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  • HEALTH  (11)
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  • 1
    Keywords: CANCER ; MODEL ; MODELS ; THERAPY ; FOLLOW-UP ; COHORT ; cohort studies ; EXPOSURE ; RISK ; RISKS ; INDEX ; ASSOCIATION ; NO ; hormone ; HEALTH ; WOMEN ; HORMONE REPLACEMENT THERAPY ; cancer risk ; FIBER ; MEASUREMENT ERROR ; DIET ; DIETARY ; FAT ; European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition ; nutrition ; AUSTRALIA ; ENDOMETRIAL CANCER ; RELATIVE RISK ; dietary fiber ; insulin ; IGF-I ; ASSOCIATIONS ; ENDOMETRIAL ; THERAPIES ; ENERGY-INTAKE ; PHYSICAL-ACTIVITY ; LEVEL ; INTERVAL ; USA ; prospective ; INSULIN SENSITIVITY ; VARIABLES ; CANCER-RISK ; C-PEPTIDE ; FOODS ; Nutrition Assessment ; postmenopausal ; DIANA RANDOMIZED-TRIAL ; dietary carbohydrates ; endometrial neoplasms ; glycemic index ; IOWA WOMENS HEALTH
    Abstract: The associations of dietary total carbohydrates, overall glycemic index, total dietary glycemic load, total sugars, total starch, and total fiber with endometrial cancer risk were analyzed among 288,428 women in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort (1992-2004), including 710 incident cases diagnosed during a mean 6.4 years of follow-up. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate relative risks and 95% confidence intervals. There were no statistically significant associations with endometrial cancer risk for increasing quartile intakes of any of the exposure variables. However, in continuous models calibrated by using 24-hour recall values, the multivariable relative risks were 1.61 (95% confidence interval: 1.06, 2.45) per 100 g/day of total carbohydrates, 1.40 (95% confidence interval: 0.99, 1.99) per 50 units/day of total dietary glycemic load, and 1.36 (95% confidence interval: 1.05, 1.76) per 50 g/day of total sugars. These associations were stronger among women who had never used postmenopausal hormone therapy compared with ever users (total carbohydrates P-heterogeneity = 0.04). Data suggest no association of overall glycemic index, total starch, and total fiber with risk, and a possible modest positive association of total carbohydrates, total dietary glycemic load, and total sugars with risk, particularly among never users of hormone replacement therapy
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 17670911
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  • 2
    Keywords: CANCER ; CELLS ; CELL ; Germany ; MODEL ; MODELS ; FOLLOW-UP ; SYSTEM ; cohort study ; DISEASE ; DISEASES ; EPIDEMIOLOGY ; RISK ; RISK-FACTORS ; ASSOCIATION ; NO ; LYMPHOMA ; HEALTH ; WOMEN ; etiology ; risk factors ; DIETARY ; UNITED-STATES ; ALCOHOL-CONSUMPTION ; CONSUMPTION ; FRUIT ; nutrition ; VEGETABLES ; CALIBRATION ; B-CELL LYMPHOMA ; MULTIPLE-MYELOMA ; NON-HODGKINS-LYMPHOMA ; ONCOLOGY ; DIETARY FACTORS ; ASSOCIATIONS ; IMMUNE-SYSTEM ; non-Hodgkin lymphoma ; INTERVAL ; FRUITS ; methods ; function ; prospective ; prospective study ; RISK-FACTOR ; HODGKIN LYMPHOMA ; B-CELL ; N-NITROSO COMPOUNDS ; DRINKING-WATER NITRATE
    Abstract: Introduction Lymphomas are a heterogeneous group of malignant diseases of cells of the immune system. The best-established risk factors are related to dys-regulation of immune function, and evidence suggests that factors such as dietary or lifestyle habits may be involved in the etiology. Material and methods In the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), 849 lymphoma cases were identified in a median follow-up period of 6.4 years. Fruit and vegetable consumption was estimated from validated dietary questionnaires. Cox proportional hazard models were used to examine the association between fruit and vegetable intake with the risk of lymphomas overall and subentities. Results There was no overall association between total fruit and vegetable consumption and risk of lymphoma [hazard ratio (HR) = 0.95, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.78-1.15 comparing highest with lowest quartile]. However, the risk of diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCL) tended to be lower in participants with a high intake of total vegetables (HR = 0.49, 95% CI 0.23-1.02). Conclusion In this large prospective study, an inverse associations between fruit and vegetable consumption and risk of lymphomas overall could not be confirmed. Associations with lymphoma subentities such as DLBCL warrant further investigation
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 17443415
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  • 3
    Keywords: CANCER ; BLOOD ; COHORT ; cohort studies ; cohort study ; POPULATION ; RISK ; MARKER ; BIOMARKERS ; colon ; ASSOCIATION ; NO ; HEALTH ; WOMEN ; colorectal cancer ; MEN ; PROSPECTIVE COHORT ; COLORECTAL-CANCER ; cancer risk ; FRANCE ; COLON-CANCER ; MULTIVARIATE ; UNITED-STATES ; case-control studies ; GLUCOSE ; nutrition ; BETA-CELL FUNCTION ; ONCOLOGY ; case-control study ; REGRESSION ; RE ; INCREASE ; LEVEL ; biomarker ; INSULIN-RESISTANCE ; metabolic syndrome ; USA ; prospective ; cancer research ; CANCER-RISK ; NOV ; HEMOGLOBIN ; TYPE-2 DIABETES-MELLITUS ; European Prospective Investigation into Cancer ; CHRONIC OXIDATIVE STRESS ; GLUCOSE TOXICITY ; RECTAL CANCERS ; SERUM C-PEPTIDE
    Abstract: Although large-scale prospective cohort studies have related hyperglycemia to increased risk of cancer overall, studies specifically on colorectal cancer have been generally small. We investigated the association between prediagnostic levels of glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), a marker for average glucose level in blood, and colorectal cancer risk in a case-control study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort. One thousand and twenty-six incident colorectal cancer cases (561 men and 465 women) and 1,026 matched controls were eligible for the study. Multivariate conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORS) adjusted for possible confounders. Increasing HbA1c percentages were statistically significantly associated with a mild increase in colorectal cancer risk in the whole population [OR, 1.10; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.01,1.19 for a 10% increase in HbA1c]. In women, increasing HbA1c percentages were associated with a statistically significant increase in colorectal cancer risk (OR, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.01, 1.32 for a 10% increase in HbA1c) and with a borderline statistically significant increase in rectum cancer (OR, 1.22; 95% CI, 0.99,1.50 for a 10% increase in HbA1c). No significant association with cancer risk was observed in men. The results of the current study suggest a mild implication of hyperglycemia in colorectal cancer, which seems more important in women than in men, and more for cancer of the rectum than of the colon. (Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2008;17(11):3108-15)
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 18990751
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  • 4
    Keywords: COHORT ; RISK ; INTERVENTION ; HEALTH ; REPRODUCIBILITY ; MEN ; COLON-CANCER ; dietary fiber ; POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN ; PRODUCTS
    Abstract: BACKGROUND: Few studies have investigated the association between whole-grain intake and colorectal cancer. Because whole-grain intake estimation might be prone to measurement errors, more objective measures (eg, biomarkers) could assist in investigating such associations. METHODS: The association between alkylresorcinols, biomarkers of whole-grain rye and wheat intake, and colorectal cancer incidence were investigated using prediagnostic plasma samples from colorectal cancer case patients and matched control subjects nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. We included 1372 incident colorectal cancer case patients and 1372 individual matched control subjects and calculated the incidence rate ratios (IRRs) for overall and anatomical subsites of colorectal cancer using conditional logistic regression adjusted for potential confounders. Regional differences (Scandinavia, the Mediterranean, Central Europe) were also explored. RESULTS: High plasma total alkylresorcinol concentration was associated with lower incidence of distal colon cancer; the adjusted incidence rate ratio of distal colon cancer for the highest vs lowest quartile of plasma total alkylresorcinols was 0.48 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.28 to 0.83). An inverse association between plasma total alkylresorcinol concentrations and colon cancer was found for Scandinavian participants (IRR per doubling = 0.83; 95% CI = 0.70 to 0.98). However, plasma total alkylresorcinol concentrations were not associated with overall colorectal cancer, proximal colon cancer, or rectal cancer. Plasma alkylresorcinols concentrations were associated with colon and distal colon cancer only in Central Europe and Scandinavia (ie, areas where alkylresorcinol levels were higher). CONCLUSIONS: High concentrations of plasma alkylresorcinols were associated with a lower incidence of distal colon cancer but not with overall colorectal cancer, proximal colon cancer, and rectal cancer.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 24317181
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  • 5
    Keywords: COHORT ; BIOMARKERS ; HEALTH ; COLORECTAL-CANCER ; OXIDATIVE STRESS ; antioxidants ; RETINOL ; PHYSICAL-ACTIVITY ; EPIC PROJECT ; SERUM ALPHA-TOCOPHEROL
    Abstract: Carotenoids and vitamins A, C and E are possibly associated with a reduced colorectal cancer (CRC) risk through antioxidative properties. The association of prediagnostic plasma concentrations and dietary consumption of carotenoids and vitamins A, C and E with the risk of colon and rectal cancer was examined in this case-control study, nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study. Plasma concentrations of carotenoids (alpha- and beta-carotene, canthaxanthin, beta-cryptoxanthin, lutein, lycopene, zeaxanthin) and vitamins A (retinol), C and E (alpha-, beta- and gamma- and delta-tocopherol) and dietary consumption of beta-carotene and vitamins A, C and E were determined in 898 colon cancer cases, 501 rectal cancer cases and 1,399 matched controls. Multivariable conditional logistic regression models were performed to estimate incidence rate ratios (IRR) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs). An association was observed between higher prediagnostic plasma retinol concentration and a lower risk of colon cancer (IRR for highest quartile = 0.63, 95% CI: 0.46, 0.87, p for trend = 0.01), most notably proximal colon cancer (IRR for highest quartile = 0.46, 95% CI: 0.27, 0.77, p for trend = 0.01). Additionally, inverse associations for dietary beta-carotene and dietary vitamins C and E with (distal) colon cancer were observed. Although other associations were suggested, there seems little evidence for a role of these selected compounds in preventing CRC through their antioxidative properties.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 24771392
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  • 6
    Keywords: PEPTIDE ; CANCER ; GROWTH ; RISK ; PROTEIN ; PROTEINS ; MECHANISM ; RISK-FACTORS ; mechanisms ; ASSOCIATION ; hormone ; HEALTH ; WOMEN ; OBESITY ; RISK FACTOR ; body mass index ; nutrition ; insulin ; BINDING-PROTEIN ; ASSOCIATIONS ; GROWTH-FACTOR-I ; BODY-MASS INDEX ; FACTOR (IGF)-I ; body height ; INCREASED RISK ; C-PEPTIDE ; FACTOR BINDING-PROTEIN-3 CONCENTRATIONS ; insulin-like growth factor binding proteins ; Insulin-Like Growth Factor I
    Abstract: Background: Height and BMI are risk factors for several types of cancer and may be related to circulating concentrations of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), a peptide associated with increased cancer risk. Aim: To assess the associations between height, BMI and serum concentrations of IGF-I and IGF binding protein (IGFBP)-1, -2 and -3. Subjects and methods: This cross-sectional analysis included 1142 men and 3589 women aged 32-77 years from the multi-centre study, the European Prospective Investigation of Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Results: In men, there was a positive association between height and IGF-I; each 10 cm increment in height was associated with an increase in IGF-I concentrations of 4.3% (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.3-7.5%, p for trend = 0.005), but this association was not statistically significant for women (0.9%, 95% CI: - 0.7 to 2.6%, p for trend = 0.264). In both men and women, the association between IGF-I and BMI was non-linear and those with a BMI of 26-27 kg/m(2) had the highest IGF-I concentration. BMI was strongly inversely related to concentrations of IGFBP-1 and IGFBP-2 in men and in women (p for trend for all 〈 0.001). Conclusion: Height and BMI are associated with IGF-I and its binding proteins, which may be mechanisms through which body size contributes to increased risk of several cancers.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 20731527
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  • 7
    Keywords: EPIDEMIOLOGY ; REQUIREMENTS ; HEALTH ; WOMEN ; ESTROGEN ; B-vitamin ; FOLATE ; ONE-CARBON METABOLISM ; GENETIC-VARIANTS ; DIETARY CHOLINE
    Abstract: BACKGROUND: Disturbances in one carbon metabolism may contribute to carcinogenesis by affecting methylation and synthesis of DNA. Choline and its oxidation product betaine are involved in this metabolism and can serve as alternative methyl group donors when folate status is low. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We conducted a case-control study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), to investigate plasma concentrations of the methyl donors methionine, choline, betaine (trimethylglycine), and dimethylglycine (DMG) in relation to colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. Our study included 1367 incident CRC cases (965 colon and 402 rectum) and 2323 controls matched by gender, age group, and study center. Multivariate-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for CRC risk were estimated by conditional logistic regression, comparing the fifth to the first quintile of plasma concentrations. RESULTS: Overall, methionine (OR: 0.79, 95% CI: 0.63-0.99, P-trend = 0.05), choline (OR: 0.77, 95% CI: 0.60-0.99, P-trend = 0.07), and betaine (OR: 0.85, 95% CI: 0.66-1.09, P-trend = 0.06) concentrations were inversely associated with CRC risk of borderline significance. In participants with folate concentration below the median of 11.3 nmol/l, high betaine concentration was associated with reduced CRC risk (OR: 0.71, 95% CI: 0.50-1.00, P-trend = 0.02), which was not observed for those having a higher folate status. Among women, but not men, high choline concentration was associated with decreased CRC risk (OR: 0.62, 95% CI: 0.43-0.88, P-trend = 0.01). Plasma DMG was not associated with CRC risk. CONCLUSIONS: Individuals with high plasma concentrations of methionine, choline, and betaine may be at reduced risk of CRC.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 24827130
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  • 8
    Keywords: CANCER ; COHORT ; DISEASE ; DISEASES ; POPULATION ; RISK ; ASSOCIATION ; hormone ; HEALTH ; WOMEN ; MEN ; REDUCED RISK ; COUNTRIES ; PROSTATE-CANCER ; SWEDEN ; REGION ; REGIONS ; DIET ; DIETARY ; CONSUMPTION ; EPIC ; nutrition ; FOOD ; RE ; PRODUCTS ; CORONARY-HEART-DISEASE ; PROFILES ; SIZE ; HORMONES ; prospective ; EUROPEAN COUNTRIES ; intake ; FOODS ; NORTHERN ; 24-hour dietary recall ; descriptive study ; peanuts ; portion size ; seeds ; tree nuts ; WALNUTS
    Abstract: Tree nuts, peanuts and seeds are nutrient dense foods whose intake has been shown to be associated with reduced risk of some chronic diseases. They are regularly consumed in European diets either as whole, in spreads or from hidden sources (e.g. commercial products). However, little is known about their intake profiles or differences in consumption between European countries or geographic regions. The objective of this study was to analyse the population mean intake and average portion sizes in subjects reporting intake of nuts and seeds consumed as whole, derived from hidden sources or from spreads. Data was obtained from standardised 24-hour dietary recalls collected from 36 994 subjects in 10 different countries that are part of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Overall, for nuts and seeds consumed as whole, the percentage of subjects reporting intake on the day of the recall was: tree nuts=4 center dot 4%, peanuts=2 center dot 3 % and seeds=1 center dot 3 %. The data show a clear northern (Sweden: mean intake=0 center dot 15 g/d, average portion size=15 center dot 1 g/d) to southern (Spain: mean intake=2 center dot 99 g/d, average portion size=34 center dot 7 g/d) European gradient of whole tree nut intake. The three most popular tree nuts were walnuts, almonds and hazelnuts, respectively. In general, tree nuts were more widely consumed than peanuts or seeds. In subjects reporting intake, men consumed a significantly higher average portion size of tree nuts (28 center dot 5 v. 23 center dot 1 g/d, P 〈 0 center dot 01) and peanuts (46 center dot 1 v. 35 center dot 1 g/d, P 〈 0 center dot 01) per day than women. These data may be useful in devising research initiatives and health policy strategies based on the intake of this food group
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 17125528
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  • 9
    Keywords: ENERGIES ; CANCER ; COMMON ; POPULATION ; ASSOCIATION ; HEALTH ; lifestyle ; DESIGN ; ENERGY ; AGE ; WOMEN ; MEN ; OBESITY ; COUNTRIES ; POPULATIONS ; DIET ; DIETARY ; UNITED-STATES ; INDIVIDUALS ; CONSUMPTION ; EPIC ; European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition ; meat ; nutrition ; VEGETABLES ; TRENDS ; EUROPE ; LOCATION ; FOOD ; physical activity ; YOUNG ; SINGLE ; ADULTS ; REGRESSION ; DETERMINANTS ; ENERGY-INTAKE ; RECALL ; PHYSICAL-ACTIVITY ; BODY-MASS INDEX ; prospective ; YOUNG-ADULTS ; EXTENT ; ENGLAND ; FOODS ; 24-hour dietary recall ; LOGISTIC-REGRESSION ; correlates ; comparison ; lipid ; household ; eating locations ; eating out of home ; energy intake
    Abstract: Objective: To compare the average out-of-home (OH) consumption of foods and beverages, as well as energy intake, among populations from 10 European countries and to describe the characteristics of substantial OH caters, as defined for the purpose of the present study, in comparison to other individuals. Design: Cross-sectional study. Dietary data were collected through single 24-hour dietary recalls, in which the place of consumption was recorded. For the present study, substantial OH eaters were defined as those who consumed more than 25% of total daily energy intake at locations other than the household premises. Mean dietary intakes and the proportion of substantial OH eaters are presented by food group and country. Logistic regression analyses were used to estimate the odds of being a substantial OH eater in comparison to not being one, using mutually adjusted possible non-dietary determinants. Setting: Ten European countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Subjects: The subjects were 34 270 individuals, 12 537 men and 21733 women, aged 35-74 years. Results: The fraction of energy intake during OH eating was generally higher in northern European countries than in the southern ones. Among the food and beverage groups, those selectively consumed outside the home were coffee/tea/waters and sweets and, to a lesser extent, cereals, meats, added lipids and vegetables. Substantial OH eating was positively associated with energy intake and inversely associated with age and physical activity. Substantial OH eating was less common among the less educated compared with the more educated, and more common during weekdays in central and north Europe and during the weekend in south Europe. Conclusions: Eating outside the home was associated with sedentary lifestyle and increased energy intake; it was more common among the young and concerned in particular coffee/tea/waters and sweets
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 17582244
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  • 10
    Keywords: CANCER ; SURVIVAL ; FOLLOW-UP ; INFORMATION ; COHORT ; cohort study ; POPULATION ; RISK ; QUALITY ; RISK-FACTORS ; ASSOCIATION ; BREAST-CANCER ; HEALTH ; DESIGN ; AGE ; MEN ; risk factors ; COUNTRIES ; RISK FACTOR ; DIET ; STOMACH ; adenocarcinoma ; EPIC ; nutrition ; LIFE-STYLE ; TRENDS ; PATTERN ; prospective ; gastric adenocarcinoma ; EURGAST
    Abstract: Background: The Mediterranean dietary pattern is believed to protect against cancer, although evidence from cohort studies that have examined particular cancer sites is limited. Objective: We aimed to explore the association between adherence to a relative Mediterranean diet (rMED) and incident gastric adenocarcinoma (GC) within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study. Design: The study included 485,044 subjects (144,577 men) aged 35-70 y from 10 European countries. At recruitment, dietary and lifestyle information was collected. An 18-unit rMED score, incorporating 9 key components of the Mediterranean diet, was used to estimate rMED adherence. The association between rMED and GC with respect to anatomic location (cardia and noncardia) and histologic types (diffuse and intestinal) was investigated. A calibration study in a subsample was used to control for dietary measurement error. Results: After a mean follow-up of 8.9 y, 449 validated incident GC cases were identified and used in the analysis. After stratification by center and age and adjustment for recognized cancer risk factors, high compared with low rMED adherence was associated with a significant reduction in GC risk (hazard ratio: 0.67; 95% CI: 0.47, 0.94). A 1-unit increase in the rMED score was associated with a decreased risk of GC of 5% (95% CI: 0.91, 0.99). There was no evidence of heterogeneity between different anatomic locations or histologic types. The calibrated results showed similar trends (overall hazard ratio for GC: 0.93; 95% CI: 0.89, 0.99). Conclusion: Greater adherence to an rMED is associated with a significant reduction in the risk of incident GC. Am J Clin Nutr 2010:91:381-90
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 20007304
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