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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2012-05-19
    Description: Members of the opioid receptor family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are found throughout the peripheral and central nervous system, where they have key roles in nociception and analgesia. Unlike the 'classical' opioid receptors, delta, kappa and mu (delta-OR, kappa-OR and mu-OR), which were delineated by pharmacological criteria in the 1970s and 1980s, the nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ) peptide receptor (NOP, also known as ORL-1) was discovered relatively recently by molecular cloning and characterization of an orphan GPCR. Although it shares high sequence similarity with classical opioid GPCR subtypes ( approximately 60%), NOP has a markedly distinct pharmacology, featuring activation by the endogenous peptide N/OFQ, and unique selectivity for exogenous ligands. Here we report the crystal structure of human NOP, solved in complex with the peptide mimetic antagonist compound-24 (C-24) (ref. 4), revealing atomic details of ligand-receptor recognition and selectivity. Compound-24 mimics the first four amino-terminal residues of the NOP-selective peptide antagonist UFP-101, a close derivative of N/OFQ, and provides important clues to the binding of these peptides. The X-ray structure also shows substantial conformational differences in the pocket regions between NOP and the classical opioid receptors kappa (ref. 5) and mu (ref. 6), and these are probably due to a small number of residues that vary between these receptors. The NOP-compound-24 structure explains the divergent selectivity profile of NOP and provides a new structural template for the design of NOP ligands.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3356928/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3356928/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Thompson, Aaron A -- Liu, Wei -- Chun, Eugene -- Katritch, Vsevolod -- Wu, Huixian -- Vardy, Eyal -- Huang, Xi-Ping -- Trapella, Claudio -- Guerrini, Remo -- Calo, Girolamo -- Roth, Bryan L -- Cherezov, Vadim -- Stevens, Raymond C -- P50 GM073197/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- P50 GM073197-08/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 DA017204/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- R01 DA017204-08/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- R01 DA027170/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- R01 DA027170-03/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- R01 DA27170/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- U54 GM094618/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- U54 GM094618-02/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- Y1-CO-1020/CO/NCI NIH HHS/ -- Y1-GM-1104/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2012 May 16;485(7398):395-9. doi: 10.1038/nature11085.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Molecular Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California 92037, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22596163" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Binding Sites ; Biomimetic Materials/*chemistry/metabolism/pharmacology ; Crystallography, X-Ray ; HEK293 Cells ; Humans ; Ligands ; Models, Molecular ; Narcotic Antagonists ; Opioid Peptides/*chemistry/metabolism/pharmacology ; Piperidines/*chemistry/*metabolism/pharmacology ; Protein Conformation ; Receptors, Opioid/*chemistry/*metabolism ; Receptors, Opioid, kappa/chemistry/metabolism ; Spiro Compounds/*chemistry/*metabolism/pharmacology ; Substrate Specificity
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2012-11-28
    Description: A remarkable feature of regenerative processes is their ability to halt proliferation once an organ's structure has been restored. The Wnt signalling pathway is the major driving force for homeostatic self-renewal and regeneration in the mammalian intestine. However, the mechanisms that counterbalance Wnt-driven proliferation are poorly understood. Here we demonstrate in mice and humans that yes-associated protein 1 (YAP; also known as YAP1)--a protein known for its powerful growth-inducing and oncogenic properties--has an unexpected growth-suppressive function, restricting Wnt signals during intestinal regeneration. Transgenic expression of YAP reduces Wnt target gene expression and results in the rapid loss of intestinal crypts. In addition, loss of YAP results in Wnt hypersensitivity during regeneration, leading to hyperplasia, expansion of intestinal stem cells and niche cells, and formation of ectopic crypts and microadenomas. We find that cytoplasmic YAP restricts elevated Wnt signalling independently of the AXIN-APC-GSK-3beta complex partly by limiting the activity of dishevelled (DVL). DVL signals in the nucleus of intestinal stem cells, and its forced expression leads to enhanced Wnt signalling in crypts. YAP dampens Wnt signals by restricting DVL nuclear translocation during regenerative growth. Finally, we provide evidence that YAP is silenced in a subset of highly aggressive and undifferentiated human colorectal carcinomas, and that its expression can restrict the growth of colorectal carcinoma xenografts. Collectively, our work describes a novel mechanistic paradigm for how proliferative signals are counterbalanced in regenerating tissues. Additionally, our findings have important implications for the targeting of YAP in human malignancies.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3536889/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3536889/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Barry, Evan R -- Morikawa, Teppei -- Butler, Brian L -- Shrestha, Kriti -- de la Rosa, Rosemarie -- Yan, Kelley S -- Fuchs, Charles S -- Magness, Scott T -- Smits, Ron -- Ogino, Shuji -- Kuo, Calvin J -- Camargo, Fernando D -- 1K08DK096048/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- 1U01DK085527/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- AR064036/AR/NIAMS NIH HHS/ -- K08 DK096048/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- P01CA87969/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- P30 DK049216/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- P50CA127003/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 AR064036/AR/NIAMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA131426/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA151993/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK091427/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- U01 DK085527/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2013 Jan 3;493(7430):106-10. doi: 10.1038/nature11693. Epub 2012 Nov 25.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Stem Cell Program and Department of Hematology/Oncology, Children's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23178811" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Active Transport, Cell Nucleus ; Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/deficiency/genetics/*metabolism ; Animals ; *Cell Proliferation ; Colorectal Neoplasms/genetics/metabolism/pathology ; Genes, Tumor Suppressor ; Humans ; Intestines/*cytology/physiology ; Mice ; Mice, Knockout ; Neoplasm Transplantation ; Phosphoproteins/deficiency/genetics/*metabolism ; Regeneration/*physiology ; Stem Cell Niche ; Stem Cells/*cytology/*metabolism ; Thrombospondins/genetics/metabolism ; Tumor Suppressor Proteins/genetics/metabolism ; Wnt Proteins/metabolism ; Wnt Signaling Pathway
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    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2013-09-03
    Description: Topoisomerases are expressed throughout the developing and adult brain and are mutated in some individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, how topoisomerases are mechanistically connected to ASD is unknown. Here we find that topotecan, a topoisomerase 1 (TOP1) inhibitor, dose-dependently reduces the expression of extremely long genes in mouse and human neurons, including nearly all genes that are longer than 200 kilobases. Expression of long genes is also reduced after knockdown of Top1 or Top2b in neurons, highlighting that both enzymes are required for full expression of long genes. By mapping RNA polymerase II density genome-wide in neurons, we found that this length-dependent effect on gene expression was due to impaired transcription elongation. Interestingly, many high-confidence ASD candidate genes are exceptionally long and were reduced in expression after TOP1 inhibition. Our findings suggest that chemicals and genetic mutations that impair topoisomerases could commonly contribute to ASD and other neurodevelopmental disorders.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3767287/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3767287/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉King, Ian F -- Yandava, Chandri N -- Mabb, Angela M -- Hsiao, Jack S -- Huang, Hsien-Sung -- Pearson, Brandon L -- Calabrese, J Mauro -- Starmer, Joshua -- Parker, Joel S -- Magnuson, Terry -- Chamberlain, Stormy J -- Philpot, Benjamin D -- Zylka, Mark J -- P30 NS045892/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- P30HD03110/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/ -- P30NS045892/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM101974/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 HD068730/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/ -- R01 MH093372/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- R01GM101974/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01HD068730/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/ -- R01MH093372/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- T32 HD040127/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/ -- T32HD040127/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2013 Sep 5;501(7465):58-62. doi: 10.1038/nature12504. Epub 2013 Aug 28.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Cell Biology and Physiology, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23995680" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Autistic Disorder/*genetics ; DNA Topoisomerases, Type I/deficiency/*metabolism ; DNA Topoisomerases, Type II/deficiency/metabolism ; DNA-Binding Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors/deficiency/metabolism ; Gene Knockdown Techniques ; Genomic Imprinting/genetics ; Humans ; Mice ; Mutation/genetics ; RNA Polymerase II/metabolism ; Synapses/metabolism ; Topoisomerase Inhibitors/pharmacology ; Topotecan/pharmacology ; *Transcription Elongation, Genetic/drug effects
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2014-10-03
    Description: The CRISPR-associated protein Cas9 is an RNA-guided DNA endonuclease that uses RNA-DNA complementarity to identify target sites for sequence-specific double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) cleavage. In its native context, Cas9 acts on DNA substrates exclusively because both binding and catalysis require recognition of a short DNA sequence, known as the protospacer adjacent motif (PAM), next to and on the strand opposite the twenty-nucleotide target site in dsDNA. Cas9 has proven to be a versatile tool for genome engineering and gene regulation in a large range of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell types, and in whole organisms, but it has been thought to be incapable of targeting RNA. Here we show that Cas9 binds with high affinity to single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) targets matching the Cas9-associated guide RNA sequence when the PAM is presented in trans as a separate DNA oligonucleotide. Furthermore, PAM-presenting oligonucleotides (PAMmers) stimulate site-specific endonucleolytic cleavage of ssRNA targets, similar to PAM-mediated stimulation of Cas9-catalysed DNA cleavage. Using specially designed PAMmers, Cas9 can be specifically directed to bind or cut RNA targets while avoiding corresponding DNA sequences, and we demonstrate that this strategy enables the isolation of a specific endogenous messenger RNA from cells. These results reveal a fundamental connection between PAM binding and substrate selection by Cas9, and highlight the utility of Cas9 for programmable transcript recognition without the need for tags.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4268322/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4268322/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉O'Connell, Mitchell R -- Oakes, Benjamin L -- Sternberg, Samuel H -- East-Seletsky, Alexandra -- Kaplan, Matias -- Doudna, Jennifer A -- P50 GM102706/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- P50GM102706-03/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- T32 GM007232/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- T32 GM066698/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2014 Dec 11;516(7530):263-6. doi: 10.1038/nature13769. Epub 2014 Sep 28.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720, USA. ; Department of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720, USA. ; 1] Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720, USA [2] Department of Agricultural and Biological Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611, USA. ; 1] Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720, USA [2] Department of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720, USA [3] Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720, USA [4] Physical Biosciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25274302" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Base Sequence ; CRISPR-Associated Proteins/*metabolism ; CRISPR-Cas Systems/*physiology ; Cell Extracts ; Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats/*genetics ; DNA/chemistry/genetics/metabolism ; Genetic Engineering/*methods ; Glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (Phosphorylating)/genetics ; HeLa Cells ; Humans ; Nucleotide Motifs ; Oligonucleotides/chemistry/genetics/metabolism ; RNA/chemistry/genetics/*metabolism ; RNA, Guide/chemistry/genetics/metabolism ; RNA, Messenger/genetics/isolation & purification/metabolism ; Substrate Specificity
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    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2011-02-19
    Description: Toll-like receptors (TLRs) function as initiators of inflammation through their ability to sense pathogen-associated molecular patterns and products of tissue damage. Transcriptional activation of many TLR-responsive genes requires an initial de-repression step in which nuclear receptor co-repressor (NCoR) complexes are actively removed from the promoters of target genes to relieve basal repression. Ligand-dependent SUMOylation of liver X receptors (LXRs) has been found to suppress TLR4-induced transcription potently by preventing the NCoR clearance step, but the underlying mechanisms remain enigmatic. Here we provide evidence that coronin 2A (CORO2A), a component of the NCoR complex of previously unknown function, mediates TLR-induced NCoR turnover by a mechanism involving interaction with oligomeric nuclear actin. SUMOylated LXRs block NCoR turnover by binding to a conserved SUMO2/SUMO3-interaction motif in CORO2A and preventing actin recruitment. Intriguingly, the LXR transrepression pathway can itself be inactivated by inflammatory signals that induce calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IIgamma (CaMKIIgamma)-dependent phosphorylation of LXRs, leading to their deSUMOylation by the SUMO protease SENP3 and release from CORO2A. These findings uncover a CORO2A-actin-dependent mechanism for the de-repression of inflammatory response genes that can be differentially regulated by phosphorylation and by nuclear receptor signalling pathways that control immunity and homeostasis.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3464905/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3464905/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Huang, Wendy -- Ghisletti, Serena -- Saijo, Kaoru -- Gandhi, Meghal -- Aouadi, Myriam -- Tesz, Greg J -- Zhang, Dawn X -- Yao, Joyee -- Czech, Michael P -- Goode, Bruce L -- Rosenfeld, Michael G -- Glass, Christopher K -- 1F31DK083913/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- CA52599/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- DK074868/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- DK085853/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- HC088093/HC/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- P01 DK074868/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- P50 HL056989/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA052599/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA097134/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK091183/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL065445/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01 NS034934/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- R37 DK039949/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2011 Feb 17;470(7334):414-8. doi: 10.1038/nature09703.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, California 92093-0651, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21331046" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Actins/chemistry/*metabolism ; Animals ; Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 2/metabolism ; Cell Line ; *Gene Expression Regulation/drug effects ; Gene Knockdown Techniques ; HeLa Cells ; Homeostasis/genetics ; Humans ; Inflammation/*genetics ; Lipopolysaccharides/pharmacology ; Mice ; Microfilament Proteins/chemistry/deficiency/genetics/*metabolism ; Orphan Nuclear Receptors/metabolism ; Peptide Hydrolases/metabolism ; Peritonitis/chemically induced/metabolism ; Phosphorylation ; Promoter Regions, Genetic/genetics ; Protein Structure, Tertiary ; Signal Transduction ; Sumoylation ; Thioglycolates/pharmacology ; Toll-Like Receptors/metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2011-08-26
    Description: Genetic manipulations of insect populations for pest control have been advocated for some time, but there are few cases where manipulated individuals have been released in the field and no cases where they have successfully invaded target populations. Population transformation using the intracellular bacterium Wolbachia is particularly attractive because this maternally-inherited agent provides a powerful mechanism to invade natural populations through cytoplasmic incompatibility. When Wolbachia are introduced into mosquitoes, they interfere with pathogen transmission and influence key life history traits such as lifespan. Here we describe how the wMel Wolbachia infection, introduced into the dengue vector Aedes aegypti from Drosophila melanogaster, successfully invaded two natural A. aegypti populations in Australia, reaching near-fixation in a few months following releases of wMel-infected A. aegypti adults. Models with plausible parameter values indicate that Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes suffered relatively small fitness costs, leading to an unstable equilibrium frequency 〈30% that must be exceeded for invasion. These findings demonstrate that Wolbachia-based strategies can be deployed as a practical approach to dengue suppression with potential for area-wide implementation.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Hoffmann, A A -- Montgomery, B L -- Popovici, J -- Iturbe-Ormaetxe, I -- Johnson, P H -- Muzzi, F -- Greenfield, M -- Durkan, M -- Leong, Y S -- Dong, Y -- Cook, H -- Axford, J -- Callahan, A G -- Kenny, N -- Omodei, C -- McGraw, E A -- Ryan, P A -- Ritchie, S A -- Turelli, M -- O'Neill, S L -- England -- Nature. 2011 Aug 24;476(7361):454-7. doi: 10.1038/nature10356.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Bio21 Institute, Department of Genetics, The University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010, Australia.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21866160" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Aedes/*microbiology/physiology/*virology ; Animals ; Dengue/microbiology/*prevention & control/*transmission/virology ; Dengue Virus/isolation & purification/*physiology ; Drosophila melanogaster/microbiology ; Female ; Humans ; Insect Vectors/microbiology/physiology/virology ; Male ; Pest Control, Biological/*methods ; Queensland ; Time Factors ; Wolbachia/isolation & purification/*physiology
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2011-09-02
    Description: Both obesity and being underweight have been associated with increased mortality. Underweight, defined as a body mass index (BMI) 〈/= 18.5 kg per m(2) in adults and 〈/= -2 standard deviations from the mean in children, is the main sign of a series of heterogeneous clinical conditions including failure to thrive, feeding and eating disorder and/or anorexia nervosa. In contrast to obesity, few genetic variants underlying these clinical conditions have been reported. We previously showed that hemizygosity of a approximately 600-kilobase (kb) region on the short arm of chromosome 16 causes a highly penetrant form of obesity that is often associated with hyperphagia and intellectual disabilities. Here we show that the corresponding reciprocal duplication is associated with being underweight. We identified 138 duplication carriers (including 132 novel cases and 108 unrelated carriers) from individuals clinically referred for developmental or intellectual disabilities (DD/ID) or psychiatric disorders, or recruited from population-based cohorts. These carriers show significantly reduced postnatal weight and BMI. Half of the boys younger than five years are underweight with a probable diagnosis of failure to thrive, whereas adult duplication carriers have an 8.3-fold increased risk of being clinically underweight. We observe a trend towards increased severity in males, as well as a depletion of male carriers among non-medically ascertained cases. These features are associated with an unusually high frequency of selective and restrictive eating behaviours and a significant reduction in head circumference. Each of the observed phenotypes is the converse of one reported in carriers of deletions at this locus. The phenotypes correlate with changes in transcript levels for genes mapping within the duplication but not in flanking regions. The reciprocal impact of these 16p11.2 copy-number variants indicates that severe obesity and being underweight could have mirror aetiologies, possibly through contrasting effects on energy balance.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3637175/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3637175/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Jacquemont, Sebastien -- Reymond, Alexandre -- Zufferey, Flore -- Harewood, Louise -- Walters, Robin G -- Kutalik, Zoltan -- Martinet, Danielle -- Shen, Yiping -- Valsesia, Armand -- Beckmann, Noam D -- Thorleifsson, Gudmar -- Belfiore, Marco -- Bouquillon, Sonia -- Campion, Dominique -- de Leeuw, Nicole -- de Vries, Bert B A -- Esko, Tonu -- Fernandez, Bridget A -- Fernandez-Aranda, Fernando -- Fernandez-Real, Jose Manuel -- Gratacos, Monica -- Guilmatre, Audrey -- Hoyer, Juliane -- Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta -- Kooy, R Frank -- Kurg, Ants -- Le Caignec, Cedric -- Mannik, Katrin -- Platt, Orah S -- Sanlaville, Damien -- Van Haelst, Mieke M -- Villatoro Gomez, Sergi -- Walha, Faida -- Wu, Bai-Lin -- Yu, Yongguo -- Aboura, Azzedine -- Addor, Marie-Claude -- Alembik, Yves -- Antonarakis, Stylianos E -- Arveiler, Benoit -- Barth, Magalie -- Bednarek, Nathalie -- Bena, Frederique -- Bergmann, Sven -- Beri, Mylene -- Bernardini, Laura -- Blaumeiser, Bettina -- Bonneau, Dominique -- Bottani, Armand -- Boute, Odile -- Brunner, Han G -- Cailley, Dorothee -- Callier, Patrick -- Chiesa, Jean -- Chrast, Jacqueline -- Coin, Lachlan -- Coutton, Charles -- Cuisset, Jean-Marie -- Cuvellier, Jean-Christophe -- David, Albert -- de Freminville, Benedicte -- Delobel, Bruno -- Delrue, Marie-Ange -- Demeer, Benedicte -- Descamps, Dominique -- Didelot, Gerard -- Dieterich, Klaus -- Disciglio, Vittoria -- Doco-Fenzy, Martine -- Drunat, Severine -- Duban-Bedu, Benedicte -- Dubourg, Christele -- El-Sayed Moustafa, Julia S -- Elliott, Paul -- Faas, Brigitte H W -- Faivre, Laurence -- Faudet, Anne -- Fellmann, Florence -- Ferrarini, Alessandra -- Fisher, Richard -- Flori, Elisabeth -- Forer, Lukas -- Gaillard, Dominique -- Gerard, Marion -- Gieger, Christian -- Gimelli, Stefania -- Gimelli, Giorgio -- Grabe, Hans J -- Guichet, Agnes -- Guillin, Olivier -- Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa -- Heron, Delphine -- Hippolyte, Loyse -- Holder, Muriel -- Homuth, Georg -- Isidor, Bertrand -- Jaillard, Sylvie -- Jaros, Zdenek -- Jimenez-Murcia, Susana -- Helas, Geraldine Joly -- Jonveaux, Philippe -- Kaksonen, Satu -- Keren, Boris -- Kloss-Brandstatter, Anita -- Knoers, Nine V A M -- Koolen, David A -- Kroisel, Peter M -- Kronenberg, Florian -- Labalme, Audrey -- Landais, Emilie -- Lapi, Elisabetta -- Layet, Valerie -- Legallic, Solenn -- Leheup, Bruno -- Leube, Barbara -- Lewis, Suzanne -- Lucas, Josette -- MacDermot, Kay D -- Magnusson, Pall -- Marshall, Christian -- Mathieu-Dramard, Michele -- McCarthy, Mark I -- Meitinger, Thomas -- Mencarelli, Maria Antonietta -- Merla, Giuseppe -- Moerman, Alexandre -- Mooser, Vincent -- Morice-Picard, Fanny -- Mucciolo, Mafalda -- Nauck, Matthias -- Ndiaye, Ndeye Coumba -- Nordgren, Ann -- Pasquier, Laurent -- Petit, Florence -- Pfundt, Rolph -- Plessis, Ghislaine -- Rajcan-Separovic, Evica -- Ramelli, Gian Paolo -- Rauch, Anita -- Ravazzolo, Roberto -- Reis, Andre -- Renieri, Alessandra -- Richart, Cristobal -- Ried, Janina S -- Rieubland, Claudine -- Roberts, Wendy -- Roetzer, Katharina M -- Rooryck, Caroline -- Rossi, Massimiliano -- Saemundsen, Evald -- Satre, Veronique -- Schurmann, Claudia -- Sigurdsson, Engilbert -- Stavropoulos, Dimitri J -- Stefansson, Hreinn -- Tengstrom, Carola -- Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur -- Tinahones, Francisco J -- Touraine, Renaud -- Vallee, Louis -- van Binsbergen, Ellen -- Van der Aa, Nathalie -- Vincent-Delorme, Catherine -- Visvikis-Siest, Sophie -- Vollenweider, Peter -- Volzke, Henry -- Vulto-van Silfhout, Anneke T -- Waeber, Gerard -- Wallgren-Pettersson, Carina -- Witwicki, Robert M -- Zwolinksi, Simon -- Andrieux, Joris -- Estivill, Xavier -- Gusella, James F -- Gustafsson, Omar -- Metspalu, Andres -- Scherer, Stephen W -- Stefansson, Kari -- Blakemore, Alexandra I F -- Beckmann, Jacques S -- Froguel, Philippe -- 090532/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 1RL1MH083268-01/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- 5R01HL087679-02/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- 5R01MH63706:02/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- AS2173/Autism Speaks/ -- G0500539/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- G0600705/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- G0801056/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- GM061354/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- MH071425/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- MOP 74502/Canadian Institutes of Health Research/Canada -- Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- England -- Nature. 2011 Aug 31;478(7367):97-102. doi: 10.1038/nature10406.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Service of Medical Genetics, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, 1011 Lausanne, Switzerland.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21881559" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adolescent ; Adult ; Aged ; Aging ; Body Height/genetics ; *Body Mass Index ; Case-Control Studies ; Child ; Child, Preschool ; Chromosomes, Human, Pair 16/*genetics ; Cohort Studies ; Comparative Genomic Hybridization ; Developmental Disabilities/genetics ; Energy Metabolism/genetics ; Europe ; Female ; Gene Dosage/*genetics ; Gene Duplication/genetics ; Gene Expression Profiling ; Genetic Predisposition to Disease/genetics ; Genome-Wide Association Study ; Head/anatomy & histology ; Heterozygote ; Humans ; Infant ; Infant, Newborn ; Male ; Mental Disorders/genetics ; Middle Aged ; Mutation/genetics ; North America ; Obesity/*genetics ; *Phenotype ; RNA, Messenger/analysis/genetics ; Sequence Deletion/genetics ; Thinness/*genetics ; Transcription, Genetic ; Young Adult
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2012-03-23
    Description: Opioid receptors mediate the actions of endogenous and exogenous opioids on many physiological processes, including the regulation of pain, respiratory drive, mood, and--in the case of kappa-opioid receptor (kappa-OR)--dysphoria and psychotomimesis. Here we report the crystal structure of the human kappa-OR in complex with the selective antagonist JDTic, arranged in parallel dimers, at 2.9 A resolution. The structure reveals important features of the ligand-binding pocket that contribute to the high affinity and subtype selectivity of JDTic for the human kappa-OR. Modelling of other important kappa-OR-selective ligands, including the morphinan-derived antagonists norbinaltorphimine and 5'-guanidinonaltrindole, and the diterpene agonist salvinorin A analogue RB-64, reveals both common and distinct features for binding these diverse chemotypes. Analysis of site-directed mutagenesis and ligand structure-activity relationships confirms the interactions observed in the crystal structure, thereby providing a molecular explanation for kappa-OR subtype selectivity, and essential insights for the design of compounds with new pharmacological properties targeting the human kappa-OR.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3356457/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3356457/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Wu, Huixian -- Wacker, Daniel -- Mileni, Mauro -- Katritch, Vsevolod -- Han, Gye Won -- Vardy, Eyal -- Liu, Wei -- Thompson, Aaron A -- Huang, Xi-Ping -- Carroll, F Ivy -- Mascarella, S Wayne -- Westkaemper, Richard B -- Mosier, Philip D -- Roth, Bryan L -- Cherezov, Vadim -- Stevens, Raymond C -- P50 GM073197/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- P50 GM073197-08/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 DA009045/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- R01 DA009045-17/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- R01 DA017204/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- R01 DA017624/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- R01 DA027170/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- U54 GM094618/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- U54 GM094618-02/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- Y1-CO-1020/CO/NCI NIH HHS/ -- Y1-GM-1104/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2012 Mar 21;485(7398):327-32. doi: 10.1038/nature10939.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Molecular Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, 10550 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, California 92037, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22437504" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Binding Sites ; Crystallography, X-Ray ; Diterpenes, Clerodane/chemistry/metabolism/pharmacology ; Guanidines/chemistry ; Humans ; Models, Molecular ; Morphinans/chemistry ; Mutagenesis, Site-Directed ; Naltrexone/analogs & derivatives/chemistry/metabolism ; Piperidines/*chemistry/pharmacology ; Protein Conformation ; Receptors, Adrenergic, beta-2/chemistry ; Receptors, CXCR4/chemistry/metabolism ; Receptors, Opioid, kappa/*antagonists & inhibitors/*chemistry/genetics/metabolism ; Structure-Activity Relationship ; Tetrahydroisoquinolines/*chemistry/pharmacology
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2012-11-09
    Description: Defects in the availability of haem substrates or the catalytic activity of the terminal enzyme in haem biosynthesis, ferrochelatase (Fech), impair haem synthesis and thus cause human congenital anaemias. The interdependent functions of regulators of mitochondrial homeostasis and enzymes responsible for haem synthesis are largely unknown. To investigate this we used zebrafish genetic screens and cloned mitochondrial ATPase inhibitory factor 1 (atpif1) from a zebrafish mutant with profound anaemia, pinotage (pnt (tq209)). Here we describe a direct mechanism establishing that Atpif1 regulates the catalytic efficiency of vertebrate Fech to synthesize haem. The loss of Atpif1 impairs haemoglobin synthesis in zebrafish, mouse and human haematopoietic models as a consequence of diminished Fech activity and elevated mitochondrial pH. To understand the relationship between mitochondrial pH, redox potential, [2Fe-2S] clusters and Fech activity, we used genetic complementation studies of Fech constructs with or without [2Fe-2S] clusters in pnt, as well as pharmacological agents modulating mitochondrial pH and redox potential. The presence of [2Fe-2S] cluster renders vertebrate Fech vulnerable to perturbations in Atpif1-regulated mitochondrial pH and redox potential. Therefore, Atpif1 deficiency reduces the efficiency of vertebrate Fech to synthesize haem, resulting in anaemia. The identification of mitochondrial Atpif1 as a regulator of haem synthesis advances our understanding of the mechanisms regulating mitochondrial haem homeostasis and red blood cell development. An ATPIF1 deficiency may contribute to important human diseases, such as congenital sideroblastic anaemias and mitochondriopathies.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3504625/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3504625/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Shah, Dhvanit I -- Takahashi-Makise, Naoko -- Cooney, Jeffrey D -- Li, Liangtao -- Schultz, Iman J -- Pierce, Eric L -- Narla, Anupama -- Seguin, Alexandra -- Hattangadi, Shilpa M -- Medlock, Amy E -- Langer, Nathaniel B -- Dailey, Tamara A -- Hurst, Slater N -- Faccenda, Danilo -- Wiwczar, Jessica M -- Heggers, Spencer K -- Vogin, Guillaume -- Chen, Wen -- Chen, Caiyong -- Campagna, Dean R -- Brugnara, Carlo -- Zhou, Yi -- Ebert, Benjamin L -- Danial, Nika N -- Fleming, Mark D -- Ward, Diane M -- Campanella, Michelangelo -- Dailey, Harry A -- Kaplan, Jerry -- Paw, Barry H -- K01 DK085217/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- P01 HL032262/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- P30 DK072437/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK052380/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK070838/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK096051/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL082945/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- T32 GM007223/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2012 Nov 22;491(7425):608-12. doi: 10.1038/nature11536. Epub 2012 Nov 7.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23135403" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Anemia, Sideroblastic/genetics/metabolism/pathology ; Animals ; Disease Models, Animal ; Erythroblasts/cytology/*metabolism ; *Erythropoiesis ; Ferrochelatase/metabolism ; Genetic Complementation Test ; Heme/*biosynthesis ; Humans ; Hydrogen-Ion Concentration ; Mice ; Mitochondria/*metabolism/pathology ; Mitochondrial Proteins/deficiency/genetics/*metabolism ; Oxidation-Reduction ; Proteins/genetics/*metabolism ; Zebrafish/metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2013-03-15
    Description: Most human coronaviruses cause mild upper respiratory tract disease but may be associated with more severe pulmonary disease in immunocompromised individuals. However, SARS coronavirus caused severe lower respiratory disease with nearly 10% mortality and evidence of systemic spread. Recently, another coronavirus (human coronavirus-Erasmus Medical Center (hCoV-EMC)) was identified in patients with severe and sometimes lethal lower respiratory tract infection. Viral genome analysis revealed close relatedness to coronaviruses found in bats. Here we identify dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4; also known as CD26) as a functional receptor for hCoV-EMC. DPP4 specifically co-purified with the receptor-binding S1 domain of the hCoV-EMC spike protein from lysates of susceptible Huh-7 cells. Antibodies directed against DPP4 inhibited hCoV-EMC infection of primary human bronchial epithelial cells and Huh-7 cells. Expression of human and bat (Pipistrellus pipistrellus) DPP4 in non-susceptible COS-7 cells enabled infection by hCoV-EMC. The use of the evolutionarily conserved DPP4 protein from different species as a functional receptor provides clues about the host range potential of hCoV-EMC. In addition, it will contribute critically to our understanding of the pathogenesis and epidemiology of this emerging human coronavirus, and may facilitate the development of intervention strategies.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Raj, V Stalin -- Mou, Huihui -- Smits, Saskia L -- Dekkers, Dick H W -- Muller, Marcel A -- Dijkman, Ronald -- Muth, Doreen -- Demmers, Jeroen A A -- Zaki, Ali -- Fouchier, Ron A M -- Thiel, Volker -- Drosten, Christian -- Rottier, Peter J M -- Osterhaus, Albert D M E -- Bosch, Berend Jan -- Haagmans, Bart L -- England -- Nature. 2013 Mar 14;495(7440):251-4. doi: 10.1038/nature12005.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Viroscience, Erasmus Medical Center, 3000 CA Rotterdam, The Netherlands.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23486063" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Bronchioles/cytology ; COS Cells ; Cercopithecus aethiops ; Chiroptera ; Coronavirus/*classification/*metabolism ; Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology/genetics/metabolism/virology ; Dipeptidyl Peptidase 4/genetics/*metabolism ; Epithelial Cells/virology ; Host Specificity ; Humans ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Receptors, Virus/genetics/*metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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