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  • 1
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    Bundesgesundheitsblatt 53 (2), 144-151 
    Keywords: Germany ; MORTALITY ; prevention ; HEALTH ; smoking ; STRATEGIES ; CONSUMPTION ; INDUSTRY ; SCIENCE ; BARRIER ; TOBACCO PREVENTION ; Lobbying ; POLICY ; SCIENTISTS ; Tobacco control ; Tobacco industry
    Abstract: Structural measures of tobacco prevention are effective and cost-efficient measures to reduce tobacco consumption and the related health and economic consequences. However, Germany has been very reluctant in implementing tobacco control laws for several decades. Only recently has Germany increased its efforts in tobacco control, which has resulted in a decrease of tobacco consumption and in a decrease of smoking rates, especially in youths. This paper summarizes the evidence-based measures of tobacco prevention as well as the progress of recent German tobacco control policies. Finally, the barriers of further effective tobacco control policies are discussed and illustrated with examples. For decades, politics gave in to pressure and influence of lobbyists of the strong tobacco industry, which deceived the public and politics for their economic interests and in order to establish a high social acceptance of smoking. In addition, there is the phenomenon of "denialism", which means the convinced denial of scientific findings regarding smoking and smoking prevention in opponents of tobacco control, who are not directly affiliated with the tobacco industry
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 20069264
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  • 2
    Keywords: Germany ; EPIDEMIOLOGY ; POPULATION ; RISK ; QUALITY ; RISK-FACTORS ; TARGET ; CARE ; HEALTH ; DESIGN ; STRESS ; AGE ; WOMEN ; risk factors ; smoking ; DATABASE ; DELIVERY ; POPULATIONS ; INFANTS ; OUTCOMES ; CHILDREN ; PREVALENCE ; CONSUMPTION ; SMOKERS ; asthma ; REGISTRY ; REGRESSION ; INCREASE ; ENVIRONMENTAL TOBACCO-SMOKE ; analysis ; methods ; PREGNANCY ; LUNG-FUNCTION ; RISK-FACTOR ; ENGLAND ; PUBLIC-HEALTH ; COTININE LEVELS ; INCREASES ; NOV ; outcome ; pregnant women ; PREGNANT-WOMEN ; CIGARETTE ; socioeconomic status ; FETAL ; PARTNER ; MATERNAL CIGARETTE-SMOKING ; PLACENTAL ABRUPTION ; psychosocial stress ; RESPIRATORY-FUNCTION
    Abstract: Objectives: Smoking during pregnancy greatly increases the risk of adverse fetal outcomes. This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of smoking during pregnancy and to identify social, behavioural and preventable perinatal risk factors. Study design: This study was based on a national registry, acquired in the 2005 German Perinatal Quality Survey, which contains data on 99.31% of deliveries in Germany. Methods: The database draws on prenatal and perinatal data on 668,085 newborns and 647,392 mothers at 917 maternity clinics. Bivariate methods and multiple logistic regression analyses were used. Results: Thirteen percent of pregnant women smoked at least one cigarette per day after becoming aware of their pregnancy. Median cigarette consumption among pregnant smokers was 10 cigarettes per day. The prevalence of smoking was higher than average among women of low socio-economic status (20%), women without a partner (23%) and pregnant women under 20 years of age (34%). Multiparous women and women suffering from psychosocial stress smoked more than the respective reference groups. In addition, pregnant smokers displayed major deficits in terms of prenatal care. Conclusions: This study identified risk groups with above-average smoking prevalence during pregnancy. These risk groups are key target populations for preventive measures. (c) 2008 The Royal Institute of Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 18632123
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  • 3
    Keywords: Germany ; TRIALS ; prevention ; PROGRAM ; RE ; ONSET ; ADOLESCENCE
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
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  • 4
    Keywords: CANCER ; Germany ; FOLLOW-UP ; INTERVENTION ; prevention ; HEALTH ; smoking ; RATES ; TOBACCO ; ORGANIZATION ; CONSUMPTION ; SMOKERS ; education ; GUIDELINES ; YOUNG ; ADULTS ; PROGRAM ; STANDARDS ; PARTICIPANTS ; smoking cessation ; cancer research ; PARTICIPATION ; PROGRAMS ; CESSATION ; ADOLESCENTS ; abstinence rate ; CAMPAIGN ; competition ; CONTESTS ; impact analysis ; QUIT ; quit-and-win ; smoke-free 2004 ; WIN-CAMPAIGNS ; youth
    Abstract: Background: In 2004, the German Cancer Research Center ("Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum" [DKFZ]), collaborating with the Federal Center for Health Education ("Bundeszentrale fur gesundheitliche Aufklarung 11 [BZgA]) and supported by the World Health Organization (WHO), carried out a population-related smoking cessation campaign entitled "Rauchfrei 2004" ("Smoke-free 2004"). Using mass-media communication, the campaign was intended to motivate as many smokers as possible to quit smoking for at least 4 weeks, so as to achieve, ideally, complete cessation of tobacco consumption. This prevention campaign explicitly included juvenile smokers. Methods: Within a 1-year follow-up survey, a 1/3 random sample was taken from a total of 4,358 juvenile participants whose smoking status by the end of the competition and 1 year later was evaluated according to international standards. Results: 42% of juvenile participants named monetary reasons, 33% health-related reasons as their chief motivation for participating in the competition. 61% of young adults questioned stated that they were abstinent at the end of the competition, i.e., at least for 4 weeks. 1 year later, 19% of juvenile participants stated to be nonsmokers. 12% of them stated to have been continuously abstinent for 12 months after the start of the competition. Conclusion: This publication is the first scientific evaluation of juvenile participation in a competition-based smoking cessation campaign. Although some methodological restrictions need to be taken into account, abstinence rates determined according to internationally applied WHO evaluation guidelines are significantly higher than the secular trend. Thus, the prevention approach presented here appears to be similarly effective as alternative intervention programs that tend to be more expensive
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 16977395
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  • 5
    Keywords: Germany ; DISEASE ; DISEASES ; EXPOSURE ; POPULATION ; WORKERS ; WOMEN ; MEN ; smoking ; SMOKERS ; ADULTS ; INCREASE ; ENVIRONMENTAL TOBACCO-SMOKE ; INTERVAL ; AGREEMENT ; PASSIVE SMOKING ; ACCEPTABILITY ; BARS ; COTININE ; FREE POLICIES ; populations survey ; REGULATIONS ; SECONDHAND SMOKE ; smoke-free restaurants ; smoking ban
    Abstract: Background and objective: Every year over 3300 non-smokers in Germany die from diseases caused by passive smoking. It was the aim of this study to obtain countrywide representative opinions about a smoking ban in restaurants. Material and methods: Data were obtained from a cross-sectional sample of the population, 2 008 men and women aged 16 years or over. Opinions on smoking ban in restaurants were analysed by bivariate and multivariate methods with regard to potential influencing factors such as smoking status and sociodemographic status. Results: The majority of those questioned, namely 50% (95% confidence interval 57 - 61), wished for a smoking ban in restaurants. This represents an increase of 6% compared with the preceding year. While over 82% of neversmokers and 71% of previous smokers were in favor of a smoking ban, agreement for a ban among smokers averaged 25%, depending on the amount smoked. Agreement was especially common among women, the elderly and married persons. Three of four Germans said that they would continue to go to restaurants as frequently after smoking had been banned there. Conclusion: This is the first scientific study of opinions among the population on the smoking ban in restaurants of Germany. The current average approval rate for a ban was comparable to that among other nations. An overwhelming majority of the population would welcome a smoking ban and would, after its introduction, visit restaurants as often as previously
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 16981076
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  • 6
    Keywords: Germany ; FOLLOW-UP ; TIME ; prevention ; AGE ; CIGARETTE-SMOKING ; smoking ; TOBACCO ; CHILDREN ; BEHAVIOR ; SMOKERS ; INITIATION ; ADULTS ; SMART ; ADOLESCENTS ; CAMPAIGN ; competition ; youth ; DONT START ; HIGH-SCHOOL-STUDENTS ; school-based intervention ; smoking prevention ; TOBACCO PREVENTION
    Abstract: Background. This study examines the effectiveness of the school-based campaign "Smoke-Free Class Competition" as a means of preventing young non-smokers from taking up smoking. Methods. Based on two measurements of the Heidelberg Children's Panel Study (1998 and 2000), a longitudinal sample of 1704 pupils was examined: 948 in the intervention group and 756 in the control group. In order to evaluate the effects of the intervention, we compared the smoking behavior in the intervention and the control group at two points in time, shortly before, and 18 months after the intervention, on an individual case basis. Results. (1) Stabilization of never-smoking rates: the proportion of pupils remaining a never-smoker at the follow-up is 62.1% in the intervention group and 61.5% in the control group (OR 1.02, 95% CI: 0.83-1.24); (2) Lowering of relapse rates among ex-smokers: the proportion of former smokers who had not started smoking again in the follow-tip is 45.1% in the intervention group and 41.4% in the control group (OR 1.07, 95% CI: 0.77-1.49). Conclusion. The "Smoke-Free Class Competition" did not prevent smoking among adolescents and does not appear to bean effective substitute to the complete ban of tobacco advertising, the abolition of vending machines and the creation of smoke-free environments in German schools. (c) 2005 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 16289314
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  • 7
    Keywords: Germany ; HEALTH ; PROGRAM ; RE ; UNIT
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
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