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  • Haemocyanin  (3)
  • pharmacokinetics  (2)
  • AC-ECD  (1)
  • Springer  (6)
  • Munksgaard International Publishers
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  • Springer  (6)
  • Munksgaard International Publishers
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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-136X
    Keywords: Crustacea ; Amphipoda ; Haemocyanin ; Temperature sensitivity ; l-Lactate
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The effect of pH, temperature, and l-lactate on the O2 bindign properties of haemocyanin (Hc) from three talitroidean species i.e., the aquatic Apohyale pugettensis, the semi-terrestrial Megalorchestia californiana, and the semi-/euterrestrial Traskorchestia traskiana was studied. The Hc of A. pugettensis was characterized by a higher O2 affinity (and more pronounced Bohr shift) than the Hc of either M. californiana or T. traskiana. Apohyale was the only species that possessed He that was sensitive to temperature change. Resuspending Hc from each of the three species in a stock Ringer's solution (based on the ionic composition of the haemolymph of T. traskiana) showed that the persistence of the difference in Bohr shift between Apohyale and the other two species was due to differences in the haemocyanins themselves and not attributable to their respective ionic environments. An inverse relationship was found between the cooperativity (n 50) and pH of Hc from T. traskiana and A. pugettensis but not for M. californiana. In each case adding l-lactate increased Hc O2 affinity, but this was most pronounced for A. pugettensis.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-136X
    Keywords: Crustacea ; Amphipoda ; Haemocyanin ; O2 transport
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Haemolymph PO2 and pH of two amphipod species, Apohyale pugettensis (aquatic) and Megalorchestia californiana (semi-terrestrial) in vivo were examined during immersion and emersion at 15 and 25°C, and also after activity in air at 15°C. For M. californiana arterial O2 tensions were higher in air than in water. This situation was reversed in A. pugettensis, although all O2 tensions measured for both species were comparatively high. No arterial-venous PO2 difference was apparent in the haemolymph of quiescent M. californiana. Haemocyanin (Hc) was 100% saturated in vivo only in the following; A. pugettensis in water (15 and 25°C) and air (15°C), and M. californiana in air (15°C). The Hc of both species becomes important in O2 transport during activity; under such circumstances the haemolymph of M. californiana delivered more O2 to the tissues than did that of A. pugettensis, despite the greater O2 content of the latter. The animals studied here may exhibit a stage (size class?) where cutaneous gas exchange is sufficient for resting aerobic metabolism while specialized respiratory carriers (and respiratory structures) are important in meeting the increased aerobic demands of activity or environmental stress.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-136X
    Keywords: Amphipoda ; Crustacea ; Haemocyanin ; Freezing ; Inorganic effectors ; Urate
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The effect of variations in [K], [Ca], [Mg], [NaCl], and [urate] on the in vitro O2 binding properties of haemocyanin (Hc) from three talitroidean species, viz. the aquatic Apohyale pugettensis, the semi-terrestrial Megalorchestia californiana, and the semi-/euterrestrial Traskorchestia traskiana were studied. Freezing altered the cooperativity of Hc from A. pugettensis and M. californiana but not T. traskiana. Variations in [NaCl], [K], and [Mg] had no effect on cither O2 affinity or cooperativity of the Hc except for A. pugettensis Hc where an increase in [Mg] resulted in an increase in both O2 affinity and cooperativity. Increasing [Ca] or [urate] increased O2 affinity of both A. pugettensis and M. californiana but not T. traskiana Hc. These effects were most marked in A. pugettensis. The results suggest a negative correlation between sensitivity to Hc effectors and the degree of terrestrial adaptation of a particular amphipod species.
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  • 4
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    Springer
    Microchimica acta 96 (1988), S. 11-26 
    ISSN: 1436-5073
    Keywords: electron capture detector (ECD) ; electron oscillation ; AC-ECD ; argon-methane ; non-homogeneous ECD kinetics
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract The oscillation of electrons—as driven by AC polarization—can be used to extract a high-sensitivity signal from a conventional electron capture detector. For example, hexachloroethane was detected at a hypercoulometric ratio of 2.0 F/mol, down to ca. 60 fg/s (S/N=3) and with a linear range in excess of two orders of magnitude. The change in carrier gas from nitrogen to argon-methane produced the expected order-of-magnitude increase in optimum oscillation frequency. Anab initio simulation of potentials and ion populations in a heterogeneous electron capture system under a high-frequency AC regime provided further insight into the detector's mechanism: Hypercoulometric response is mainly caused by increased cation-electron recombination in the plasma region, owing to a decreased field gradient and an increased cation concentration.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: Captopril ; sublingual ; pharmacokinetics ; pharmacodynamics
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary In this study we compared the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of captopril after sublingual and peroral administration. Single 25 mg doses of captopril were administered sublingually and perorally on two different occasions in a randomised cross-over fashion to eight healthy volunteers aged 22–35 years. The kinetics of unchanged captopril, plasma renin activity (PRA), BP and heart rate were studied over three hours after both peroral and sublingual administration of captopril. Mean pharmacokinetic parameters for unchanged captopril after sublingual administration were: Cmax, 234 ng·ml−1; tmax, 45 min; AUC (0–3 h), 15.1 μg·ml−1. min. Mean pharmacokinetic parameters for unchanged captopril after peroral administration were: Cmax, 228 ng·ml−1; tmax, 75 min; AUC (0–3 h), 17.0 μg·ml−1. min. tmax was significantly shorter when captopril was administered sublingually; all other pharmacokinetic parameters were equivalent. The plasma captopril concentrations achieved post drug administration led to increases in PRA and reductions in BP. tmax for PRA was 86 min for sublingual captopril and 113 min for perorally administered drug. Peak PRA values were, however, not significantly different. BP, as expected, was not reduced dramatically in these healthy volunteer subjects, however, in systolic BP vs time profiles, BP was significantly lower after volunteers received sublingual captopril. Heart rate increased slightly after captopril administration; there were no differences between the two routes of administration. Administration of captopril sublingually, therefore led to a more rapid attainment of plasma captopril concentrations and had a more rapid onset of pharmacological effect when compared with peroral administration.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: alfuzosin ; prazosin ; alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonist ; noradrenaline ; pharmacokinetics ; pharmacodynamics ; healthy volunteers
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary In an open dose ranging study with random inclusion of placebo, alfuzosin (α1-adrenoceptor antagonist) 1, 2.5 and 5 mg was administered to 6 healthy volunteers, 3 of the volunteers received 10 mg alfuzosin. Supine systolic blood (SBP) pressure was not reduced by alfuzosin although significant increases occurred in supine heart rate (HR) after 2.5 and 5 mg. In the standing position, SBP was reduced at 2 and 4 h with 5 mg alfuzosin; significant increases in HR occurred following 1, 2.5 and 5 mg at 2, 4, 6 and 8 h after administration. Exercise SBP was not reduced; diastolic blood pressure was significantly reduced at 4 and 6 h with 5 mg alfuzosin. More marked effects were seen in the 3 subjects who received 10 mg alfuzosin. After 1 and 5 mg, tmax ranged from 1–2 h; Cmax (4.1 to 20.8 ng · ml−1; AUC (0–24) 20 to 132 ng · ml−1 · h (1 and 5 mg respectively) increased progressively with dose indicating dose dependent kinetics; no significant changes occurred in the visual analogue scale for sedation. A comparison of alfuzosin 5 mg, prazosin 1 mg and placebo each administered for 4 days, indicated that alfuzosin did not significantly reduce standing SBP on either Day 1 or Day 4; prazosin reduced SBP at 2 and 4 h on Day 1 and 6 h on Day 4 compared to placebo. Standing HR was increased by alfuzosin at 2 h on Day 1 and Day 4; increases occurred with prazosin at 2, 4, 6 and 8 h on Day 1 and 6 h on Day 4. Supine plasma noradrenaline increased with alfuzosin and prazosin at 2 and 4 h on Days 1 and 4; the increases were not significantly different. The plasma elimination half-life (t1/2) for alfuzosin was 3.4 h and 3.1 h after acute and chronic administration; (t1/2) for prazosin was 2.6 and 2.9 h. In conclusion alfuzosin causes small reductions in systolic blood pressure, accompanied by a dose dependent increase in heart rate in the supine and standing position and following exercise.
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