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  • HEALTHY-CHILDREN  (2)
  • 1
    Keywords: Germany ; screening ; RISK ; SAMPLE ; SAMPLES ; INFECTION ; IMPACT ; RISK-FACTORS ; ASSOCIATION ; HEALTH ; DESIGN ; ESCHERICHIA-COLI ; resistance ; risk factors ; CHILDREN ; INFECTIONS ; PREVALENCE ; YOUNG ; ASSOCIATIONS ; RE ; SIBLINGS ; DETERMINANTS ; RESISTANT ; odds ratio ; RISK-FACTOR ; population-based ; E ; TRANSMISSION ; COMMUNITY ; CONTACT ; HEALTHY-CHILDREN ; URINARY-TRACT-INFECTION ; bacterial ; antibiotic resistance ; ANTIBIOTIC-RESISTANCE ; DAY-CARE-CENTERS ; e.coli ; household ; TRIMETHOPRIM-RESISTANT
    Abstract: Objective: In young children infections with resistant Escherichia coli (E. coli) can lead to life-threatening situations. Epidemiological data on the prevalence and major determinants of carriage of antibiotic resistant E. coli among children in the community setting are sparse. Study Design and Setting: In a population-based study from Germany, stool samples were obtained from children aged 6 months to 4 years attending a pediatrician for a regular health screening (N = 568) or an acute infection (N = 316), as well as from their parents (N = 1,594) and siblings (N = 624). E coli was cultured, and minimal inhibitory concentrations to various antibiotics were tested. We determined prevalences of E. coli resistance to commonly prescribed antibiotics and their association with potential risk factors. Results: Prevalence of E. coli resistance was 16.6%, 8.7%, and 11.6% for ampicillin, cotrimoxazole, and doxycycline, respectively. Strong associations were found with antibiotic resistance among siblings (odds ratios [95% confidence intervals] for ampicillin, doxycycline, and cotrimoxazole resistance: 4.4 [1.8-10.81, 8.0 [3.0-21.2], and 10.8 [3.5-32.71, respectively). Conclusion: Resistance prevalences in this community-based study were much lower than those reported from the clinical sector. Household contacts seem to be the key factor for children's colonization with resistant E. coli in the community setting. (C) 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 17938057
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  • 2
    Keywords: Germany ; human ; POPULATION ; SUSCEPTIBILITY ; DESIGN ; ESCHERICHIA-COLI ; resistance ; COUNTRIES ; POPULATIONS ; PREVALENCE ; RE ; INCREASE ; PATHOGENS ; E ; COMMUNITY ; animal ; TRIMETHOPRIM ; ANTIMICROBIAL SURVEILLANCE PROGRAM ; EMERGENCE ; HEALTHY-CHILDREN ; NONHOSPITALIZED PATIENTS ; SPECTRUM BETA-LACTAMASES ; URINARY-TRACT-INFECTION
    Abstract: The increase in bacterial antibiotic resistance is of major concern worldwide, but pertinent epidemiologic studies have used strongly divergent approaches and are widely scattered in the literature. The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review of studies reporting on the prevalence of antibiotic resistance in Escherichia coli in different parts of the world. Studies published from 1970 to 2006 on the prevalence of E. coli resistance were identified by a systematic Medline research and reviewed with respect to characteristics of the study design and study population, the method of resistance detection, and the prevalence of resistance. The prevalence of resistance to specific antibiotics was highly variable in different populations and in different countries and ranged from 0 to 100%. The prevalence of resistance reported in studies from Middle and South America, Spain, and Turkey was higher than that reported in the USA and Central Europe. Moreover, a tendency towards higher prevalence rates of resistance in recent years was observed. The findings indicate a need for regular monitoring of antimicrobial susceptibility rates in different human and animal populations by standardized sampling and measurement procedures. Such monitoring would help identify relevant factors that contribute to the spread of resistant pathogens and would support the prudent use of antibiotics
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 17235554
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