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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2015-07-02
    Description: Lenalidomide is a highly effective treatment for myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) with deletion of chromosome 5q (del(5q)). Here, we demonstrate that lenalidomide induces the ubiquitination of casein kinase 1A1 (CK1alpha) by the E3 ubiquitin ligase CUL4-RBX1-DDB1-CRBN (known as CRL4(CRBN)), resulting in CK1alpha degradation. CK1alpha is encoded by a gene within the common deleted region for del(5q) MDS and haploinsufficient expression sensitizes cells to lenalidomide therapy, providing a mechanistic basis for the therapeutic window of lenalidomide in del(5q) MDS. We found that mouse cells are resistant to lenalidomide but that changing a single amino acid in mouse Crbn to the corresponding human residue enables lenalidomide-dependent degradation of CK1alpha. We further demonstrate that minor side chain modifications in thalidomide and a novel analogue, CC-122, can modulate the spectrum of substrates targeted by CRL4(CRBN). These findings have implications for the clinical activity of lenalidomide and related compounds, and demonstrate the therapeutic potential of novel modulators of E3 ubiquitin ligases.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Kronke, Jan -- Fink, Emma C -- Hollenbach, Paul W -- MacBeth, Kyle J -- Hurst, Slater N -- Udeshi, Namrata D -- Chamberlain, Philip P -- Mani, D R -- Man, Hon Wah -- Gandhi, Anita K -- Svinkina, Tanya -- Schneider, Rebekka K -- McConkey, Marie -- Jaras, Marcus -- Griffiths, Elizabeth -- Wetzler, Meir -- Bullinger, Lars -- Cathers, Brian E -- Carr, Steven A -- Chopra, Rajesh -- Ebert, Benjamin L -- P01 CA066996/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- P01CA108631/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL082945/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01HL082945/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- T32 GM007753/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- T32GM007753/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2015 Jul 9;523(7559):183-8. doi: 10.1038/nature14610. Epub 2015 Jul 1.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉1] Brigham and Women's Hospital, Division of Hematology, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA [2] University Hospital of Ulm, Department of Internal Medicine III, 89081 Ulm, Germany [3] Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA. ; 1] Brigham and Women's Hospital, Division of Hematology, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA [2] Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA. ; Celgene Corporation, San Diego, California 92121, USA. ; Brigham and Women's Hospital, Division of Hematology, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. ; Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA. ; Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, New York 14263, USA. ; University Hospital of Ulm, Department of Internal Medicine III, 89081 Ulm, Germany.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26131937" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amino Acid Sequence ; Animals ; Casein Kinase I/genetics/*metabolism ; Cell Line ; Gene Expression Regulation/drug effects ; HEK293 Cells ; Humans ; Immunologic Factors/pharmacology ; Jurkat Cells ; K562 Cells ; Mice ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Myelodysplastic Syndromes/*genetics/*physiopathology ; Peptide Hydrolases/chemistry ; Proteolysis/drug effects ; Sequence Alignment ; Sequence Deletion ; Species Specificity ; Thalidomide/*analogs & derivatives/pharmacology ; Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases/metabolism ; Ubiquitination/*drug effects
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2015-11-10
    Description: At least 120 non-olfactory G-protein-coupled receptors in the human genome are 'orphans' for which endogenous ligands are unknown, and many have no selective ligands, hindering the determination of their biological functions and clinical relevance. Among these is GPR68, a proton receptor that lacks small molecule modulators for probing its biology. Using yeast-based screens against GPR68, here we identify the benzodiazepine drug lorazepam as a non-selective GPR68 positive allosteric modulator. More than 3,000 GPR68 homology models were refined to recognize lorazepam in a putative allosteric site. Docking 3.1 million molecules predicted new GPR68 modulators, many of which were confirmed in functional assays. One potent GPR68 modulator, ogerin, suppressed recall in fear conditioning in wild-type but not in GPR68-knockout mice. The same approach led to the discovery of allosteric agonists and negative allosteric modulators for GPR65. Combining physical and structure-based screening may be broadly useful for ligand discovery for understudied and orphan GPCRs.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Huang, Xi-Ping -- Karpiak, Joel -- Kroeze, Wesley K -- Zhu, Hu -- Chen, Xin -- Moy, Sheryl S -- Saddoris, Kara A -- Nikolova, Viktoriya D -- Farrell, Martilias S -- Wang, Sheng -- Mangano, Thomas J -- Deshpande, Deepak A -- Jiang, Alice -- Penn, Raymond B -- Jin, Jian -- Koller, Beverly H -- Kenakin, Terry -- Shoichet, Brian K -- Roth, Bryan L -- GM59957/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- GM71896/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- P01 HL114471/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01 DA017204/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- R01 DA027170/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- U01 MH104974/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- U19MH082441/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- U54 HD079124/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2015 Nov 26;527(7579):477-83. doi: 10.1038/nature15699. Epub 2015 Nov 9.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Pharmacology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, 27599-7365, USA. ; National Institute of Mental Health Psychoactive Drug Screening Program (NIMH PDSP), School of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599-7365, USA. ; Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, University of California at San Francisco, Byers Hall, 1700 4th Street, San Francisco, California 94158-2550, USA. ; Center for Integrative Chemical Biology and Drug Discovery (CICBDD), University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599-7363, USA. ; Division of Chemical Biology and Medicinal Chemistry, Eshelman School of Pharmacy, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599-7360, USA. ; Department of Psychiatry and Carolina Institute for Developmental Disabilities (CIDD), University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599-7146, USA. ; Center for Translational Medicine and Department of Medicine, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19107, USA. ; Department of Genetics, School of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599-7264, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26550826" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Allosteric Regulation/drug effects ; Allosteric Site ; Animals ; Anti-Anxiety Agents/analysis/chemistry/metabolism/pharmacology ; Benzyl Alcohols/analysis/*chemistry/metabolism/*pharmacology ; Conditioning, Classical ; *Drug Discovery ; Fear ; Female ; HEK293 Cells ; Humans ; Ligands ; Lorazepam/analysis/*chemistry/metabolism/*pharmacology ; Male ; Memory/drug effects ; Mice ; Mice, Knockout ; Models, Molecular ; Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled/agonists/antagonists & ; inhibitors/chemistry/deficiency/*metabolism ; Signal Transduction/drug effects ; Triazines/analysis/*chemistry/metabolism/*pharmacology
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2015-01-09
    Description: The mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) protein kinase is a master growth regulator that responds to multiple environmental cues. Amino acids stimulate, in a Rag-, Ragulator-, and vacuolar adenosine triphosphatase-dependent fashion, the translocation of mTORC1 to the lysosomal surface, where it interacts with its activator Rheb. Here, we identify SLC38A9, an uncharacterized protein with sequence similarity to amino acid transporters, as a lysosomal transmembrane protein that interacts with the Rag guanosine triphosphatases (GTPases) and Ragulator in an amino acid-sensitive fashion. SLC38A9 transports arginine with a high Michaelis constant, and loss of SLC38A9 represses mTORC1 activation by amino acids, particularly arginine. Overexpression of SLC38A9 or just its Ragulator-binding domain makes mTORC1 signaling insensitive to amino acid starvation but not to Rag activity. Thus, SLC38A9 functions upstream of the Rag GTPases and is an excellent candidate for being an arginine sensor for the mTORC1 pathway.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4295826/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4295826/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Wang, Shuyu -- Tsun, Zhi-Yang -- Wolfson, Rachel L -- Shen, Kuang -- Wyant, Gregory A -- Plovanich, Molly E -- Yuan, Elizabeth D -- Jones, Tony D -- Chantranupong, Lynne -- Comb, William -- Wang, Tim -- Bar-Peled, Liron -- Zoncu, Roberto -- Straub, Christoph -- Kim, Choah -- Park, Jiwon -- Sabatini, Bernardo L -- Sabatini, David M -- AI47389/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- F30 CA180754/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- F31 AG044064/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- F31 CA180271/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA103866/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R37 AI047389/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- T32 GM007287/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- T32 GM007753/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Jan 9;347(6218):188-94. doi: 10.1126/science.1257132. Epub 2015 Jan 7.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research and Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Biology, 9 Cambridge Center, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA. Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA. Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA. Broad Institute of Harvard and Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 7 Cambridge Center, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA. ; Harvard Medical School, 260 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA. ; Department of Neurobiology, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Harvard Medical School, 220 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA. ; Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research and Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Biology, 9 Cambridge Center, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA. Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA. Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA. Broad Institute of Harvard and Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 7 Cambridge Center, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA. sabatini@wi.mit.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25567906" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amino Acid Sequence ; Amino Acid Transport Systems/chemistry/genetics/*metabolism ; Arginine/deficiency/*metabolism ; HEK293 Cells ; Humans ; Lysosomes/*enzymology ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Monomeric GTP-Binding Proteins/*metabolism ; Multiprotein Complexes/*metabolism ; Protein Structure, Tertiary ; Signal Transduction ; TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/*metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2015-01-21
    Description: The regulated release of anorexigenic alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) and orexigenic Agouti-related protein (AgRP) from discrete hypothalamic arcuate neurons onto common target sites in the central nervous system has a fundamental role in the regulation of energy homeostasis. Both peptides bind with high affinity to the melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R); existing data show that alpha-MSH is an agonist that couples the receptor to the Galphas signalling pathway, while AgRP binds competitively to block alpha-MSH binding and blocks the constitutive activity mediated by the ligand-mimetic amino-terminal domain of the receptor. Here we show that, in mice, regulation of firing activity of neurons from the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) by alpha-MSH and AgRP can be mediated independently of Galphas signalling by ligand-induced coupling of MC4R to closure of inwardly rectifying potassium channel, Kir7.1. Furthermore, AgRP is a biased agonist that hyperpolarizes neurons by binding to MC4R and opening Kir7.1, independently of its inhibition of alpha-MSH binding. Consequently, Kir7.1 signalling appears to be central to melanocortin-mediated regulation of energy homeostasis within the PVN. Coupling of MC4R to Kir7.1 may explain unusual aspects of the control of energy homeostasis by melanocortin signalling, including the gene dosage effect of MC4R and the sustained effects of AgRP on food intake.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4383680/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4383680/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Ghamari-Langroudi, Masoud -- Digby, Gregory J -- Sebag, Julien A -- Millhauser, Glenn L -- Palomino, Rafael -- Matthews, Robert -- Gillyard, Taneisha -- Panaro, Brandon L -- Tough, Iain R -- Cox, Helen M -- Denton, Jerod S -- Cone, Roger D -- 5R01 DK082884-03/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- DK020593/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- F31 DK102343/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- P30 DK020593/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK064265/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK070332/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01DK064265/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01DK070332/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R25 GM059994/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2015 Apr 2;520(7545):94-8. doi: 10.1038/nature14051. Epub 2015 Jan 19.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Molecular Physiology &Biophysics, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee 37232, USA. ; Department of Chemistry &Biochemistry, University of California, Santa Cruz, California 95064, USA. ; 1] Department of Molecular Physiology &Biophysics, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee 37232, USA [2] Department of Pharmacology, Meharry Medical College, Nashville, Tennessee 37208, USA. ; King's College London, Wolfson Centre for Age-Related Diseases, Guy's Campus, London SE1 1UL, UK. ; 1] Department of Anesthesiology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee 37232, USA [2] Department of Pharmacology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee 37232, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25600267" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Action Potentials ; Agouti-Related Protein/metabolism ; Animals ; Eating/genetics ; Energy Metabolism ; Female ; *GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits, Gs ; HEK293 Cells ; Homeostasis/genetics ; Humans ; Ligands ; Male ; Melanocortins/metabolism ; Mice ; Neurons/*metabolism ; Paraventricular Hypothalamic Nucleus/*cytology ; Potassium Channels, Inwardly Rectifying/*metabolism ; Receptor, Melanocortin, Type 4/genetics/*metabolism ; Signal Transduction/genetics ; alpha-MSH/metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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