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  • Head injury  (1)
  • Hydrobia  (1)
  • Key words CADASIL  (1)
  • Pain  (1)
  • 1995-1999  (4)
  • 1950-1954
Collection
Publisher
Years
  • 1995-1999  (4)
  • 1950-1954
Year
  • 1
    ISSN: 1590-3478
    Keywords: Multiple sclerosis ; Pain ; Symptoms ; Treatment
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Sommario L'occorrenza di sindromi dolorose acute (durata inferiore a 1 mese) o croniche (durata superiore a 1 mese) è stata indagata in 49 pazienti (22 maschi e 27 femmine) con sclerosi multipla definita. Ciascun paziente è stato esaminato due volte con un intervallo di 5 anni tra i due controlli. Tra il primo e il secondo controllo si è osservato un significativo aumento di sindromi dolorose acute e croniche comprendenti tensione e dolore alle estremità, spasmi, lombalgia, segno di Lhermitte e dolori neuralgici. Tale aumento si è verificato sia nei maschi che nelle femmine ed è particolarmente evidente nei pazienti con deterioramento e disabilità.
    Notes: Abstract Forty-nine (22 males, 27 females) patients with definite multiple sclerosis were examined twice with 5 years interval regarding acute (less than 1 month duration) and chronic (more than 1 month duration) pain syndromes. From the first to the second examination a significant increase was found in the number of acute and chronic pain syndromes, including tension and pain in the extremities, spasms, low back pain, Lhermitte's sign and neuralgia. The increase included both men and women. The increase was especially found in patients with deterioration of disability.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-5117
    Keywords: Corophium ; Hydrobia ; intertidal mud flats ; microphallid trematodes ; phenology
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The phenology of microphallid trematodes within their intermediate hostpopulations has been studied on an intertidal mud flat. The parasites usethe mud snail Hydrobia ulvae and the infaunal amphipod Corophium volutatoras first and secondary intermediate host, respectively. Migratory shorebirdsact as final hosts. Our results show a general trend of decline in thedensity of infected intermediate hosts during both spring and autumn, whichcould mainly be ascribed to shorebird predation. During summer the densityof both infected snails and infected amphipods increased considerably, witha culmination in June within the snail population (1000 infectedm-2 and in August within the amphipod population (40 000infected m-2. This time lag in parasite occurrence could berelated to (1) the development time of larval trematodes within the snails,(2) higher ambient temperatures in late summer increasing parasitetransmission between snails and amphipods during this period, and (3) ageneral increase in the Corophium population during late summer. Fromsamples collected between 1990 and 1995 it is shown that microphallidtrematodes occasionally may give rise to mass mortality in the amphipodpopulation. The prerequisites for such an event are a high parasiteprevalence within the first intermediate host population and unusually highambient temperatures, facilitating parasite transmission to the secondaryintermediate host, C. volutator.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0942-0940
    Keywords: Head injury ; indomethacin reactivity ; hyperventilation ; intracranial pressure ; cerebral blood flow ; cerebral ischaemia
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of hyper-ventilation and indomethacin on cerebral circulation, metabolism and pressures in patients with acute severe head injury in order to see if indomethacin may act supplementary to hyperventilation. Fourteen severely head injured patients entered the study. Intracranial pressure (ICP), mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) and cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) were monitored continuously. Within the first four days after the trauma the CO2 and indomethacin vasoreactivities were studied by measurements of cerebral blood flow (CBF) (Cerebrograph 10a, intravenous133Xe technique) and arterio-venous difference of oxygen (AVdO2). Ischaemia was evaluated from changes in CBF, saturation of oxygen in the jugular bulb (SvjO2), lactate and lactate/oxygen index (LOI). Data are presented as medians and ranges, results are significant unless otherwise indicated. Before intervention ICP was well controlled (14.8 (9–24) mmHg) and basic CBF level was 39.1 (21.6–75.0) ml/100 g/min). The arterio-venous oxygen differences were generally decreased (AVdO2 = 4.3 (1.8–8.1) ml/100 ml) indicating moderate luxury perfusion. Levels of CMRO2 were decreased (1.54 (0.7–3.2) ml/100 g/min) as well. Duringhyperventilation (ΔAPaCO2 = 0.88 (0.62–1.55) kPa) CBF decreased with 11.8 (−33.4−29.7) %/kPa and ICP decreased with 3.8 (0–10) mmHg. AVdO2 increased 34.0 (4.0–139.2) %/kPa, MABP was unchanged, CMRO2 and CPP increased (ΔCPP = 3.9 (−10−20) mmHg). AVD (lactate) and LOI were unchanged. No correlations between CBF responses to hypocapnia and outcomes were observed. An i.v. bolus dose ofindomethacin (30 mg) decreased CBF 14.7 (−16.7−57.4) % and ICP decreased 4.3 (−1−17) mmHg. AVdO2 increased 27.8 (−40.0−66.7)%, MABP (ΔMABP = 4.9 (−2−21) mmHg) and CPP (ΔCPP = 8.7 (3–29) mmHg) increased while CMRO2 was unchanged. No changes in AVd (lactate) and LOI indicating cerebral ischaemia were found. Compared to hyperventilation (changes per 1 kPa, at PaCO2 level = 4.05 kPa) the changes in MABP, CPP and CBF were significantly greater after indomethacin, while the changes in AVdO2, ICP, SvjO2, and LOI were of the same order of magnitude. Nocorrelation between relative reactivities to indomethacin and CO2, evaluated from changes in CBF and AVdO2, or between the decrease in ICP after the two procedures were found. Thus, some patients reacted to indomethacin but not to hyperventilation, and vice versa. These results suggest that indomethacin and hyperventilation might act independently, or in a complementary fashion in the treatment of patients with severe head injury.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Key words CADASIL ; Electron microscopy ; Granular osmiophilic material ; αB crystallin ; Heat ; shock proteins
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) is a non-arterio-atherosclerotic, non-amyloidotic arteriopathy affecting preferentially the small arteries and arterioles of the brain. The morphologic hallmark is the presence of a characteristic granular alteration of the arterial media that ultrastructurally corresponds to the accumulation of electron-dense material surrounding the smooth muscle cells. Although the presence of this granular osmiophilic material (GOM) was originally described as limited to brain vessels, identical electron microscopic findings have been demonstrated in the media of peripheral tissue arteries, allowing for a pathologic diagnosis of the disease by a simple skin, muscle or nerve biopsy. We report some atypical features identified in our CADASIL patients that broaden the phenotypic expression of this disease. Firstly, we identified a cortical infarct in an otherwise typical CADASIL patient. Secondly, we observed GOM in skin arteries of a 30-year-old man with hemiplegic migraine, the son of a woman who had died with CADASIL. This confirms that it may be possible to diagnose the disease at a preclinical stage by the ultrastructural evaluation of peripheral tissue biopsy material, particularly for individuals for whom there is a supporting family history. Thirdly, ultrastructural examination of the skin, and subcutaneous and striated muscle of an unrelated and apparently sporadic patient with neuropathologic and neuroradiologic evidence of CADASIL in meningeal and cerebral vessels failed to reveal diagnostic lesions in peripheral arteries. Thus, the possibility of a false-negative pathologic diagnosis in patients with a clinicoradiologic diagnosis of CADASIL, if one relies solely on a peripheral tissue biopsy, does exist. Additionally, we have identified heat shock proteins (Hsp70 and αB crystallin) and ubiquitin in the vascular myocytes of affected arteries. αB crystallin also seemed to be deposited extracellularly, which suggests that GOM also might be immunoreactive for αB crystallin.
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