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  • Germany  (10)
  • 1
    Keywords: Germany ; THERAPY ; COHORT ; MORTALITY ; GENDER DIFFERENCES ; PATTERNS ; HEALTH ; AGE ; WOMEN ; CIGARETTE-SMOKING ; MEN ; smoking ; UNITED-STATES ; TOBACCO ; SERIES ; PREVALENCE ; cigarette smoking ; TRENDS ; HABITS ; INITIATION ; RE ; INCREASE ; HEALTH-SURVEY ; duration ; BIRTH ; SPAIN ; cohort analysis ; HEALTH SURVEY ; smoking cessation ; smoking initiation
    Abstract: This study examines temporal differences in cigarette smoking initiation and cessation among male and female birth cohorts of 1926-1970 born in Germany. Based on the German Federal Health Survey 1998 the sample is divided into a series of 5-year sex-birth cohorts, beginning with those born between 1926 and 1930 and extending to those born between 1966 and 1970. The final data file consists of a sample of 5110 people. Ever-smoking prevalence among men varies from 60 to 70% between the birth cohorts, while in women born 1926-1930 ever-smoking increases from 20 to about 50% in those born 1966-1970. A reduction of the median age at starting smoking also takes place between the cohorts. With 8.5 years this decrease is more incisive among women, compared with a drop of 2 years among men. Regarding cessation patterns the analysis shows a Shift towards a shorter duration of smoking with succeeding birth cohorts, again this shift is More incisive in women. But even in the youngest cohort still more than 50% of ever-smokers smoke regularly for more than 25 years. In Germany tobacco-control activities are required in order to take antismoking actions that especially prevent youth from starting to smoke and that support smokers in quitting
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 16175053
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  • 2
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    Bundesgesundheitsblatt 53 (2), 144-151 
    Keywords: Germany ; MORTALITY ; prevention ; HEALTH ; smoking ; STRATEGIES ; CONSUMPTION ; INDUSTRY ; SCIENCE ; BARRIER ; TOBACCO PREVENTION ; Lobbying ; POLICY ; SCIENTISTS ; Tobacco control ; Tobacco industry
    Abstract: Structural measures of tobacco prevention are effective and cost-efficient measures to reduce tobacco consumption and the related health and economic consequences. However, Germany has been very reluctant in implementing tobacco control laws for several decades. Only recently has Germany increased its efforts in tobacco control, which has resulted in a decrease of tobacco consumption and in a decrease of smoking rates, especially in youths. This paper summarizes the evidence-based measures of tobacco prevention as well as the progress of recent German tobacco control policies. Finally, the barriers of further effective tobacco control policies are discussed and illustrated with examples. For decades, politics gave in to pressure and influence of lobbyists of the strong tobacco industry, which deceived the public and politics for their economic interests and in order to establish a high social acceptance of smoking. In addition, there is the phenomenon of "denialism", which means the convinced denial of scientific findings regarding smoking and smoking prevention in opponents of tobacco control, who are not directly affiliated with the tobacco industry
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 20069264
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  • 3
    Keywords: Germany ; LUNG-CANCER ; CANCER MORTALITY ; COHORT ; DEATH ; EXPOSURE ; POPULATION ; DIFFERENTIATION ; TIME ; CONTRAST ; FIELD ; prevention ; HEALTH ; DIFFERENCE ; AGE ; CIGARETTE-SMOKING ; smoking ; TOBACCO ; CHILDREN ; PREVALENCE ; CONSUMPTION ; SMOKERS ; INEQUALITIES ; birth cohorts ; LEISURE-TIME ; IMPLEMENTATION ; ADULT ; environmental tobacco smoke ; DETERMINANTS ; TOBACCO-SMOKE ; HIGH PREVALENCE ; intensity ; PREGNANCY ; BIRTH ; COSTS ; ADOLESCENTS ; German ; nonsmokers ; CONSEQUENCES ; GENDER-DIFFERENCES ; DEATHS ; youth adults
    Abstract: In consequence of the health hazards of smoking and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and the high prevalence in the German population there are more than 100,000 deaths annually in Germany. Still more than half of the German population ever starts smoking and currently about a third of the adult population and a fifth of the adolescents are smokers at present. Additionally about 55 percent of all non-smokers between the age of 18 and 79 are often exposed to ETS at home, at work or in their leisure time. A differentiation of smoking prevalence and of exposure to ETS concerning socio-economic determinants shows that social differences have grown with successive birth cohorts. Thus, significant social inequalities can be observed today. In contrast to this, gender differences are becoming increasingly irrelevant, particularly in smoking prevalence. Tobacco consumption and ETS therefore has become one high-priority field of action of health and prevention politics in Germany, which manifests in an improved tobacco control policy. International achievements in the implementation of a comprehensive tobacco control policy show however, that in Germany further efforts are needed to reduce smoking prevalence significantly
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
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  • 4
    Keywords: Germany ; SUPPORT ; EXPOSURE ; smoking ; FRANCE ; NETHERLANDS ; PUBLIC-HEALTH ; second-hand smoke ; socioeconomic status ; POLICY ; The Netherlands ; 4 COUNTRY SURVEY ; FREE LEGISLATION ; Health promotion ; IRELAND ; Public policy ; REPORTED COMPLIANCE ; VENUES
    Abstract: National level smoke-free legislation is implemented to protect the public from exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke (SHS). The first aim of this study was to investigate how successful the smoke-free hospitality industry legislation in Ireland (March 2004), France (January 2008), the Netherlands (July 2008), and Germany (between August 2007 and July 2008) was in reducing smoking in bars. The second aim was to assess individual smokers' predictors of smoking in bars post-ban. The third aim was to examine country differences in predictors and the fourth aim was to examine differences between educational levels (as an indicator of socioeconomic status). This study used nationally representative samples of 3147 adult smokers from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Europe Surveys who were surveyed pre- and post-ban. The results reveal that while the partial smoke-free legislation in the Netherlands and Germany was effective in reducing smoking in bars (from 88% to 34% and from 87% to 44%, respectively), the effectiveness was much lower than the comprehensive legislation in Ireland and France which almost completely eliminated smoking in bars (from 97% to 3% and from 84% to 3% respectively). Smokers who were more supportive of the ban, were more aware of the harm of SHS, and who had negative opinions of smoking were less likely to smoke in bars post-ban. Support for the ban was a stronger predictor in Germany. SHS harm awareness was a stronger predictor among less educated smokers in the Netherlands and Germany. The results indicate the need for strong comprehensive smoke-free legislation without exceptions. This should be accompanied by educational campaigns in which the public health rationale for the legislation is clearly explained.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 21497973
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  • 5
    Keywords: Germany ; TRIALS ; prevention ; PROGRAM ; RE ; ONSET ; ADOLESCENCE
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
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  • 6
    Keywords: Germany ; FOLLOW-UP ; TIME ; prevention ; AGE ; CIGARETTE-SMOKING ; smoking ; TOBACCO ; CHILDREN ; BEHAVIOR ; SMOKERS ; INITIATION ; ADULTS ; SMART ; ADOLESCENTS ; CAMPAIGN ; competition ; youth ; DONT START ; HIGH-SCHOOL-STUDENTS ; school-based intervention ; smoking prevention ; TOBACCO PREVENTION
    Abstract: Background. This study examines the effectiveness of the school-based campaign "Smoke-Free Class Competition" as a means of preventing young non-smokers from taking up smoking. Methods. Based on two measurements of the Heidelberg Children's Panel Study (1998 and 2000), a longitudinal sample of 1704 pupils was examined: 948 in the intervention group and 756 in the control group. In order to evaluate the effects of the intervention, we compared the smoking behavior in the intervention and the control group at two points in time, shortly before, and 18 months after the intervention, on an individual case basis. Results. (1) Stabilization of never-smoking rates: the proportion of pupils remaining a never-smoker at the follow-up is 62.1% in the intervention group and 61.5% in the control group (OR 1.02, 95% CI: 0.83-1.24); (2) Lowering of relapse rates among ex-smokers: the proportion of former smokers who had not started smoking again in the follow-tip is 45.1% in the intervention group and 41.4% in the control group (OR 1.07, 95% CI: 0.77-1.49). Conclusion. The "Smoke-Free Class Competition" did not prevent smoking among adolescents and does not appear to bean effective substitute to the complete ban of tobacco advertising, the abolition of vending machines and the creation of smoke-free environments in German schools. (c) 2005 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 16289314
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  • 7
    Keywords: Germany ; COHORT ; HISTORY ; PATTERNS ; AGE ; WOMEN ; CIGARETTE-SMOKING ; MEN ; smoking ; EVOLUTION ; TOBACCO ; PREVALENCE ; TRENDS ; education ; INITIATION ; DIFFUSION ; RE ; INCREASE ; GENDER ; PARTICIPANTS ; cohort analysis ; CESSATION ; health inequalities ; SES ; smoking uptake
    Abstract: Aims To investigate the evolution of the relationship between education and smoking behaviour (ever-smoking and age of initiation) among German birth cohorts of 1921-70. Participants A total of 5297 respondents to the German Federal Health Survey of 1998 were divided into 10-year sex-birth-education cohorts. Measurements Self-reported smoking histories (ever-smoking and the age of starting smoking). Findings There was an inversion of the educational gradient around the birth cohorts of 1931-40 for men and 1941-50 for women. For men, the educational cross-over in smoking was due to a stronger decrease of the ever-smoking prevalence of the highly educated compared to the least educated. In women it was due to a stronger increase in ever-smoking prevalence among the least educated compared to the highly educated. This educational cross-over effect was also be detected for the average age of starting smoking, and involved the same cohorts. Additionally, in the youngest birth cohorts the differences between the least and highest educated of each gender were greater than the differences between the genders. Conclusions The educational differences in smoking prevalence are stable in men but in women they are widening. Hence, socio-economic inequalities in health due to smoking will rise in women in the next decades, while they will stabilize in men
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 16771897
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  • 8
    Keywords: CANCER ; Germany ; DISEASE ; REDUCTION ; SUFFICIENT ; ASSOCIATION ; HEALTH ; WOMEN ; smoking ; PRODUCT ; STRATEGIES ; UNITED-STATES ; TOBACCO ; MYOCARDIAL-INFARCTION ; OUTCOMES ; ALCOHOL-CONSUMPTION ; EUROPE ; ORAL-CANCER ; pancreas ; PANCREATIC-CANCER ; PRODUCTS ; INHALATION ; CARDIOVASCULAR-DISEASE ; N-NITROSAMINES ; AID ; PREGNANCY ; oral cancer ; carcinogenic ; cardiovascular disease ; PUBLIC-HEALTH ; German ; outcome ; evidence ; CONSEQUENCES ; cardiovascular ; CONSTRUCTION WORKERS ; HARM REDUCTION ; ORAL MOIST SNUFF ; pregnant women ; PREGNANT-WOMEN ; SWEDISH SNUS
    Abstract: discussed critically against the background of the international debate about a proposed strategy of harm reduction, which involves offering smokeless tobacco as a smoking cessation aid. Smokeless tobacco products include chewing tobacco, oral tobacco and snuff for inhalation. These products are consumed without burning the tobacco. Smokeless tobacco products contain tobacco specific nitrosamines and several other carcinogenic substances and additives. Epidemiologic studies from North America, Europe, Asia and Africa provide sufficient evidence that smokeless tobacco causes oral cancer and cancer of the pancreas. The evidence for an association of smokeless tobacco with cardiovascular disease and diabetes is limited. Furthermore, there is some evidence for adverse pregnancy outcomes in pregnant women who use smokeless tobacco. The health consequences of smokeless tobacco products are
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
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  • 9
    Keywords: Germany ; HEALTH ; PROGRAM ; RE ; UNIT
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
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  • 10
    Keywords: Germany ; POPULATION ; TARGET ; prevention ; HEALTH ; smoking ; TARGETS ; CHILDREN ; CONSUMPTION ; INTERVIEW ; smoking cessation ; PASSIVE SMOKING ; ADOLESCENTS KIGGS ; Health targets ; Second hand smoke
    Abstract: The consortium gesundheitsziele.de has defined health targets and actions to reduce tobacco consumption of the general population. Five primary fields of action were defined: (1) tax increase, (2) ban of advertisements, (3) protection against second-hand smoking, (SHS) (4) support of smoking cessation, and (5) actions to avoid taking up smoking. The achievements in recent years are described by means of epidemiological studies and other specific data. (1) Tax increases led to a significant rise of cigarette prices. (2) A complete ban of advertisements has not yet been achieved. The tobacco industry shifted expenditures to fields where advertising is still allowed. (3) Many actions to foster protection against SHS could be implemented. Public awareness has been raised, the acceptance of smoking bans has grown, and exposure to SHS has been reduced. (4) Demand and supply of smoking cessation interventions have been enhanced. (5) Actions to avoid taking up smoking seem to be successful as the rate of smokers among young people has decreased, the number of never-smokers has increased, and a more critical attitude of non-smokers towards smoking could be observed. It is recommended that the above actions be continued because the capabilities of the structural, mass media, and behavioral interventions have not been fully exhausted
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 20101381
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