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  • HEALTH  (11)
  • MYOCARDIAL-INFARCTION  (4)
  • 1
    Keywords: RISK-FACTORS ; HEALTH ; smoking ; MYOCARDIAL-INFARCTION ; HYPERTENSION ; GENERAL-POPULATION ; PRIMARY-CARE ; SOUTHERN GERMANY ; METABOLIC-SYNDROME ; POMERANIA SHIP
    Abstract: Diabet. Med. 29, e88-e95 (2012) ABSTRACT: Aim In Germany, regional data on the prevalence of Type 2 diabetes mellitus are lacking for health-care planning and detection of risk factors associated with this disease. We analysed regional variations in the prevalence of Type 2 diabetes and treatment with antidiabetic agents. Methods Data of subjects aged 45-74 years from five regional population-based studies and one nationwide study conducted between 1997 and 2006 were analysed. Information on self-reported diabetes, treatment, and diagnosis of diabetes were compared. Type 2 diabetes prevalence estimates (95% confidence interval) from regional studies were directly standardized to the German population (31 December 2007). Results Of the 11 688 participants of the regional studies, 1008 had known Type 2 diabetes, corresponding to a prevalence of 8.6% (8.1-9.1%). For the nationwide study, a prevalence of 8.2% (7.3-9.2%) was estimated. Prevalence was higher in men (9.7%; 8.9-10.4%) than in women (7.6%; 6.9-8.3%). The regional standardized prevalence was highest in the east with 12.0% (10.3-13.7%) and lowest in the south with 5.8% (4.9-6.7%). Among persons with Type 2 diabetes, treatment with oral antidiabetic agents was more frequently reported in the south (56.9%) and less in the northeast (46.0%), whereas treatment with insulin alone was more frequently reported in the northeast (21.6%) than in the south (16.4%). Conclusion The prevalence of known Type 2 diabetes showed a southwest-to-northeast gradient within Germany, which is in accord with regional differences in the distribution of risk factors for Type 2 diabetes. Furthermore, the treatment with antidiabetic agents showed regional differences.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 22248078
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  • 2
    Keywords: RISK ; ASSOCIATION ; HEALTH ; INEQUALITIES ; MELLITUS ; LIFE-COURSE ; LOW-INCOME ; MULTILEVEL ANALYSIS ; MULTIPLE DEPRIVATION ; SMALL-AREA LEVEL
    Abstract: AIM: Our objective was to test the hypothesis that the prevalence of Type 2 diabetes increases with increasing regional deprivation even after controlling for individual socio-economic status. METHODS: We pooled cross-sectional data from five German population-based studies. The data set contained information on n = 11 688 study participants (men 50.1%) aged 45-74 years, of whom 1008 people had prevalent Type 2 diabetes (men 56.2%). Logistic multilevel regression was performed to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for diabetes prevalence. We controlled for sex, age and lifestyle risk factors, individual socio-economic status and regional deprivation, based on a new small-area deprivation measure, the German Index of Multiple Deprivation. RESULTS: Adjusted for sex, age, body mass index (BMI), physical activity, smoking status and alcohol consumption, the prevalence of Type 2 diabetes showed a stepwise increase in risk with increasing area deprivation [OR 1.88 (95% CI 1.16-3.04) in quintile 4 and OR 2.14 (95% CI 1.29-3.55) in quintile 5 compared with the least deprived quintile 1], even after controlling for individual socio-economic status. Focusing on individual socio-economic status alone, the risk of having diabetes was significantly higher for low compared with medium or high educational level [OR 1.46 (95% CI 1.24-1.71)] and for the lowest compared with the highest income group [OR 1.53 (95% CI 1.18-1.99)]. CONCLUSION: Regional deprivation plays a significant part in the explanation of diabetes prevalence in Germany independently of individual socio-economic status. The results of the present study could help to target public health measures in deprived regions.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 23127142
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  • 3
    Keywords: HEALTH ; PREVALENCE ; LIFE-STYLE ; INEQUALITIES ; HEART-DISEASE ; CARDIOVASCULAR RISK-FACTORS ; PHYSICAL-ACTIVITY ; INSULIN-RESISTANCE ; SOCIOECONOMIC-STATUS ; MULTILEVEL LOGISTIC-REGRESSION
    Abstract: The objective of this study was to investigate the association between residential environment and type 2 diabetes. We pooled cross-sectional data from 5 population-based German studies (1997-2006): the Cardiovascular Disease, Living and Ageing in Halle Study, the Dortmund Health Study, the Heinz Nixdorf Recall Study, the Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg Study, and the Study of Health in Pomerania. The outcome of interest was the presence of self-reported type 2 diabetes. We conducted mixed logistic regression models in a hierarchical data set with 8,879 individuals aged 45-74 years on level 1; 226 neighborhoods on level 2; and 5 study regions on level 3. The analyses were adjusted for age, sex, social class, and employment status. The odds ratio for type 2 diabetes was highest in eastern Germany (odds ratio = 1.98, 95% confidence interval: 1.81, 2.14) and northeastern Germany (odds ratio = 1.58, 95% confidence interval: 1.40, 1.77) and lowest in southern Germany (reference) after adjustment for individual variables. Neighborhood unemployment rates explained a large proportion of regional differences. Individuals residing in neighborhoods with high unemployment rates had elevated odds of type 2 diabetes (odds ratio = 1.62, 95% confidence interval: 1.25, 2.09). The diverging levels of unemployment in neighborhoods and regions are an independent source of disparities in type 2 diabetes.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 23648804
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  • 4
    Keywords: POPULATION ; HEALTH ; RISK FACTOR ; BLOOD-PRESSURE ; DISORDERS ; hyperthyroidism ; HYPOTHYROIDISM ; ARTERIAL STIFFNESS ; SUBCLINICAL THYROID-DYSFUNCTION ; ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT VASODILATATION
    Abstract: Background: Recent data from a population-based study in children and adolescents suggest that serum thyrotropin (TSH) levels are associated with arterial blood pressure and hypertension. These results are in agreement with some but not all population-based studies in adults. Discrepancies in results might be explained by drug intake, different iodine supplies, and sizes of populations investigated. In addition, it is not clear whether an association between TSH and hypertension exists longitudinally or only cross-sectionally. Thus, our aim was to investigate cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between thyroid function and arterial blood pressure in a large consortium of cohort studies in adults. Methods: Data from five population-based studies were pooled resulting in 17,023 individuals being available for cross-sectional and 10,048 individuals for longitudinal analyses. Associations of baseline TSH with baseline blood pressure or hypertension were analyzed by multivariable median or logistic regression models. Multivariable median or Poisson regression models were used to investigate associations of baseline TSH with five-year change in arterial blood pressure or incident hypertension. Results: There was a cross-sectional positive association of TSH with arterial blood pressure (p〈0.001) and hypertension (odds ratio [OR]=1.76 [confidence interval (CI) 1.24-2.50], p=0.002). Likewise, hypothyroidism was associated with systolic (beta=1.1 [CI 0.1-2.1], p=0.040) and diastolic blood pressure (beta=1.4 [CI 0.7-2.0], p〈0.001). TSH, however, was not consistently associated with a five-year change in blood pressure or incident hypertension. Conclusions: High serum TSH levels were associated with current hypertension and blood pressure but not with a five-year change in blood pressure and incident hypertension. This argues for only a short-term effect of thyroid hormone levels on arterial blood pressure or a spurious association that needs further evaluation in population-based studies.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 23427935
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  • 5
    Keywords: POPULATION ; RISK ; HEALTH ; HYPERTENSION ; PREVALENCE ; MANAGEMENT ; GUIDELINES ; MELLITUS ; CARDIOVASCULAR-DISEASE ; PULSE PRESSURE
    Abstract: BACKGROUND: Hypertension is a very common comorbidity and major risk factor for cardiovascular complications, especially in people with Type 2 Diabetes (T2D). Nevertheless, studies in the past have shown that blood pressure is often insufficiently controlled in medical practice. For the DIAB-CARE study, we used longitudinal data based on the German DIAB-CORE Consortium to assess whether health care regarding hypertension has improved during the last decade in our participants. METHODS: Data of the three regional population-based studies CARLA (baseline 2002-2006 and follow-up 2007-2010), KORA (baseline 1999-2001 and follow-up 2006-2008) and SHIP (baseline 1997-2001 and follow-up 2002-2006) were pooled. Stratified by T2D status we analysed changes in frequencies, degrees of awareness, treatment and control. Linear mixed models were conducted to assess the influence of sex, age, study, and T2D status on changes of systolic blood pressure between the baseline and follow-up examinations (mean observation time 5.7 years). We included 4,683 participants aged 45 to 74 years with complete data and accounted for 1,256 participants who were lost to follow-up by inverse probability weighting. RESULTS: Mean systolic blood pressure decreased in all groups from baseline to follow-up (e.g. - 8.5 mmHg in those with incident T2D). Pulse pressure (PP) was markedly higher in persons with T2D than in persons without T2D (64.14 mmHg in prevalent T2D compared to 52.87 mmHg in non-T2D at baseline) and did not change much between the two examinations. Awareness, treatment and control increased considerably in all subgroups however, the percentage of those with insufficiently controlled hypertension remained high (at about 50% of those with hypertension) especially in prevalent T2D. Particularly elderly people with T2D often had both, high blood pressure 〉/=140/90 mmHg and a PP of 〉/=60 mmHg. Blood pressure in men had improved more than in women at follow-up, however, men still had higher mean SBP than women at follow-up. CONCLUSION: Blood pressure management has developed positively during past years in Germany. While hypertension prevalence, awareness and treatment were substantially higher in participants with T2D than in those without T2D at follow-up, hypertension control was achieved only in about half the number of people in each T2D group leaving much room for further improvement.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 26221962
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  • 6
    Keywords: MORTALITY ; DOSE-RESPONSE ; BLOOD-PRESSURE ; MYOCARDIAL-INFARCTION ; LIFE-STYLE ; CARDIOVASCULAR RISK-FACTORS ; GENERAL-POPULATION ; N-3 FATTY-ACIDS ; AUTONOMIC FUNCTION ; HABITUAL PHYSICAL-ACTIVITY
    Abstract: Background: Reduced heart rate variability (HRV), a non-invasive marker of autonomic dysfunction, and an unhealthy lifestyle are associated with an increased morbidity and mortality of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). The autonomic dysfunction is a potential mediator of the association of behavioural risk factors with adverse health outcomes. We studied the association of HRV with behavioural risk factors in an elderly population. Methods: This analysis was based on the cross-sectional data of 1671 participants (age range, 45-83 years) of the prospective, population-based Cardiovascular Disease, Living and Ageing in Halle (CARLA) Study. Physical activity, smoking habits, alcohol consumption and dietary patterns were assessed in standardized interviews. Time and frequency domain measures of HRV were computed from 5-min segments of highly standardized 20-min electrocardiograms. Their association with behavioural risk factors was determined by linear and non-parametric regression modelling. Results: There were only weak and inconsistent associations of higher physical activity, moderate consumption of alcohol, and non-smoking with higher time and frequency domain HRV in both sexes, and no association with dietary pattern. Results changed only marginally by excluding subjects with CVD, diabetes mellitus and use of cardioactive medication. Conclusion: We hypothesized that HRV is associated with behavioural factors and therefore might be a mediator of the effect of behavioural risk factors on CVD, but this hypothesis was not confirmed by our results. These findings support the interpretation that there may be no true causal association of behavioural factors with HRV
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 21108803
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  • 7
    Keywords: EXPOSURE ; RISK ; HEALTH ; UNITED-STATES ; BLOOD-PRESSURE ; HYPERTENSION ; body mass index ; HEART-DISEASE ; METAANALYSIS ; EUROPEAN COUNTRIES ; RISK-FACTOR ; cardiovascular risk factors ; CANADA ; WORK ; CARDIOVASCULAR-DISEASE RISK ; Occupational groups
    Abstract: Hypertension is one of the most relevant risk factors for cardiovascular disease; however, little is known about differences in hypertension by occupation. The aim of this study was to explore the association between occupational group and prevalent hypertension. Cross-sectional data of the CARLA study were used, a representative sample of an East German population aged 45-83. Job titles of the current or last held occupation of 967 men and 808 women were coded using the German classification of occupation. Hypertension was defined as blood pressure of a parts per thousand yen140 mmHg (systolic), a parts per thousand yen90 mmHg (diastolic) or use of antihypertensives. Sex-stratified, age-adjusted prevalence risk ratios (PR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated for 31 occupational groups. Hypertension was prevalent in 79% of the population. In men, highest age-adjusted prevalence ratios were observed in metal-processing workers, carpenters/painters, and electricians with PRs of 1.31 (CI 1.04-1.65), 1.28 (CI 1.00-1.64), and 1.21 (0.95-1.53), respectively, compared to office clerks. In women, highest PRs were found in technicians/forewomen, scrutinisers/storekeepers, and food-processing occupations with PR 1.28 (1.09-1.49), 1.23 (0.99-1.51), and 1.22 (1.01-1.48), respectively. Adjustment for education, smoking, body mass index, and current work hours did not fully explain occupational differences. Excluding currently non-working subjects lead to decreased PRs in men and to increased PR in women. Differences in the prevalences of hypertension by occupational group were only partly explained by conventional risk factors and may require workplace interventions targeted at high-risk occupations. Longitudinal data with large cohorts and work-related exposure assessment are needed to confirm a temporal relationship between occupation and incident hypertension
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 20957489
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  • 8
    Keywords: UNITED-STATES ; MYOCARDIAL-INFARCTION ; RANDOMIZED-TRIAL ; CARDIOVASCULAR RISK-FACTORS ; HIGH PREVALENCE ; EUROPEAN COUNTRIES ; SEX-SPECIFIC DIFFERENCES ; BLOOD-PRESSURE CONTROL ; PRIMARY-CARE PATIENTS ; LIPID MANAGEMENT
    Abstract: ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Hypertension and dyslipidemia are often insufficiently controlled in persons with type 2 diabetes (T2D) in Germany. In the current study we evaluated individual characteristics that are assumed to influence the adequate treatment and control of hypertension and dyslipidemia and aimed to identify the patient group with the most urgent need for improved health care. METHODS: The analysis was based on the DIAB-CORE project in which cross-sectional data from five regional population-based studies and one nationwide German study, conducted between 1997 and 2006, were pooled. We compared the frequencies of socio-economic and lifestyle factors along with comorbidities in hypertensive participants with or without the blood pressure target of 〈 140/90 mmHg. Similar studies were also performed in participants with dyslipidemia with and without the target of total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol ratio 〈 5. Furthermore, we compared participants who received antihypertensive/lipid lowering treatment with those who were untreated. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression models were used to assess the odds of potentially influential factors. RESULTS: We included 1287 participants with T2D of whom n = 1048 had hypertension and n = 636 had dyslipidemia. Uncontrolled blood pressure was associated with male sex, low body mass index (BMI), no history of myocardial infarction (MI) and study site. Uncontrolled blood lipid levels were associated with male sex, no history of MI and study site. The odds of receiving no pharmacotherapy for hypertension were significantly greater in men, younger participants, those with BMI 〈 30 kg/m2 and those without previous MI or stroke. Participants with dyslipidemia received lipid lowering medication less frequently if they were male and had not previously had an MI. The more recent studies HNR and CARLA had the greatest numbers of well controlled and treated participants. CONCLUSION: In the DIAB-CORE study, the patient group with the greatest odds of uncontrolled co-morbidities and no pharmacotherapy was more likely comprised of younger men with low BMI and no history of cardiovascular disease.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 23035799
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  • 9
    Keywords: FOLLOW-UP ; RISK ; HEALTH ; WOMEN ; OBESITY ; ADULTS ; PHYSICAL-ACTIVITY ; BODY-MASS INDEX ; JAPANESE MEN ; WEIGHT CHANGE
    Abstract: Our objective was to investigate the association of change of anthropometric measurements and the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) within a pooled sample of 2 population-based cohorts.A final sample of 1324 women and 1278 men aged 31 to 83 years from 2 prospective cohorts in Germany, the CARLA (Cardiovascular Disease - Living and Ageing in Halle) and the SHIP study (Study of Health in Pomerania), were pooled. The association of change of body weight and waist circumference (WC) with incidence of T2DM was assessed by calculating sex-specific hazard ratios (HRs). We investigated the absolute change of markers of obesity as well as change relative to the baseline value and estimated crude and adjusted HRs. Furthermore, we conducted the analyses stratified by obesity status and age (〈60 vs 〉/=60 years) at baseline.Associations were found for both change of body weight and WC and incidence of T2DM in the crude and adjusted analyses. In the stratified study sample, those participants with a body mass index of 〈30 kg/m at baseline showed considerably lower HRs compared with obese women and men for both weight and WC. In the age-stratified analysis, we still found associations between change of weight and WC and incident T2DM with only marginal differences between the age groups.Our study showed associations of change of weight and WC as markers of obesity with incidence of T2DM. Keeping a healthy and primarily stable weight should be the goal for preventing the development of T2DM.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 26313783
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  • 10
    Keywords: COHORT ; cohort studies ; DISEASES ; RISK ; ASSOCIATION ; HEALTH ; WOMEN ; OBESITY ; smoking ; BLOOD-PRESSURE ; BEHAVIOR ; education ; CORONARY-HEART-DISEASE ; blood pressure ; WAIST CIRCUMFERENCE ; POSITION ; HIP RATIO
    Abstract: Background: The influence of socioeconomic status (SES) on cardiovascular diseases and risk factors is widely known, although the role of different SES indicators is not fully understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of different SES indicators for cardiovascular disease risk factors in a middle and old aged East German population. Methods: Cross-sectional data of an East German population-based cohort study (1779 men and women aged 45 to 83) were used to assess the association of childhood and adulthood SES indicators (childhood SES, education, occupational position, income) with cardiovascular risk factors. Adjusted means and odds ratios of risk factors by SES indicators with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated by linear and logistic regression models, stratified by sex. The interaction effect of education and age on cardiovascular risk factors was tested by including an interaction term. Results: In age-adjusted models, education, occupational position, and income were statistically significantly associated with abdominal obesity in men, and with smoking in both sexes. Men with low education had a more than threefold risk of being a smoker (OR 3.44, CI 1.58-7.51). Low childhood SES was associated with higher systolic blood pressure and abdominal obesity in women (OR 2.27, CI 1.18-4.38 for obesity); a non-significant but (in terms of effect size) relevant association of childhood SES with smoking was observed in men. In women, age was an effect modifier for education in the risk of obesity and smoking. Conclusions: We found considerable differences in cardiovascular risk factors by education, occupational position, income, and partly by childhood social status, differing by sex. Some social inequalities levelled off in higher age. Longitudinal studies are needed to differentiate between age and birth cohort effects
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 21569269
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