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  • HEALTH  (10)
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  • 1
    Keywords: SURVIVAL ; COHORT ; EPIDEMIOLOGY ; RISK ; RISK-FACTORS ; HEALTH ; POPULATIONS ; INEQUALITIES ; DETERMINANTS ; PHYSICAL-ACTIVITY ; METAANALYSIS ; socioeconomic status ; SOCIOECONOMIC-STATUS ; Educational level ; Pancreatic cancer incidence
    Abstract: Introduction: Until now, studies examining the relationship between socioeconomic status and pancreatic cancer incidence have been inconclusive. Aim: To prospectively investigate to what extent pancreatic cancer incidence varies according to educational level within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Methods: In the EPIC study, socioeconomic status at baseline was measured using the highest level of education attained. Hazard ratios by educational level and a summary index, the relative indices of inequality (Rh), were estimated using Cox regression models stratified by age, gender, and center and adjusted for known risk factors. In addition, we conducted separate analyses by age, gender and geographical region. Results: Within the source population of 407, 944 individuals at baseline, 490 first incident primary pancreatic adenocarcinoma cases were identified in 9 European countries. The crude difference in risk of pancreatic cancer according to level of education was small and not statistically significant (RII = 1.14, 95% CI 0.80-1.62). Adjustment for known risk factors reduced the inequality estimates to only a small extent. In addition, no statistically significant associations were observed for age groups (adjusted RII 〈= (60) (years) = 0.85, 95% CI 0.44-1.64, adjusted RII〉 60 years = 1.18, 95% CI 0.73-1.90), gender (adjusted RIImale = 1.20, 95% CI 0.68-2.10, adjusted RIIfemale = 0.96, 95% CI 0.56-1.62) or geographical region (adjusted RIINorthern Europe = 1.14, 95% CI 0.81-1.61, adjusted RIIMiddle (Europe) = 1.72, 95% CI 0.93-3.19, adjusted RIISouthern Europe = 0.75, 95% CI 0.32-1.80). Conclusion: Despite large educational inequalities in many risk factors within the EPIC study, we found no evidence for an association between educational level and the risk of developing pancreatic cancer in this European cohort.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 20829145
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  • 2
    Keywords: CANCER ; RISK ; HEALTH ; MEN ; FATTY-ACIDS ; nutrition ; POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN ; OLDER-ADULTS ; BONE-MINERAL DENSITY ; OSTEOPOROTIC FRACTURES
    Abstract: Prevention of hip fractures is of critical public health importance. In a cohort of adults from eight European countries, evidence was found that increased adherence to Mediterranean diet, measured by a 10-unit dietary score, is associated with reduced hip fracture incidence, particularly among men. INTRODUCTION: Evidence on the role of dietary patterns on hip fracture incidence is scarce. We explored the association of adherence to Mediterranean diet (MD) with hip fracture incidence in a cohort from eight European countries. METHODS: A total of 188,795 eligible participants (48,814 men and 139,981 women) in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and nutrition study with mean age 48.6 years (+/-10.8) were followed for a median of 9 years, and 802 incident hip fractures were recorded. Diet was assessed at baseline through validated dietary instruments. Adherence to MD was evaluated by a MD score (MDs), on a 10-point scale, in which monounsaturated were substituted with unsaturated lipids. Association with hip fracture incidence was assessed through Cox regression with adjustment for potential confounders. RESULTS: Increased adherence to MD was associated with a 7 % decrease in hip fracture incidence [hazard ratio (HR) per 1-unit increase in the MDs 0.93; 95 % confidence interval (95 % CI) = 0.89-0.98]. This association was more evident among men and somewhat stronger among older individuals. Using increments close to one standard deviation of daily intake, in the overall sample, high vegetable (HR = 0.86; 95 % CI = 0.79-0.94) and high fruit (HR = 0.89; 95 % CI = 0.82-0.97) intake was associated with decreased hip fracture incidence, whereas high meat intake (HR = 1.18; 95 % CI = 1.06-1.31) with increased incidence. Excessive ethanol consumption (HR high versus moderate = 1.74; 95 % CI = 1.32-2.31) was also a risk factor. CONCLUSIONS: In a prospective study of adults, increased adherence to MD appears to protect against hip fracture occurrence, particularly among men.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 23085859
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  • 3
    Keywords: DISEASE ; POPULATION ; RISK-FACTORS ; HEALTH ; WOMEN ; CIGARETTE-SMOKING ; UNITED-STATES ; MYOCARDIAL-INFARCTION ; STROKE ; RATE ADVANCEMENT PERIODS
    Abstract: OBJECTIVE To investigate the impact of smoking and smoking cessation on cardiovascular mortality, acute coronary events, and stroke events in people aged 60 and older, and to calculate and report risk advancement periods for cardiovascular mortality in addition to traditional epidemiological relative risk measures. DESIGN Individual participant meta-analysis using data from 25 cohorts participating in the CHANCES consortium. Data were harmonised, analysed separately employing Cox proportional hazard regression models, and combined by meta-analysis. RESULTS Overall, 503 905 participants aged 60 and older were included in this study, of whom 37 952 died from cardiovascular disease. Random effects meta-analysis of the association of smoking status with cardiovascular mortality yielded a summary hazard ratio of 2.07 (95% CI 1.82 to 2.36) for current smokers and 1.37 (1.25 to 1.49) for former smokers compared with never smokers. Corresponding summary estimates for risk advancement periods were 5.50 years (4.25 to 6.75) for current smokers and 2.16 years (1.38 to 2.39) for former smokers. The excess risk in smokers increased with cigarette consumption in a dose-response manner, and decreased continuously with time since smoking cessation in former smokers. Relative risk estimates for acute coronary events and for stroke events were somewhat lower than for cardiovascular mortality, but patterns were similar. CONCLUSIONS Our study corroborates and expands evidence from previous studies in showing that smoking is a strong independent risk factor of cardiovascular events and mortality even at older age, advancing cardiovascular mortality by more than five years, and demonstrating that smoking cessation in these age groups is still beneficial in reducing the excess risk.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 25896935
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  • 4
    Keywords: POPULATION ; HEALTH ; WOMEN ; VALIDITY ; CALIBRATION ; METAANALYSIS ; PREMENOPAUSAL ; CAFFEINE CONSUMPTION ; SEX-HORMONE CONCENTRATIONS ; DECAFFEINATED COFFEE
    Abstract: INTRODUCTION: Specific coffee subtypes and tea may impact risk of pre- and post-menopausal breast cancer differently. We investigated the association between coffee (total, caffeinated, decaffeinated) and tea intake and risk of breast cancer. METHODS: A total of 335,060 women participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Nutrition and Cancer (EPIC) Study, completed a dietary questionnaire from 1992 to 2000, and were followed-up until 2010 for incidence of breast cancer. Hazard ratios (HR) of breast cancer by country-specific, as well as cohort-wide categories of beverage intake were estimated. RESULTS: During an average follow-up of 11 years, 1064 premenopausal, and 9134 postmenopausal breast cancers were diagnosed. Caffeinated coffee intake was associated with lower risk of postmenopausal breast cancer: adjusted HR = 0.90, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.82 to 0.98, for high versus low consumption; P trend = 0.029. While there was no significant effect modification by hormone receptor status (P = 0.711), linear trend for lower risk of breast cancer with increasing caffeinated coffee intake was clearest for estrogen and progesterone receptor negative (ER-PR-), postmenopausal breast cancer (P = 0.008). For every 100 ml increase in caffeinated coffee intake, the risk of ER-PR- breast cancer was lower by 4% (adjusted HR: 0.96, 95% CI: 0.93 to 1.00). Non-consumers of decaffeinated coffee had lower risk of postmenopausal breast cancer (adjusted HR = 0.89; 95% CI: 0.80 to 0.99) compared to low consumers, without evidence of dose-response relationship (P trend = 0.128). Exclusive decaffeinated coffee consumption was not related to postmenopausal breast cancer risk, compared to any decaffeinated-low caffeinated intake (adjusted HR = 0.97; 95% CI: 0.82 to 1.14), or to no intake of any coffee (HR: 0.96; 95%: 0.82 to 1.14). Caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee were not associated with premenopausal breast cancer. Tea intake was neither associated with pre- nor post-menopausal breast cancer. CONCLUSIONS: Higher caffeinated coffee intake may be associated with lower risk of postmenopausal breast cancer. Decaffeinated coffee intake does not seem to be associated with breast cancer.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 25637171
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  • 5
    Keywords: CANCER ; SURVIVAL ; MODEL ; FOLLOW-UP ; INFORMATION ; COHORT ; DEATH ; DISEASE ; incidence ; MORTALITY ; POPULATION ; RISK ; HEART ; PATIENT ; prognosis ; REDUCTION ; ASSOCIATION ; NO ; TRIAL ; TRIALS ; HEALTH ; AGE ; COUNTRIES ; POPULATIONS ; DIET ; DIETARY ; NETHERLANDS ; MYOCARDIAL-INFARCTION ; ALCOHOL ; IMPROVES ; EPIC ; European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition ; nutrition ; FOOD ; HEART-DISEASE ; Mediterranean diet ; HETEROGENEITY ; REGRESSION ; ASSOCIATIONS ; PATTERN ; CORONARY-HEART-DISEASE ; INTERVAL ; elderly ; prospective ; PEOPLE ; UNIT ; COMMUNITY ; myocardial infarction ; coronary heart disease ; DEATHS
    Abstract: Mediterranean diet is associated with lower incidence of coronary heart disease, and two randomised trials indicated that it improves prognosis of coronary patients. These trials, however, relied on a total of 100 deaths and evaluated designer diets in the clinical context. We have evaluated the association of adherence to the modified Mediterranean diet, in which unsaturates were substituted for monounsaturates, with survival among elderly with previous myocardial infarction within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and nutrition (EPIC) study. As of December 2003, after a median follow-up of 6.7 years, 2671 EPIC participants from nine countries were 60 years or older and had prevalent myocardial infarction but no stroke or cancer at enrolment, complete information on dietary intakes and important covariates and known survival status. Adherence to the modified Mediterranean diet was assessed through a 10-unit-scale. Mortality ratio in relation to modified Mediterranean diet was estimated through Cox regression controlling for possible confounding. Increased adherence to modified Mediterranean diet by two units was associated with 18% lower overall mortality rate (95% confidence interval 7-27%, fixed effects model). There was no significant heterogeneity by sex, age at enrolment, or country, although the association tended to be less evident among northern Europeans. Associations between food groups contributing to the modified Mediterranean diet and mortality were generally weak. A diet inspired by the Mediterranean pattern that can be easily adopted by Western populations is associated with substantial reduction of total mortality of coronary patients in the community
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 17926134
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  • 6
    Keywords: CANCER ; INFORMATION ; cohort study ; POPULATION ; ASSOCIATION ; HEALTH ; WOMEN ; OBESITY ; smoking ; ALCOHOL ; PROJECT ; EPIC ; EUROPE ; Mediterranean diet ; fat distribution ; PHYSICAL-ACTIVITY ; BODY-MASS INDEX ; OVERWEIGHT ; smoking cessation ; GENERAL-POPULATION ; weight gain ; LIFE EXPECTANCY ; SUN COHORT
    Abstract: Purpose. We assessed the association between smoking cessation and prospective weight change in the European population of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Physical Activity, Nutrition, Alcohol, Cessation of smoking. Eating out of home And obesity (EPIC-PANACEA) project. Methods. The study involved more than 300,000 healthy volunteers, recruited between 1992 and 2000 in 9 European countries, who provided data on anthropometry and smoking habits at baseline and after a follow-up of 5 years on average. Adjusted mixed-effects linear regression models were used to obtain sex-specific summary estimates of the association between the change in smoking status and the annual change in weight. Results. Smoking cessation tends to be followed by weight gain; when compared to stable smokers, annual weight gain was higher in men (0.44 kg (95%CI: 0.36; 0.52)) and women (0.46 kg (95%CI: 0.41; 0.52)) who stopped smoking during follow-up. When smokers who stopped smoking at least 1 year before recruitment were compared to never smokers, no major differences in annual weight gain were observed. The excess weight gain following smoking cessation appears to mainly occur in the first years following the cessation. Conclusions. When considering the benefits of smoking cessation, such findings strengthen the need for promoting cessation offering information on weight gain control and support to weight-concerned smokers in order to remove a barrier to quitting.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 21939684
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  • 7
    Keywords: MORTALITY ; POPULATION ; ASSOCIATION ; HEALTH ; PROSPECTIVE COHORT ; UNITED-STATES ; LIFE-STYLE ; GENDER ; SOCIOECONOMIC-STATUS ; OSTEOPOROTIC FRACTURE
    Abstract: A Summary The role of socioeconomic status in hip fracture incidence is unclear. In a diverse population of elderly, higher education was found to be associated with lower, whereas living alone, compared to being married/cohabiting, with higher hip fracture risk. Educational level and marital status may contribute to hip fracture risk. Introduction The evidence on the association between socioeconomic status and hip fracture incidence is limited and inconsistent. We investigated the potential association of education and marital status with hip fracture incidence in older individuals from Europe and USA. Methods A total of 155,940 participants (79 % women) aged 60 years and older from seven cohorts were followed up accumulating 6456 incident hip fractures. Information on education and marital status was harmonized across cohorts. Hip fractures were ascertained through telephone interviews/questionnaires or through record linkage with registries. Associations were assessed through Cox proportional hazard regression adjusting for several factors. Summary estimates were derived using random effects models. Results Individuals with higher education, compared to those with low education, had lower hip fracture risk [hazard ratio (HR) = 0.84, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.72-0.95]. Respective HRs were 0.97 (95 % CI 0.82-1.13) for men and 0.75 (95 % CI 0.65-0.85) for women. Overall, individuals living alone, especially those aged 60-69 years, compared to those being married/cohabiting, tended to have a higher hip fracture risk (HR = 1.12, 95 % CI 1.02-1.22). There was no suggestion for heterogeneity across cohorts (P-heterogeneity 〉 0.05). Conclusions The combined data from 〉150,000 individuals 60 years and older suggest that higher education may contribute to lower hip fracture risk. Furthermore, this risk may be higher among individuals living alone, especially among the age group 60-69 years, when compared to those being married/cohabiting.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 25820745
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  • 8
    Keywords: ENERGIES ; CANCER ; COMMON ; POPULATION ; ASSOCIATION ; HEALTH ; lifestyle ; DESIGN ; ENERGY ; AGE ; WOMEN ; MEN ; OBESITY ; COUNTRIES ; POPULATIONS ; DIET ; DIETARY ; UNITED-STATES ; INDIVIDUALS ; CONSUMPTION ; EPIC ; European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition ; meat ; nutrition ; VEGETABLES ; TRENDS ; EUROPE ; LOCATION ; FOOD ; physical activity ; YOUNG ; SINGLE ; ADULTS ; REGRESSION ; DETERMINANTS ; ENERGY-INTAKE ; RECALL ; PHYSICAL-ACTIVITY ; BODY-MASS INDEX ; prospective ; YOUNG-ADULTS ; EXTENT ; ENGLAND ; FOODS ; 24-hour dietary recall ; LOGISTIC-REGRESSION ; correlates ; comparison ; lipid ; household ; eating locations ; eating out of home ; energy intake
    Abstract: Objective: To compare the average out-of-home (OH) consumption of foods and beverages, as well as energy intake, among populations from 10 European countries and to describe the characteristics of substantial OH caters, as defined for the purpose of the present study, in comparison to other individuals. Design: Cross-sectional study. Dietary data were collected through single 24-hour dietary recalls, in which the place of consumption was recorded. For the present study, substantial OH eaters were defined as those who consumed more than 25% of total daily energy intake at locations other than the household premises. Mean dietary intakes and the proportion of substantial OH eaters are presented by food group and country. Logistic regression analyses were used to estimate the odds of being a substantial OH eater in comparison to not being one, using mutually adjusted possible non-dietary determinants. Setting: Ten European countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Subjects: The subjects were 34 270 individuals, 12 537 men and 21733 women, aged 35-74 years. Results: The fraction of energy intake during OH eating was generally higher in northern European countries than in the southern ones. Among the food and beverage groups, those selectively consumed outside the home were coffee/tea/waters and sweets and, to a lesser extent, cereals, meats, added lipids and vegetables. Substantial OH eating was positively associated with energy intake and inversely associated with age and physical activity. Substantial OH eating was less common among the less educated compared with the more educated, and more common during weekdays in central and north Europe and during the weekend in south Europe. Conclusions: Eating outside the home was associated with sedentary lifestyle and increased energy intake; it was more common among the young and concerned in particular coffee/tea/waters and sweets
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 17582244
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  • 9
    Keywords: SURVIVAL ; colon ; HEALTH ; WOMEN ; colorectal cancer ; REGION ; UNITED-STATES ; nutrition ; INEQUALITIES ; rectum ; SOCIOECONOMIC-STATUS ; DEPRIVATION ; Educational level ; Tumor Location
    Abstract: Existing evidence is inconclusive on whether socioeconomic status (SES) and educational inequalities influence colorectal cancer (CRC) risk, and whether low or high SES/educational level is associated with developing CRC. The aim of our study was to investigate the relationship between educational level and CRC. We studied data from 400,510 participants in the EPIC (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition) study, of whom 2,447 developed CRC (colon: 1,551, rectum: 896, mean follow-up 8.3 years). Cox proportional hazard regression analysis stratified by age, gender and center, and adjusted for potential confounders were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Relative indices of inequality (RII) for education were estimated using Cox regression models. We conducted separate analyses for tumor location, gender and geographical region. Compared with participants with college/university education, participants with vocational secondary education or less had a nonsignificantly lower risk of developing CRC. When further stratified for tumor location, adjusted risk estimates for the proximal colon were statistically significant for primary education or less (HR 0.73, 95% CI 0.57-0.94) and for vocational secondary education (HR 0.76, 95% CI 0.58-0.98). The inverse association between low education and CRC risk was particularly found in women and Southern Europe. These associations were statistically significant for CRC, for colon cancer and for proximal colon cancer. In conclusion, CRC risk, especially in the proximal colon, is lower in subjects with a lower educational level compared to those with a higher educational level. This association is most pronounced in women and Southern Europe
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 21412763
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  • 10
    Keywords: COHORT ; HEALTH ; OBESITY ; COLORECTAL-CANCER ; nutrition ; REGRESSION ; PHYSICAL-ACTIVITY ; SIZE ; BODY-MASS INDEX ; COMPETING RISKS
    Abstract: BACKGROUND: A moderate association exists between body mass index (BMI) and colorectal cancer. Less is known about the effect of weight change. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the relation between BMI and weight change and subsequent colon and rectal cancer risk. DESIGN: This was studied among 328,781 participants in the prospective European Prospective Investigation into Cancer-Physical Activity, Nutrition, Alcohol, Cessation of Smoking, Eating study (mean age: 50 y). Body weight was assessed at recruitment and on average 5 y later. Self-reported weight change (kg/y) was categorized in sex-specific quintiles, with quintiles 2 and 3 combined as the reference category (men: -0.6 to 0.3 kg/y; women: -0.4 to 0.4 kg/y). In the subsequent years, participants were followed for the occurrence of colon and rectal cancer (median period: 6.8 y). Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were used to study the association. RESULTS: A total of 1261 incident colon cancer and 747 rectal cancer cases were identified. BMI at recruitment was statistically significantly associated with colon cancer risk in men (HR: 1.04; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.07). Moderate weight gain (quintile 4) in men increased risk further (HR: 1.32; 95% CI: 1.04, 1.68), but this relation did not show a clear trend. In women, BMI or weight gain was not related to subsequent risk of colon cancer. No statistically significant associations for weight loss and colon cancer or for BMI and weight changes and rectal cancer were found. CONCLUSIONS: BMI attained at adulthood was associated with colon cancer risk. Subsequent weight gain or loss was not related to colon or rectal cancer risk in men or women.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 24225355
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