP-3 levels. Our conclusion is that common genetic variation in the GH synthesis pathway, as measured by single nucleotide polymorphisms selected in the present study, is not a major determinant of IGF-I and IGFBP-3 circulating levels, and it does not play a major role in altering breast cancer risk
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 16214911
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  • 2
    Keywords: CANCER ; GROWTH ; BLOOD ; DENSITY ; COHORT ; RISK ; SAMPLES ; TISSUE ; TIME ; BREAST ; breast cancer ; BREAST-CANCER ; hormone ; HEALTH ; DESIGN ; WOMEN ; cancer risk ; QUANTITATIVE-ANALYSIS ; nutrition ; FACTOR-I ; POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN ; SERUM ; FEATURES ; ONCOLOGY ; REGRESSION ; INCREASE ; development ; GROWTH-FACTOR-I ; LEVEL ; biomarker ; analysis ; methods ; SERUM-LEVELS ; PREMENOPAUSAL ; prospective ; IGF-BINDING PROTEIN-3 ; cancer research ; RISK-FACTOR ; CANCER-RISK ; CIRCULATING LEVELS ; IGFBP-3 ; FACTOR SYSTEM ; insulin-like growth factor-I ; MAMMOGRAPHIC DENSITIES
    Abstract: Background: A high proportion of glandular and stromal tissue in the breast (percentage breast density) is a strong risk factor for breast cancer development. Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) is hypothesized to influence breast cancer risk by increasing breast density. Objectives: We studied the relation between premenopausal circulating IGF-I levels and premenopausal and postmenopausal, absolute nondense and dense area, and percentage breast density as well as changes in these measures over menopause. Design and Methods: Mammograms and blood samples of 684 premenopausal participants of the Prospect-European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort were collected at baseline. A second mammogram of these women was collected after they became postmenopausal. Premenopausal IGF-I levels were measured in serum. Premenopausal and postmenopausal breast measures were assessed using a computer-assisted method. Mean values of breast measures were calculated for quartiles of serum IGF-I using linear regression analysis. Results: Women with higher premenopausal IGF-I levels showed a slightly smaller decrease in dense area over menopause (-12.2 cm(2) in the highest versus -12.9 cm(2) in the lowest quartile; P trend = 0.58) and, at the same time, a smaller increase in the nondense (fat) area (P trend = 0.09). Due to the changes over menopause, high premenopausal IGF-I serum levels were associated with lower nondense area (P trend = 0.05), somewhat higher dense area (P trend = 0.66), and consequently higher percentage breast density (P trend = 0.02) after menopause. Conclusion and Discussion: Women with higher premenopausal IGF-I levels have a smaller increase in nondense area and also a slightly smaller decrease in absolute dense area during menopause, resulting in higher breast density after menopause
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 17372240
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  • 3
    Keywords: CANCER ; GROWTH ; GROWTH-FACTOR ; BLOOD ; DENSITY ; COHORT ; NEW-YORK ; RISK ; GENE ; SAMPLE ; SAMPLES ; TISSUE ; primary ; RISK-FACTORS ; polymorphism ; POLYMORPHISMS ; single nucleotide polymorphism ; BREAST ; breast cancer ; BREAST-CANCER ; CARE ; DESIGN ; WOMEN ; SNP ; risk factors ; PROSTATE-CANCER ; cancer risk ; RECRUITMENT ; BINDING-PROTEINS ; NETHERLANDS ; POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN ; menopause ; SERUM ; ONCOLOGY ; RE ; INCREASE ; SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE POLYMORPHISMS ; SNPs ; GROWTH-FACTOR-I ; ALLELES ; LEVEL ; methods ; HAPLOTYPE ; GENOTYPE DATA ; USA ; PREMENOPAUSAL ; prospective study ; mammographic density ; RISK-FACTOR ; CANCER-RISK ; CIRCULATING LEVELS ; MULTIETHNIC COHORT ; Insulin-Like Growth Factor I ; NOV ; postmenopausal ; quantitative ; block ; breast density ; IGF1 ; breast cancer risk ; NUCLEOTIDE ; APOLIPOPROTEIN-E ISOFORMS ; Prospect-EPIC
    Abstract: Introduction High breast density is one of the strongest known risk factors for developing breast cancer. Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) is a strong mitogen and has been suggested to increase breast cancer risk by increasing the amount of dense tissue in the female breast. Objectives We wanted to investigate the effect of common variation in the IGF-1 gene on serum IGF-I levels and on breast density. Design and methods Mammograms and blood samples of 1,928 premenopausal participants of the Dutch Prospect-EPIC cohort were collected at baseline. Using a haplotype tagging approach, 16 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) from three blocks covering the IGF-1 gene were genotyped in all study participants. Breast density was assessed using a quantitative computer-assisted method. For a subgroup of women, who went through menopause within 5 years after recruitment (n = 656), premenopausal IGF-I levels and additionally postmenopausal breast density were determined. False positive report probabilities (FPRP) for statistically significant relations were calculated using the Wacholder method. Results The minor alleles of five SNPs in block 3 were significantly associated with elevated levels of IGF-I (rs9989002, rs2033178, rs7136446, rs978458, rs6220; P-values: 0.01-0.04). The same SNPs were related with modestly higher percent breast density before menopause and-in the subgroup of women that became postmenopausal during follow-up-with a modestly higher percent breast density after menopause. The most significant result, i.e. the relation between rs6220 and IGF-I levels, had an FPRP 〈 0.5 assuming prior probabilities of 0.01 and higher. Conclusion Common genetic variation in the IGF-1 gene is related to circulating levels of IGF-I, but the relationship with breast density is indecisive
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 18064566
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  • 4
    Keywords: GROWTH ; nutrition ; ESTRADIOL ; POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN ; ESTROGEN ; FEMALE NOBLE RATS ; STEROID-HORMONES ; androgens ; FREE TESTOSTERONE ; ORDET COHORT
    Abstract: Results from prospective studies on premenopausal serum hormone levels in relation to breast cancer risk have been inconclusive, especially with regard to tumor subtypes. Using a case-control study nested within the prospective European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort (801 breast cancer cases and 1,132 matched control subjects), we analyzed the relationships of prediagnostic serum estradiol, free estradiol, progesterone, testosterone, free testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) levels with the risk of breast cancer by estrogen and progesterone receptor-positive and -negative breast tumors and by age at diagnoses. Higher prediagnostic serum levels of testosterone and free testosterone were associated with an increased overall risk of breast cancer [ORQ4-Q1=1.56 (95% CI 1.15-2.13), p(trend)=0.02 for testosterone and ORQ4-Q1=1.33 (95% CI 0.99-1.79), p(trend)=0.04 for free testosterone], but no significant risk association was observed for estradiol, free estradiol, progesterone and SHBG. Tests for heterogeneity between receptor-positive and -negative tumors were not significant. When analysis were stratified by age at tumor diagnosis, the odds ratios observed for estradiol were stronger and borderline significant for breast cancer diagnosed at age less than 50 [ORQ4-Q1=1.32 (95% CI 0.87-2.01), p(trend)=0.05] compared to breast cancer diagnosed at age 50 or above [ORQ4-Q1=0.94 (95% CI 0.60-1.47), p(trend)=0.34, p(het)=0.04]. In conclusion, our data indicate that higher premenopausal circulating testosterone levels are associated with an increased risk of developing breast cancer, but do not show a significant association of estradiol or progesterone with breast cancer risk, overall, by menstrual cycle phase or by tumor receptor status, although a possible risk increase with higher estradiol levels for tumors diagnosed before age 50 was seen.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 24155248
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  • 5
    Keywords: CANCER ; GROWTH ; PROTEIN ; BINDING ; BREAST ; breast cancer ; BREAST-CANCER ; hormone ; lifestyle ; ASSAY ; DESIGN ; WOMEN ; case-control studies ; BODY ; body mass index ; QUESTIONNAIRE ; FACTOR-I ; LIFE-STYLE ; POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN ; BINDING PROTEIN ; MASS INDEX ; SERUM ; IGF-I ; case-control study ; REGRESSION ; REPRODUCTIVE FACTORS ; RE ; WEIGHT ; PHYSICAL-ACTIVITY ; HEIGHT ; GROWTH-FACTOR-I ; WAIST ; LEVEL ; case control studies ; ASSAYS ; FACTOR (IGF)-I ; PREMENOPAUSAL WOMEN ; SERUM-LEVELS ; HORMONES ; BMI ; cross-sectional studies ; CIRCULATING LEVELS ; IGFBP-3 ; hip ; ENDOGENOUS HORMONES ; FACTOR BINDING-PROTEIN-3 CONCENTRATIONS ; HORMONE-BINDING-PROTEIN ; nonlinear ; NUTRITIONAL REGULATION ; WAIST CIRCUMFERENCE ; waist-hip ratio
    Abstract: Objective: To examine the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and waist-hip ratio (WHR) with serum levels of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), and its binding protein (IGFBP)-3. Design: Cross-sectional study on 2139 women participating in a case-control study on breast cancer and endogenous hormones. Data on lifestyle and reproductive factors were collected by means of questionnaires. Body height, weight, waist and hip circumferences were measured. Serum levels of IGF-I and insulin-like binding protein (IGFBP)-3 were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Adjusted mean levels of IGF-I and IGFBP-3 across quintiles of BMI, waist circumference, and WHR were calculated by linear regression. Results were adjusted for potential confounders associated with IGF-I and IGFBP-3. Results: Adjusted mean serum IGF-I values were lower in women with BMI 〈 22.5 kg/m(2) or BMI 〉 29.2 kg/m(2) compared to women with BMI within this range (P-heterogeneity 〈 0.0001, P-trend = 0.35). Insulin-like growth factor-I was not related to WHR after adjustment for BMI. IGF-binding protein-3 was linearly positively related to waist and WHR after mutual adjustment. The molar ratio IGF-I/IGFBP-3 had a non-linear relation with BMI and a linear inverse relationship with WHR (P-trend = 0.005). Conclusions: Our data confirm the nonlinear relationship of circulating IGF-I to total adiposity in women. Serum IGFBP-3 was positively related to central adiposity. These suggest that bioavailable IGF-I levels could be lower in obese compared to non-obese women and inversely related to central adiposity
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 16552400
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  • 6
    Keywords: CANCER ; GROWTH ; IN-VITRO ; human ; VITRO ; FOLLOW-UP ; COHORT ; incidence ; RISK ; RISK-FACTORS ; ASSOCIATION ; BREAST ; breast cancer ; BREAST-CANCER ; ACIDS ; HUMANS ; WOMEN ; risk factors ; cancer risk ; RECRUITMENT ; fatty acids ; DIETARY ; CONSUMPTION ; EPIC ; nutrition ; CALIBRATION ; RELATIVE RISK ; DIETARY-INTAKE ; SERUM PHOSPHOLIPIDS ; ADIPOSE-TISSUE ; POLYUNSATURATED FATTY-ACIDS ; POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN ; ASSOCIATIONS ; INTERVAL ; prospective ; MEAT INTAKE ; RISK-FACTOR ; CANCERS ; CANCER-RISK ; fish consumption ; N-3
    Abstract: There is current interest in fish consumption and marine omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids and breast cancer risk. Some in vitro and animal studies have suggested an inhibitory effect of marine n-3 fatty acids on breast cancer growth, but the results from epidemiological studies that have examined the association between fish consumption and breast cancer risk in humans are inconsistent. We examined fish consumption and breast cancer risk in 310,671 women aged between 25 and 70 yr at recruitment into the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). The participants completed a dietary questionnaire between 1992-98 and were followed up for incidence of breast cancer for a median of 6.4 yr. Hazard ratio for breast cancer by intake of total and lean and fatty fish were estimated, stratified by study centre and adjusted for established breast cancer risk factors. During follow-up, 4,776 invasive incident breast cancers were reported. No significant associations between intake of total fish and breast cancer risk were observed, hazard ratio (HR) 1.01 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.99-1.02; p = 0.28 per 10 g fish/day). When examining lean and ratty fish separately, we round a positive significant association only in the highest quintile for fatty fish (HR 1.13, 95% CI 1.01-1.26), but test for trend was not significant (p = 0.10). No associations with breast cancer risk were observed when the study participants were subdivided by menopausal status. Although the period of follow-up is relatively short, the results provide no evidence for an association between fish intake and breast cancer risk. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 16470807
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  • 7
    Keywords: CANCER ; GROWTH ; MODELS ; FOLLOW-UP ; COHORT ; RISK ; PROTEIN ; breast cancer ; BREAST-CANCER ; WOMEN ; COLORECTAL-CANCER ; DIET ; CALCIUM ; POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN ; GROWTH-FACTOR-I ; ELDERLY-MEN ; FACTOR (IGF)-I ; PREMENOPAUSAL WOMEN ; CIRCULATING LEVELS ; IGFBP-3 ; FACTOR SYSTEM ; VITAMIN-D ; insulin-like growth factor-I ; insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 ; milk ; NUTRITIONAL FACTORS ; SOMATOMEDIN-C
    Abstract: Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the relationship of diet with serum insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and IGF-binding protein-3 in women. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting and subjects: The population are 2109 women who were control subjects in a case-control study of breast cancer nested in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. Control subjects were randomly chosen among risk sets consisting of female cohort members alive and free of cancer (except non-melanoma skin cancer) at the time of diagnosis of the index case. Matching criteria were age at enrolment, follow-up time, time of the day of blood collection and study centre. Diet was measured through validated questionnaires. Serum hormone concentrations were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. The relationship between serum IGF-I, IGFBP-3, and intake of nutrients and foods was explored by linear regression in models adjusted for energy intake, age, body mass index, smoking, physical activity, centre and laboratory batch. Results: Serum IGF-I levels were positively related to protein intake (P-trend 〈 0.001), but not related to energy, fat or carbohydrate intake. Positive relationships were observed with the intake of milk (P-trend = 0.007), calcium (P-trend 〈 0.001), magnesium (P-trend = 0.003), phosphorus (P-trend 〈 0.001), potassium (P-trend = 0.002), vitamin B6 (P-trend = 0.03), vitamin B2 (P-trend = 0.001) and inverse relationships with vegetables (P-trend = 0.02) and beta-carotene (P-trend = 0.02). IGFBP-3 was not related with most of the nutrients and foods in this study. Conclusions: In this population, circulating IGF-I is modestly related with the intake of protein and minerals, and with milk and cheese, while IGFBP-3 does not appear to be related with diet
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 16900085
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  • 8
    Keywords: PEPTIDE ; CANCER ; GROWTH ; RISK ; PROTEIN ; PROTEINS ; MECHANISM ; RISK-FACTORS ; mechanisms ; ASSOCIATION ; hormone ; HEALTH ; WOMEN ; OBESITY ; RISK FACTOR ; body mass index ; nutrition ; insulin ; BINDING-PROTEIN ; ASSOCIATIONS ; GROWTH-FACTOR-I ; BODY-MASS INDEX ; FACTOR (IGF)-I ; body height ; INCREASED RISK ; C-PEPTIDE ; FACTOR BINDING-PROTEIN-3 CONCENTRATIONS ; insulin-like growth factor binding proteins ; Insulin-Like Growth Factor I
    Abstract: Background: Height and BMI are risk factors for several types of cancer and may be related to circulating concentrations of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), a peptide associated with increased cancer risk. Aim: To assess the associations between height, BMI and serum concentrations of IGF-I and IGF binding protein (IGFBP)-1, -2 and -3. Subjects and methods: This cross-sectional analysis included 1142 men and 3589 women aged 32-77 years from the multi-centre study, the European Prospective Investigation of Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Results: In men, there was a positive association between height and IGF-I; each 10 cm increment in height was associated with an increase in IGF-I concentrations of 4.3% (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.3-7.5%, p for trend = 0.005), but this association was not statistically significant for women (0.9%, 95% CI: - 0.7 to 2.6%, p for trend = 0.264). In both men and women, the association between IGF-I and BMI was non-linear and those with a BMI of 26-27 kg/m(2) had the highest IGF-I concentration. BMI was strongly inversely related to concentrations of IGFBP-1 and IGFBP-2 in men and in women (p for trend for all 〈 0.001). Conclusion: Height and BMI are associated with IGF-I and its binding proteins, which may be mechanisms through which body size contributes to increased risk of several cancers.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 20731527
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  • 9
    Keywords: CANCER ; GROWTH ; GROWTH-FACTOR ; RISK ; PROTEIN ; BINDING ; ASSOCIATION ; BREAST-CANCER ; WOMEN ; Jun ; LIFE-STYLE ; POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN ; insulin ; IGF-I ; BINDING-PROTEIN ; RE ; GROWTH-FACTOR-I ; BINDING PROTEIN-3 ; anthropometry ; BODY-MASS INDEX ; ENERGY-BALANCE ; FACTOR (IGF)-I ; POLYCYSTIC-OVARY-SYNDROME ; PREMENOPAUSAL WOMEN ; sex-steroid hormones
    Abstract: Objectives: The risk of some cancers is positively associated with body weight, which may influence circulating levels of sex-steroid hormones, insulin and IGF-I. Interrelationships between these hormones and the associations with adiposity were evaluated in healthy women participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Methods: A cross-sectional analysis was performed on anthropometric and hormonal data from 743 pre- and 1217 postmenopausal women. Body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference were used as indicators of adiposity. C-peptide, Insulin Growth Factor (IGF)-I, Insulin Growth Factor binding protein (IGFBP)-3, androgens, estrogens and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) were measured by immunoassays; free sex steroid concentrations were calculated. Results: BMI and waist circumference were positively correlated with estrogens in postmenopausal women and with C-peptide, free testosterone and inversely with SHBG in all women. C-peptide and IGF-I were inversely correlated with SHBG, and positively with free sex steroids in postmenopausal women. IGF-I was positively associated with postmenopausal estrogens and androgen concentrations in all women. Conclusions: Sex-steroid concentrations appear to be regulated along several axes. Adiposity correlated directly with estrogens in postmenopausal women and with insulin, resulting in lower SHBG and increased levels of free sex steroids. Independent of adiposity and insulin, IGF-I was associated with decreased SHBG levels, and increased concentrations of androgens and postmenopausal estrogens
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 15986111
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  • 10
    Keywords: RECEPTOR ; CANCER ; GROWTH ; GROWTH-FACTOR ; Germany ; RISK ; GENE ; GENES ; PROTEIN ; LIGAND ; INDEX ; CARCINOGENESIS ; CELL-LINES ; ASSOCIATION ; polymorphism ; POLYMORPHISMS ; single nucleotide polymorphism ; VARIANTS ; BREAST ; breast cancer ; BREAST-CANCER ; STIMULATION ; NUMBER ; cancer risk ; case-control studies ; EPIC ; nutrition ; FOOD ; FOOD-INTAKE ; insulin ; BODIES ; ONCOLOGY ; case-control study ; RE ; VARIANT ; INCREASE ; HEIGHT ; GROWTH-FACTOR-I ; LEVEL ; CANCER DEVELOPMENT ; single-nucleotide polymorphism ; MASS ; BODY-MASS INDEX ; IGFBP3 ; prospective ; CANCER-RISK ; CIRCULATING LEVELS ; ENGLAND ; IGFBP-3 ; FACTOR-BINDING ; body mass ; breast cancer risk ; European Prospective Investigation into Cancer ; genetic variants ; DES-ACYL GHRELIN ; EXTREMELY OBESE CHILDREN ; GROWTH-HORMONE SECRETAGOGUE ; HEALTHY NORMAL-WEIGHT ; LEU72MET POLYMORPHISM ; PLASMA GHRELIN ; PREPROGHRELIN ISOFORM
    Abstract: Ghrelin, an endogenous ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor, has two major functions: the stimulation of the growth hormone production and the stimulation of food intake. Accumulating evidence also suggests a role of ghrelin in cancer development. We conducted a case-control study on 1359 breast cancer cases and 2389 matched controls, nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition, to examine the association of common genetic variants in the genes coding for ghrelin (GHRL) and its receptor (GHSR) with anthropometric measures, circulating insulin growth factor I (IGF-I) and insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 3 and breast cancer risk. Pair-wise tagging was used to select the 15 polymorphisms that represent the majority of common genetic variants across the GHRL and GHSR genes. A significant increase in breast cancer risk was observed in carriers of the GHRL rs171407-G allele (odds ratio: 1.2; 95% confidence interval: 1.0-1.4; P = 0.02). The GHRL single-nucleotide polymorphism rs375577 was associated with a 5% increase in IGF-I levels (P = 0.01). A number of GHRL and GHSR polymorphisms were associated with body mass index (BMI) and height (P between 〈 0.01 and 0.04). The false-positive report probability (FPRP) approach suggests that these results are noteworthy (FPRP 〈 0.20). The results presented here add to a growing body of evidence that GHRL variations are associated with BMI. Furthermore, we have observed evidence for association of GHRL polymorphisms with circulating IGF-I levels and with breast cancer risk. These associations, however, might also be due to chance findings and further large studies are needed to confirm our results
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 18650939
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