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  • diabetes  (6)
  • Geometridae  (5)
  • Springer  (11)
  • Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
  • Blackwell Science Pty
  • Macmillian Magazines Ltd.
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Publisher
  • Springer  (11)
  • Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
  • Blackwell Science Pty
  • Macmillian Magazines Ltd.
  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-0428
    Keywords: Glycaemic index ; leguminous seeds ; low blood glucose rise ; diabetes ; diabetic diet ; fat ; sugars ; protein
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Recently diabetic patients have been encouraged to increase their carbohydrate intake, but exact details of which foods to use are lacking. To determine whether sufficiently large differences existed to justify more specific dietary advice, we compared the glycaemic responses to 50 g carbohydrate portions of different foods, taken as breakfast test meals by groups of five to seven diabetic patients. Two-to threefold differences were seen amongst the 15 foods tested. The glycaemic responses for spaghetti, ‘All-bran’, rice and beans were significantly below those for bread, while ‘Cornflakes’ were above. Factors predicted to influence this were without effect, including: substituting wholemeal for white bread, increasing substantially the simple sugars (using ‘All-bran’ or bananas instead of wholemeal bread) and doubling meal protein by adding cottage cheese to bread. Paired comparisons of the glycaemic response to the five legumes with those of the seven other starchy foods (breads, spaghetti, rice, Cornflakes, oatmeal porridge and potatoes) showed that the mean peak rise in blood glucose concentration and mean area under the glucose curve after beans were 23 and 28% lower, respectively, than the mean for the other foods (p 〈 0.001). Such results suggest a potentially valuable role for dried leguminous seeds in carbohydrate exchanges for individuals with impaired carbohydrate tolerance. These large differences in the blood glucose response to different food cannot at present be predicted directly from tables of chemical composition. Nevertheless, physiological testing may both aid in understanding the factors responsible and help selection of the appropriate carbohydrate foods for the diabetic diet.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-0428
    Keywords: Artificial endocrine pancreas ; capillaryunit ; xenogeneic ; pancreatic islets ; transplantation ; diabetes
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary An implantable artificial endocrine pancreas consisting of a coiled single acrylic copolymer capillary surrounded by rat islets (1000/kg body weight) was implanted in 10 streptozotocin-alloxan diabetic dogs. About 5 h following implantation plasma glucose decreased from an initial mean value of 350 mg/dl to 150 mg/dl, and then to 100 mg/dl at 12 h. Plasma insulin increased to a mean of 39 mU/l (range 23–83 mU/l) at 5 h in the recipient animals. In addition a much improved plasma glucose disappearance rate (K = 1.9 ±0.3) with slightly delayed insulin responses was seen after intravenous glucose tolerance tests performed in 4 dogs at 7, 8, 10 and 18 h following implantation. These findings suggest that xenogeneic rat islets implanted as an artificial endocrine pancreas can improve glucose metabolism in the diabetic dog.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1420-9071
    Keywords: Aldose reductase inhibitors ; 1,2,4-triazolidine-3,5-diones ; 3,5-isoxazolidinediones ; diabetes
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract 1,2,4-Triazolidine-3,5-diones and the 3,5-isoxazolidinedione were, observed to be, potent inhibitors of rat lens aldose reductase activity. In vivo in streptozotocin-diabetic rats, selected agents at 20 mg/kg/day, orally for 21 days reduced significantly the sorbitol levels of rbc, lens and sciatic nerves, suggesting that these derivatives may have some usefulness to treat clinical complications of diabetes mellitus.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-0428
    Keywords: Hyperosmolar diabetic coma ; erythrocytes ; diabetes
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary In a study of 10 diabetic patients, each of whom was in a severely decompensated state, notable alteration of blood flow properties was observed in those six patients who were hyperosmolar. In this form of diabetic decompensation, whole blood filtration was distinctly impaired. The additional impairment was shown to be due to an accumulation of solute within the erythrocytes occurring as a consequence of hyper-osmolarity. The alterations in erythrocytes were revealed by Coulter blood count abnormalities and confirmed by osmotic fragility studies. When biochemical improvement was achieved in these patients, rapid resolution of the erythrocyte abnormalities occurred. Microvascular ischaemia due to such erythrocyte alterations may be a possible explanation for the characteristic cerebral disturbances of the hyperosmolar diabetic state. Altered blood flow properties would also promote vascular thrombosis, a common terminal event in the hyperosmolar non-ketotic syndrome with associated 50 per cent mortality. An improved design of the insulin and fluid replacement therapy for patients in hyperosmolar diabetic coma might be based on the findings of these and further studies.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Diabetologia 20 (1981), S. 583-584 
    ISSN: 1432-0428
    Keywords: Coulter mean red cell volume ; diabetes ; blood glucose ; glycosylated haemoglobin
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The Coulter mean red cell volume was found to be significantly elevated in a sample of 100 diabetic patients compared with 200 normal subjects (p 〈 0.01). There was no correlation between the mean red cell volume level and the type of diabetes, its method of treatment or degree of control as measured by random blood glucose and glycosylated haemoglobin levels.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1435-1463
    Keywords: Keywords: Oxidative stress ; diabetes ; aging ; advanced glycation endproducts ; lipid peroxidation.
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary. Many approaches have been undertaken to understand Alzheimer's disease (AD) but the heterogeneity of the etiologic factors makes it difficult to define the clincally most important factor determining the onset and progression of the disease. However, there is increasing evidence that the previously so-called "secondary factors" such as a disturbed glucose metabolism, oxidative stress and formation of "advanced glycation endproducts" (AGEs) and their interaction in a vicious cycle are also important for the onset and progression of AD. AGEs are protein modifications that contribute to the formation of the histopathological and biochemical hallmarks of AD: amyloid plaques, neurofibrillary tangles and activated microglia. Oxidative modifications are formed by a complex cascade of dehydration, oxidation and cyclisation reactions, subsequent to a non-enzymatic reaction of sugars with amino groups of proteins. Accumulation of AGE-crosslinked proteins throughout life is a general phenomenon of ageing. However, AGEs are more than just markers of ageing since they can also exert adverse biologic effects on tissues and cells, including the activation of intracellular signal transduction pathways, leading to the upregulation of cytokine and free radical production (oxidative stress). Oxidative stress is involved in various divergent events leading to cell damage, including an increase in membrane rigidity, DNA strand breaks and an impairment in glucose uptake. In addition, other age-related metabolic changes such as depletion of antioxidants or decreased energy production by a disturbed glucose metabolism diminish the ability of the cell to cope with the effects of radical-induced membrane, protein and DNA damage. With our improving understanding of the molecular basis for the clinical symptoms of dementia, it is hoped that the elucidation of the etiologic causes, particularly the positive feedback loops involving radical damage and a reduced glucose metabolism, will help to develop novel "neuroprotective" treatment strategies able to interrupt this vicious cycle of oxidative stress and energy shortage in AD.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1573-1561
    Keywords: Lepidoptera ; Geometridae ; Operophtera bruceata (Hulst) ; Bruce spanworm ; Operophetra brumata L. ; winter moth ; sex pheromone ; (Z,Z,Z)-1,3,6,9-nonadecatetraene ; inhibitor ; (E,Z,Z)-1,3,6,9-nonadecatetraene
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract A single sex pherormone component was isolated from abdominal tip extracts of female Bruce spanworm.Operophtera bruceata (Hulst). This was identified as (Z,Z,Z)-1,3,6,9-nonadecatetraene by capillary gas chromatography (GC), electroantennography, and mass spectrometry. In addition, hexane extracts of female abdominal tips from Bruce spanworm and the winter moth.O. brumata L., were analyzed by GC coupled to an electroantennographic detector (GC-EAD). The extracts ofO. bruceata andO. brumata females elicited only a single response, at the same retention time, from antennae of their conspecific and reciprocal males. In field tests conducted in Saskatchewan, traps baited with the synthetic tetraene captured Bruce spanworm males. In tests carried out on Vancouver Island, British Columbia, where the two species coexist, both Bruce spanworm and winter moth males were captured. The attractancy of lures containing the synthetic pheromone alone and in combination with several structurally related analogs was field tested at both locations. One of these, an isomer of the natural pheromone, (E,Z,Z)-1,3,6,9-nonadecatetraene, inhibited the capture of Bruce spanworm males but had no effect upon the number of winter moth males which were taken. Thus, populations of these two very similar species can be distinguished by employing traps baited with pheromone ± the inhibitor. Coneorifice Hara traps were found useful for field trapping males of both species.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1573-1561
    Keywords: Pheromone ; sex attractant ; Noctuidae ; Geometridae ; epoxide
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract Pheromone components and sex attractant blends consisting of 3Z,6Z,9Z-triene hydrocarbons and racemic and chiral forms of3Z,6Z-cis-9, 10-epoxydienes have been elucidated for two noctuid and one geometrid moth species. MaleEuclidea cuspidea moths were attracted to blends of 3Z,6Z,9Z-heneicosatriene (3Z,6Z,9Z-21∶H) with 3Z,6Z-cis-9,10-epoxyheneicosadiene (3Z,6Z-cis-9,10-epoxy-21∶H). In addition to these compounds, 3Z,6Z,9Z-20∶H, and two regioisomeric C21 epoxides were tentatively identified in pheromone gland extracts.Caenurgina distincta moths were attracted by an 8∶∶1 blend of 3Z,6Z,9Z-20∶H with3Z,6Z-cis- 9,10-epoxy-20∶H.Eupithecia annulata moths were attracted by either 3Z,6Z-cis-9,10-epoxy-20∶H or 3Z,6Z-cis-9,10-epoxy-21∶H, and by the 95,10R enantiomer of each epoxide. 3Z,6Z,9Z-21∶H and 3Z,6Z-cis-9,10-epoxy-21∶H were tentatively identified from pheromone glands. Pheromone components were identified by a combination of coupled gas chromatography-electroantennography, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and field bioassays.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1573-1561
    Keywords: Alsophila pometaria(Harris) ; fall cankerworm ; Lepidoptera ; Geometridae ; sex pheromone ; (Z,Z,Z,E)-3,6,9,11-nonadecatetraene ; (Z,Z,Z,Z)-3,6,9,11-nonadecatetraene ; (Z,Z,Z)-3,6,9-nonadecatriene ; synthesis ; hydrocarbons
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract (Z,Z,Z,E)-3,6,9,11-Nonadecatetraene and (Z,Z,Z,Z)-3,6,9,11-nonadecatetraene, sex pheromone components ofAlsophila pometaria, were synthesized by stereoselective Wittig reactions and found to be spectroscopically and chromatographically identical to isolated natural material. Flight-tunnel bioassays and field-trapping experiments confirmed that the two tetraenes together with (Z,Z,Z)-3,6,9-nonadecatriene are sex pheromone components. While traps baited with either tetraene individually captured conspecific males in field-trapping experiments, addition of the triene, which captured no males by itself, to either tetraene resulted in synergistic responses.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1573-1561
    Keywords: Alsophila pometaria (Harris) ; fall cankerworm ; Lepidoptera ; Geometridae ; sex pheromone ; (Z,Z,Z)-3,6,9-nonadecatriene ; (Z,Z,Z,E)-3,6,9,11-nonadecatetraene ; (Z,Z,Z,Z)-3,6,9,11-nonadecatetraene
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract A sex pheromone extract from fall cankerworm moths,Alsophila pometaria, attracted conspecific males in field tests. Four EAG-active components were isolated from the extract and identified by GC-MS, highfield PMR spectroscopy, and microchemical techniques asn-nonadecane (I), (Z,Z,Z)-3,6,9-nonadecatriene (II), (Z,Z,Z,E)-3,6,9,11-nonadecatetraene (III), and (Z,Z,Z,Z)-3,6,9,11-nonadecatetrane (IV). Studies of the behavioral responses of male moths in a flight tunnel to the isolated components showed II, III, and IV were the major components of the sex pheromone. No sex pheromone behavioral responses were observed for I.
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