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  • 1
    Keywords: brain ; EXPOSURE ; LONG-TERM ; POPULATION ; RISK ; meningioma ; HEALTH ; NUMBER ; COUNTRIES ; HEAD ; case-control study ; GLIOMA ; methods ; pooled analysis ; INCREASED RISK ; CANCER-RISK ; INTERNATIONAL CASE-CONTROL ; brain tumours ; CORDLESS TELEPHONES ; mobile phones ; SELECTION BIAS ; PHONE USE ; CELLULAR TELEPHONES ; NONDIFFERENTIAL MISCLASSIFICATION ; radiofrequency fields
    Abstract: Methods An interview-based case-control study with 2708 glioma and 2409 meningioma cases and matched controls was conducted in 13 countries using a common protocol. Results A reduced odds ratio (OR) related to ever having been a regular mobile phone user was seen for glioma [OR 0.81; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.70-0.94] and meningioma (OR 0.79; 95% CI 0.68-0.91), possibly reflecting participation bias or other methodological limitations. No elevated OR was observed 〉= 10 years after first phone use (glioma: OR 0.98; 95% CI 0.76-1.26; meningioma: OR 0.83; 95% CI 0.61-1.14). ORs were 〈 1.0 for all deciles of lifetime number of phone calls and nine deciles of cumulative call time. In the 10th decile of recalled cumulative call time, 〉= 1640 h, the OR was 1.40 (95% CI 1.03-1.89) for glioma, and 1.15 (95% CI 0.81-1.62) for meningioma; but there are implausible values of reported use in this group. ORs for glioma tended to be greater in the temporal lobe than in other lobes of the brain, but the CIs around the lobe-specific estimates were wide. ORs for glioma tended to be greater in subjects who reported usual phone use on the same side of the head as their tumour than on the opposite side. Conclusions Overall, no increase in risk of glioma or meningioma was observed with use of mobile phones. There were suggestions of an increased risk of glioma at the highest exposure levels, but biases and error prevent a causal interpretation. The possible effects of long-term heavy use of mobile phones require further investigation
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 20483835
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  • 2
    Keywords: CANCER ; Germany ; COMMON ; INFORMATION ; EXPOSURE ; HISTORY ; POPULATION ; RISK ; RISKS ; meningioma ; TISSUE ; IMPACT ; RISK-FACTORS ; TISSUES ; tumour ; FREQUENCY ; FIELD ; FREQUENCIES ; HEALTH ; DESIGN ; NUMBER ; risk factors ; COUNTRIES ; SWEDEN ; FRANCE ; NETHERLANDS ; case-control studies ; study design ; AUSTRALIA ; FINLAND ; case control study ; case-control study ; RE ; BRAIN-TUMORS ; INCREASE ; GLIOMA ; RECALL ; GLAND ; case control studies ; methods ; CELLULAR-TELEPHONE USE ; RISK-FACTOR ; CANCER-RISK ; E ; carcinogenic ; INCREASES ; case control ; acoustic neuroma ; brain tumours ; mobile phone ; MOBILE PHONE USE ; SETUP ; acoustic neurinoma ; benign tumours ; case-control ; CORDLESS TELEPHONES ; FIELDS ; mobile phones ; parotid gland tumours ; SELECTION BIAS
    Abstract: The very rapid worldwide increase in mobile phone use in the last decade has generated considerable interest in the possible health effects of exposure to radio frequency (RF) fields. A multinational case-control study, INTERPHONE, was set-up to investigate whether mobile phone use increases the risk of cancer and, more specifically, whether the RF fields emitted by mobile phones are carcinogenic. The study focused on tumours arising in the tissues most exposed to RF fields from mobile phones: glioma, meningioma, acoustic neurinoma and parotid gland tumours. In addition to a detailed history of mobile phone use, information was collected on a number of known and potential risk factors for these tumours. The study was conducted in 13 countries. Australia, Canada, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Israel, Italy, Japan, New Zealand, Norway, Sweden, and the UK using a common core protocol. This paper describes the study design and methods and the main characteristics of the study population. INTERPHONE is the largest case-control study to date investigating risks related to mobile phone use and to other potential risk factors for the tumours of interest and includes 2,765 glioma, 2,425 meningioma, 1,121 acoustic neurinoma, 109 malignant parotid gland tumour cases and 7,658 controls. Particular attention was paid to estimating the amount and direction of potential recall and participation biases and their impact on the study results
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 17636416
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  • 3
    Keywords: CANCER ; EPIDEMIOLOGY ; EXPOSURE ; RISK ; RISKS ; HEALTH ; BRAIN-TUMORS ; RECALL ; brain tumour ; vestibular schwannoma ; CANCER-RISK ; acoustic neuroma ; CORDLESS TELEPHONES ; mobile phones ; SELECTION BIAS ; PHONE USE ; CELLULAR TELEPHONES ; LOUD NOISE ; Radiofrequency electromagnetic fields
    Abstract: Background: The rapid increase in mobile telephone use has generated concern about possible health risks of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields from these devices. Methods: A case-control study of 1105 patients with newly diagnosed acoustic neuroma (vestibular schwannoma) and 2145 controls was conducted in 13 countries using a common protocol. Past mobile phone use was assessed by personal interview. In the primary analysis, exposure time was censored at one year before the reference date (date of diagnosis for cases and date of diagnosis of the matched case for controls); analyses censoring exposure at five years before the reference date were also done to allow for a possible longer latent period. Results: The odds ratio (OR) of acoustic neuroma with ever having been a regular mobile phone user was 0.85 (95% confidence interval 0.69-1.04). The OR for 〉= 10 years after first regular mobile phone use was 0.76 (0.52-1.11). There was no trend of increasing ORs with increasing cumulative call time or cumulative number of calls, with the lowest OR (0.48 (0.30-0.78)) observed in the 9th decile of cumulative call time. In the 10th decile (〉= 1640 h) of cumulative call time, the OR was 1.32 (0.88-1.97); there were, however, implausible values of reported use in those with 〉= 1640 h of accumulated mobile phone use. With censoring at 5 years before the reference date the OR for 〉= 10 years after first regular mobile phone use was 0.83 (0.58-1.19) and for 〉= 1640 h of cumulative call time it was 2.79(1.51-5.16). but again with no trend in the lower nine deciles and with the lowest OR in the 9th decile. In general, ORs were not greater in subjects who reported usual phone use on the same side of the head as their tumour than in those who reported it on the opposite side, but it was greater in those in the 10th decile of cumulative hours of use. Conclusions: There was no increase in risk of acoustic neuroma with ever regular use of a mobile phone or for users who began regular use 10 years or more before the reference date. Elevated odds ratios observed at the highest level of cumulative call time could be due to chance, reporting bias or a causal effect. As acoustic neuroma is usually a slowly growing tumour, the interval between introduction of mobile phones and occurrence of the tumour might have been too short to observe an effect, if there is one.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 21862434
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Kidney ; Glomerulus ; Ultrastructure ; Teleosts ; Seawater adaptation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The epithelial ultrastructure of the glomerulus of fresh- and sea-water adapted rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri was examined by scanning and transmission electron microscopy after in vivo-perfusion fixation. Adaptation to seawater for a period of up to 9 weeks was not associated with a change in glomerular size, although after one year in seawater both glomeruli and their capsules were significantly smaller than the glomeruli of freshwater adapted fish. In freshwater adapted trout the epithelial ultrastructure conformed to the general vertebrate pattern, with rounded podocytes, well-defined primary processes and interdigitating pedicels. Adaptation to seawater was associated with a marked increase in the frequency of cytoplasmic microprojections. In many glomeruli there was a flattening of the podocytes, broadening of the primary processes, and areas of closely-packed pedicels were common. These observations are discussed in the light of previous studies on the mammalian kidney and the changes of single nephron function known to be associated with adaptation of trout to increased environmental salinities.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Angiotensin II ; Glomerulus ; Salmo gairdneri ; Seawater-adaptation ; Ultrastructure
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The effect of angiotensin infusion on the glomerular ultrastructure of freshwater- and seawater-adapted rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri, has been examined by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Adaptation of trout to seawater resulted in epithelial podocyte flattening, primary process broadening and apparent loss of foot processes in almost all glomeruli, features which were uncommon in freshwater-adapted trout. Similar changes were induced by infusion of freshwater-adapted animals with angiotensin, suggesting that the renin-angiotensin system plays a role in the modification of glomerular epithelial ultrastructure. Adaptation of trout to seawater also reduced glomerular diameter, but infusion of freshwater-adapted animals with angiotensin did not mirror this effect. Infusion of angiotensin into seawater-adapted animals increased the overall thickness of glomerular basement membrane by increasing the lamina rara interna and lamina densa. This did not occur when freshwater-adapted fish were either infused with angiotensin or adapted to seawater. These findings suggest that other humoral systems are involved in the control of glomerular diameter and basement membrane thickness as part of an integrated response to increased environmental salinity.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Cell & tissue research 253 (1988), S. 377-381 
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Glomerulus ; Renal circulation ; Vascular casts ; Microcorrosion casts ; Glomerular bypass shunts ; Myxine glutinosa
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The vascular pathways associated with the glomerulus of the Atlantic hagfish, Myxine glutinosa have been studied by scanning electron microscopy of corroded resin casts of the vasculature. Although the overall pattern of the renal vasculature did not differ from earlier reports, a previously unreported vascular pathway which arose from the renal artery and bypassed the glomerular capillaries in 28% of glomeruli was clearly demonstrated. Glomerular bypass shunts either ran to join the loose capillary network around Bowman's capsule and thereby drain into the network of vessels associated with the mesonephric duct (ureter), or ran directly into the ureteral system of vessels and subsequently into the posterior cardinal veins. Glomerular bypass shunts which theoretically permit renal arterial blood to bypass the process of filtration may play a role in the regulation of body fluid volume.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Glomerulus ; Angiotensin II ; Glomerular ultrastructure ; Seawater adaptation ; Salmo gairdneri (Teleostei)
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Slices from the kidneys of the rainbow trout which were exposed to 10-6 or 10-5 M angiotensin II (AII) and isolated glomeruli exposed to 10-7 or 10-5 M AII showed ultrastructural changes compared to control tissues incubated without AII. The studies indicate that angiotensin II has a direct action on glomerular ultrastructure, flattening the epithelial podocytes and broadening the primary processes with fusion of pedicels in extreme cases. These changes suggest a probable effect of AII on water permeability of the trout glomerulus, an intrarenal action which is believed to form an essential part of the antidiuretic adaptation to increased environmental salinities.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Glomerulus ; Renal vasculature ; Vascular casts ; Microcorrosion casts ; Glomerular bypass shunts ; Scyliorhinus caniculus
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Scanning electron microscopy of corroded resin casts of the renal vasculature of Scyliorhinus caniculus has revealed a novel vascular pathway arising from the afferent arteriole and bypassing the glomerulus. This glomerulus bypass shunt occurred in 36% of the glomerular casts examined. The shunt ran to join a peritubular network of capillaries and thereby offers the potential to vary the degree of glomerular perfusion and control the proportion of active glomeruli. In 29% of glomeruli two efferent arterioles drained the capillary knot. Glomeruli were located close to the dorsal margin of the posterior mass of the kidney, and towards the lateral edge of the anterior lobes of the kidney of female dogfish. In male dogfish, glomeruli were evenly distributed through the posterior mass of kidney, while in female dogfish 89% of glomeruli occurred in the posterior mass and 11% of glomeruli were located within the small anterior lobes.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Kidney ; Glomerulus ; Angiotensin II ; Salmo gairdneri (Teleostei)
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Isolated glomeruli of the rainbow trout have been exposed in vitro to125I-angiotensin II (0.88 × 10−9 M) and binding sites located by light-microscopic autoradiography. These studies provide evidence of specific binding of angiotensin II by glomeruli. Binding was significantly inhibited by excess (10−5 M) unlabelled angiotensin II, but a high degree of non-specific binding also occurred. The mammalian competitive antagonist, saralasin (3 × 10−7 M) did not influence125I-angiotensin II binding to fish glomeruli. Intense binding of125I-angiotensin II was noted at the vascular pole of some glomeruli.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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