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  • Cell & Developmental Biology  (2)
  • Gene order  (2)
  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    BioEssays 2 (1985), S. 263-267 
    ISSN: 0265-9247
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The small, relatively constant size and conservative evolution of chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) make it an ideal molecule for tracing the evolutionary history of plant species. At lower taxonomic levels, cpDNA variation is easily and conveniently assayed by comparing restriction patterns and maps, while at higher taxonomic levels, DNA sequencing and inversion analysis are the methods of choice for comparing chloroplast genomes. The study of cpDNA variation has already yielded important new insights into the origin and evolution of many agriculturally important crop plants, and promises to significantly enhance our phylogenetic understanding of the major lines of descent among land plants and algae.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    BioEssays 17 (1995), S. 1005-1008 
    ISSN: 0265-9247
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The most common form of the CO2-fixing enzyme rubisco is a form I enzyme, heretofore found universally in oxygenic phototrophs (cyanobacteria and plastids) and widely in proteobacteria. Two groups(1-4), however, now report that in dinoflagellate plastids the usual form I rubisco has been replaced by the distantly related form II enzyme, known previously only from anaerobic proteobacteria. This raises the important question of how such an oxygensensitive rubisco could function in an aerobic organism. Moreover, the dinoflagellate rubisco has unusual molecular properties: it is encoded as a polyprotein, by nuclear (rather than plastid) genes, and these genes contain noncanonical spliceosomal introns. The nuclear location and alphaproteobacterial affinity of dinoflagellate rubisco genes hint at a possible mitochondrial origin and highlight the extraordinary richness of lateral gene transfers, both between and within organisms, that have occurred during rubisco evolution.
    Additional Material: 1 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Current genetics 10 (1986), S. 823-833 
    ISSN: 1432-0983
    Keywords: Inverted repeat ; Gene order ; Chloroplast genome arrangement ; Vascular plant
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary We have constructed the first physical map of a gymnosperm chloroplast genome and compared its organization with those of a fern and several angiosperms by heterologous filter hybridization. The chloroplast genome of the gymnosperm Ginkgo biloba consists of a 158 kb circular chromosome that contains a ribosomal RNA-encoding inverted repeat approximately 17 kb in size. Gene mapping experiments demonstrate a remarkable similarity in the linear order and absolute positions of the ribosomal RNA genes and of 17 protein genes in the cpDNAs of Ginkgo biloba, the fern Osmunda cinnamomea and the angiosperm Spinacia oleracea. Moreover, filter hybridizations using as probes cloned fragments that cover the entirety of the angiosperm chloroplast genome reveal a virtually colinear arrangement of homologous sequence elements in these genomes representing three divisions of vascular plants that diverged some 200–400 million years ago. The only major difference in chloroplast genome structure among these vascular plants involves the size of the rRNA-encoding inverted repeat, which is only 10 kb in Osmunda, 17 kb in Ginkgo, and about 25 kb in most angiosperms. This size variation appears to be the result of spreading of the repeat through previously single copy sequences, or the reverse process of shrinkage, unaccompanied by any overall change in genome complexity.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-0983
    Keywords: Basidiomycotina ; Molecular evolution ; Transposition ; Length mutations ; Gene order
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary We constructed restriction-site and gene maps for mitochondrial DNAs from seven isolates of five species of Suillus (Boletaceae, Basidiomycotina). Each mitochondrial genome exists as a single circular chromosome, ranging in size from 36 to 121 kb. Comparisons within species and between two closely related species revealed that insertions and deletions are the major form of genome change, whereas most restriction sites are conserved. Among more distantly related species, size and restriction-site differences were too great to allow precise alignments of maps, but small clusters of putatively homologous restriction sites were found. Two mitochondrial gene orders exist in the five species. These orders differ only by the relative positions of the genes for ATPase subunit 9 and the small ribosomal RNA and are interconvertible by a single transposition. One of the two gene arrangements is shared by four species whose mitochondrial DNAs span the entire size range of 36 to 121 kb. The conservation of gene order in molecules that vary over three-fold in size and share few restriction sites demonstrates a low frequency of rearrangements relative to insertions, deletions, and base substitutions.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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