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  • nipple discharge  (2)
  • Germline mutation  (1)
  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-7217
    Keywords: breast cancer ; duct endoscopy ; galactography ; intraductal biopsy of the breast ; nipple discharge
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Microdochectomy is usually performed on patients with nipple discharge caused by intraductal proliferative lesions, such as intraductal papilloma and carcinoma. But this operation often sacrifices large amounts of normal mammary gland even when the lesion is a benign intraductal papilloma a few millimeters in diameter. We have developed duct endoscopy for the mammary duct system, and have reliably performed biopsies for intraductal proliferative lesions intraductally. From June 1989 to April 1990, we examined 22 cases by duct endoscopy, and performed endoscopic biopsy in 16 cases. The method of endoscopic biopsy is as follows. First, a bougie is inserted, without anesthesia other than Xylocaine jelly, into the orifice of the duct to enlarge it. Second, the outer cylinder and the inner needle are inserted; then the inner needle is removed, and the endoscope is inserted. After examination, the outer cylinder is moved up to the lesion to be biopsied and the endoscope is taken out. Then a sample is taken into the outer cylinder by aspiration. We diagnosed 10 cases of benign lesion and 5 cases of malignant lesion by cytological and/or histological examination. In conclusion, endoscopic biopsy, aided by duct endoscopy, is a useful and harmless diagnostic procedure in the evaluation of nipple discharge.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-7217
    Keywords: breast cancer ; ductal carcinoma in situ ; Gadolinium-DTPA ; galactography ; magnetic resonance imaging ; nipple discharge
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract A new method of galactography using magnetic resonance imaging for a patient with nipple discharge is developed. The method is as follows; coronal T1-weight images are obtained after an injection of contrast medium of 1 mmol/L Gd-DTPA directly into the discharge duct, before and after rapid intravenous infusion of Gd-DTPA. A case of a 29-year-old woman with ductal carcinoma in situ with minimal invasion is reported, in which all portions of the entire discharge duct system is clearly shown as viewed from the surface and the surrounding area is enhanced with Gd-DTPA. The enhanced area is coincidental with the extent of the disease. This magnetic resonance galactography for patients with nipple discharge may be used to supplement conventional mammography and/or galactography especially for the evaluation of the extent of disease, although it is somewhat inferior to mammographic galactography in terms of differential diagnosis of ductal disease.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1435-232X
    Keywords: Key wordsBRCA1 ; BRCA2 ; Breast cancer family ; Germline mutation ; Missense mutation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Mutations in either of two recently identified genes, BRCA1 and BRCA2, are thought to be responsible for approximately two-thirds of all cases of autosomal-dominantly inherited breast cancer. To examine the nature and frequency of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations in Japanese families exhibiting a high incidence of breast cancer, we screened 78 unrelated families in this category for mutations of these two genes. Examining the entire coding sequences as well as exon–intron boundaries of both genes by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) and multiplex-SSCP analysis, we identified possible disease-causing alterations in BRCA1 among affected members of 15 families and in BRCA2 in another 14 families. In 15 of those 29 families, the affected individuals carried missense mutations, although most germline mutations reported worldwide have been deletions or nonsense mutations. Our results, indicating that missense mutations of BRCA1 and BRCA2 tend to predominate over frameshifts or nonsense mutations in Japanese breast cancer families, will contribute signifi-cantly to an understanding of mammary tumorigenesis in Japan, and will be of vital importance for future genetic testing.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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