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  • Human PMN  (1)
  • mycotoxin  (1)
  • 1990-1994  (2)
  • 1975-1979
  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Emestrin ; mycotoxin ; mycotoxicosis ; Emericella striata ; mouse liver ; mouse lymphoid tissue
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The effects of emestrin (EMS), a secondary metabolite of the Emericella species, on male ICR mice were examined. The intraperitoneal LD50 values of EMS were 17.7 and 13.0 mg/kg at 24 and 48 hr, respectively. The target organs of EMS were the heart, liver and thymus. In doses over 30 mg/kg the experimental animals died from cardiac failure shortly after the injections. Several survivors that were given EMS in doses under 20 mg/kg showed severe centrilobular necrosis in the liver at 24 hr. Marked degeneration of mitochondria was seen in electron micrographs of both cardiac muscle cells and hepatocytes. In the degenerated hepatocytes, prominent proliferation of RER, membrane-limited inclusions containing both ribosome-like granules and RER, and fenestrated lamella-like structures were observed. Massive necrosis of lymphocytes was always observed in the cortical layer of the thymus of the survivors within 24 hr, while bilateral adrenalectomized mice showed no discernible pathomorphological changes in the lymphoid tissues. Pretreatment of mice with diethyl maleate increased the incidence and severity of hepatic necrosis, whereas that with either cysteine or CoCl2 reduced the severity of centrilobular necrosis of the liver. Pretreatment with phenobarbital had no significant effect on EMS-induced hepatic lesions.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Human PMN ; H. capsulatum ; fungicidal resistance
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The basis for resistance of yeast form of Histoplasma capsulatum to antifungal activity of human neutrophils was studied. In limiting dilution assays and short term coculture assays human neutrophils were ineffective in killing H. capsulatum whereas Candida albicans was readily killed. By contrast, in a cell free hydrogen peroxide-peroxidase-halide system H. capsulatum was as sensitive to killing as C. albicans. Moreover, lysate of human neutrophils effectively substituted for horse-radish peroxidase in a cell free system for killing H. capsulatum. H. capsulatum elicited significant products of the oxidative burst in human neutrophils as detected by luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence. However, the response was two-fold less (p〈0.05) than that induced by C. albicans. Transmission electron microscopy studies showed that phagosome-lysosome fusion took place when neutrophils phagocytosed C. albicans or H. capsulatum. Taken together, these findings indicate that, even though H. capsulatum elicits an oxidative burst and phagosome-lysosome fusion within the phagosome, it is capable of evading damage in short term assays.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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