Glomerular filtration rate
Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
Summary The sodium retaining effect of insulin was studied in ten Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetic patients (mean age 56 (43–73) years, mean body mass index 29.5 (24.2–33.7) kg/m2) and eight age-matched control subjects (mean age 57 (43–68) years, mean body mass index 23.4 (20.8–26.6) kg/m2). The renal clearances of 99mTc-DTPA, lithium, sodium and potassium were measured over a basal period of 90 min. Then insulin was infused at a rate of 40 mU·mirr−1·m−2. After an equilibration period of 90 min, the clearance measurements were repeated during a new 90 min period. Blood glucose was clamped at the basal level (diabetic patients: 9.9±3.5, control subjects: 5.3±0.5 mmol/l) by a variable glucose infusion. Basal plasma insulin concentration was elevated in the diabetic patients (0.12±0.05 vs 0.05±0.02 pmol/ml, p〈0.01). Insulin infusion resulted in comparable absolute increments in plasma insulin concentrations in the diabetic group and in the control group (0.44±0.13 vs 0.36±0.07 pmol/ml, NS). The metabolic clearance rate of glucose during the last 30 min of insulin infusion was lower in the diabetic patients (155±62 vs 320±69 ml·min−1·m2, p〈0.01), reflecting peripheral insulin resistance. The decline in sodium clearance during insulin infusion was similar in diabetic subjects (1.8±1.1 vs 0.7±0.4 ml·min−1·1.73 m−2, p〈 0.01) and in control subjects (1.7±0.3 vs 0.8±0.3 ml · min−1 · 1.73 m−2, p〈0.01). The glomerular filtration rate and lithium clearance was unchanged, consequently calculated distal tubular fractional sodium reabsorption increased (diabetic patients: 92.9±4.1 vs 97.1±1.5, p〈0.01, control subjects: 93.1±1.1 vs 96.5±0.6%, p〈 0.01). Estimated extracellular fluid volume was 10% higher in the diabetic subjects (16.3±2.1 vs 14.8±2.01·1.73 m−2, NS). In conclusion, the sodium retaining effect of insulin is preserved in Type 2 diabetic patients with peripheral insulin resistance. Insulin may contribute to sodium and fluid retention and thus to the increased frequency of hypertension in hyperinsulinaemic Type 2 diabetic patients.
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