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  • Helminth infracommunity Helminths co-occurrences Semipermanent and permanent pond Host ecology Subtropical habitat  (1)
  • Prophylaxe  (1)
  • 2000-2004  (2)
  • 1915-1919
  • 1
    ISSN: 1439-099X
    Keywords: Schlüsselwörter: Strahlentherapie ; Diarrhö ; Prophylaxe ; Smektit ; Key Words: Radiotherapy ; Diarrhea ; Prophylaxis ; Smectite
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Purpose: Diarrhea and abdominal pain are well-known side effects abdominal or pelvic of radiation therapy that may lead to interruption of treatment in serious cases. In recent trials the silicate smectite has proven a promising drug in the prophylaxis if these adverse events. The presented trial aimed at the verification of earlier studies and the evaluation of a dose-effect relationship. Patients and Methods: Between April 1994 and May 1995, a total of 176 patients obtaining radiotherapy of the pelvis or the abdomen were evaluated in a double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled investigation regarding the prophylactic effect of smectite (= Colina®) against radiotherapy-induced diarrhea. During the whole period of radiotherapy 85 patients obtained 2 × 6 g smectite daily and 91 patients received 2 × 6 g placebo. The primary end point of the analysis was the time to the first appearance of diarrhea (≥ 3 pappy stools). Results: All 176 patients were evaluated according to an intent-to-treat analysis. There was no significant difference between the prophylactic effects of smectite and placebo. For an explorative post-hoc analysis the total study group was split up into 2 subgroups, one with an irradiated small bowel volume ≤ 837.5 ml, the other with a small bowel volume 〉 837,5 ml (median); the analysis indicated that the first subgroup showed a benefit for the smectite-treated patients in contrast to the placebo treatment (32 vs. 18 calendar days to the first appearance of diarrhea). This benefit was statistically not significant. Conclusion: Prophylactic application of smectite during irradiation of the pelvis and the abdomen can delay the development of radiotherapy-induced diarrhea, a statistical significance could not be verified neither in the total study group nor in the post-hoc subgroup analysis.
    Notes: Hintergrund und Ziel: Strahlentherapieinduzierte Diarrhöen und Schmerzen sind bekannte Nebenwirkungen der Becken- und Abdominalbestrahlung und können in schwerwiegenden Fällen zur Unterbrechung der Strahlenbehandlung führen. Das Schichtsilikat Smektit hat sich in den ersten Anwendungsstudien als ein vielversprechendes Therapeutikum zur Prophylaxe dieser Nebenwirkungen erwiesen. Die vorliegende Untersuchung diente der Verifizierung bekannter Studienresultate und der Erarbeitung einer Dosis-Wirkungs-Beziehung. Patienten und Methoden: Zwischen April 1994 und Mai 1995 wurde bei 176 Patienten mit Becken- bzw. Abdominalbestrahlung die prophylaktische Wirkung von Smektit (Handelsname: Colina®) bezüglich radiogener Diarrhöen in einer doppelblinden, randomisierten und plazebokontrollierten Studie untersucht. Während des gesamten Zeitraums der Strahlentherapie erhielten 85 Patienten täglich 2mal 6 g Smektit und 91 Patienten täglich 2mal 6 g von identisch aussehender Plazebosubstanz. Das Hauptzielkriterium der Auswertung war der Zeitraum bis zum Auftreten einer bestrahlungsinduzierten Diarrhö (definiert als ≥ 3 breiige Stühle). Ergebnisse: Alle 176 Patienten wurden in der Intent-to-treat-Analyse ausgewertet. In der Gesamtgruppe zeigten sich keine signifikanten Unterschiede zwischen der prophylaktischen Wirkung von Smektit und Plazebo. Eine explorative Post-hoc-Analyse mit Teilung des Gesamtkollektivs in Subgruppen mit einem bestrahlten Dünndarmvolumen ≤ 837,5 ml bzw. 〉 837,5 ml (Median) deutet im Kollektiv ≤ 837,5 ml an, dass bei gegebener Dosierung ein Vorteil für Smektit gegenüber Plazebo (32 versus 18 Kalendertage bis zum ersten Auftreten einer Diarrhö) besteht; dieser Vorteil ist jedoch statistisch nicht signifikant. Schlussfolgerung: Durch den prophylaktischen Einsatz eines Smektitpräparates als Antidiarrhoikum während einer Bestrahlung des Becken- und Abdominalbereiches kann die Entstehung einer bestrahlungsinduzierten Diarrhö verzögert werden, eine statistische Signifikanz konnte jedoch sowohl im Gesamtkollektiv als auch in einer Post-hoc-Subgruppenanalyse nicht nachgewiesen werden.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1939
    Keywords: Helminth infracommunity Helminths co-occurrences Semipermanent and permanent pond Host ecology Subtropical habitat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract. The need for studies on helminth communities of South American amphibians was addressed by examining changes in composition and population dynamics of the helminth component and infracommunities in the frog Lysapsus limellus Cope, 1862, from 1994 to 1996. Two pond types were considered, one permanent and one semipermanent. The main goals of this study were (1) to investigate the relationships between pond type, season, study time, frog body size, and frog sex and the presence-absence and counts of helminth parasite species in the frog host, L. limellus, and (2) to examine the co-occurrence of the different parasite species in the frog host in terms of the structure, assembly, and dynamics of the helminth infracommunity. Parasite presence and absence were analyzed using logistic regression and parasite counts were analyzed using log-linear modeling. To examine the association between parasite species, a principal components analysis was carried out on the correlation matrix for the counts. The pattern of co-occurrences was also examined through a randomization test. The main results were as follows: (1) five parasite species were found in the infracommunity; (2) the pond type and the host size class were the principal factors related to the presence and absence of parasites for the three dominant species, while the year of study and the host sex were only important for one of the species; (3) for the parasite counts, many more factors were significant, with body size class and pond type always important factors for the three core species of the infracommunity, with season, year of study, and sex also sometimes important, and (4) strong associations were observed between some helminth species of the host from the permanent pond, but the same species did not co-occur in frogs in the semipermanent pond. The life histories of the five species can be considered as opportunistic or "r strategists."
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