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  • GENOME-WIDE ASSOCIATION  (3)
  • Humans  (3)
Keywords
Years
  • 1
    Publication Date: 2012-08-24
    Description: Mutations generate sequence diversity and provide a substrate for selection. The rate of de novo mutations is therefore of major importance to evolution. Here we conduct a study of genome-wide mutation rates by sequencing the entire genomes of 78 Icelandic parent-offspring trios at high coverage. We show that in our samples, with an average father's age of 29.7, the average de novo mutation rate is 1.20 x 10(-8) per nucleotide per generation. Most notably, the diversity in mutation rate of single nucleotide polymorphisms is dominated by the age of the father at conception of the child. The effect is an increase of about two mutations per year. An exponential model estimates paternal mutations doubling every 16.5 years. After accounting for random Poisson variation, father's age is estimated to explain nearly all of the remaining variation in the de novo mutation counts. These observations shed light on the importance of the father's age on the risk of diseases such as schizophrenia and autism.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3548427/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3548427/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Kong, Augustine -- Frigge, Michael L -- Masson, Gisli -- Besenbacher, Soren -- Sulem, Patrick -- Magnusson, Gisli -- Gudjonsson, Sigurjon A -- Sigurdsson, Asgeir -- Jonasdottir, Aslaug -- Jonasdottir, Adalbjorg -- Wong, Wendy S W -- Sigurdsson, Gunnar -- Walters, G Bragi -- Steinberg, Stacy -- Helgason, Hannes -- Thorleifsson, Gudmar -- Gudbjartsson, Daniel F -- Helgason, Agnar -- Magnusson, Olafur Th -- Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur -- Stefansson, Kari -- MH071425/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- R01 MH071425/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2012 Aug 23;488(7412):471-5. doi: 10.1038/nature11396.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉deCODE Genetics, Sturlugata 8, 101 Reykjavik, Iceland. kong@decode.is〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22914163" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adult ; Autistic Disorder/epidemiology/etiology/*genetics ; Chromosomes, Human/genetics ; Female ; *Genetic Predisposition to Disease ; Genome, Human/genetics ; Humans ; Iceland/epidemiology ; Male ; Middle Aged ; Mothers ; *Mutation Rate ; Ovum/metabolism ; *Paternal Age ; Pedigree ; Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/genetics ; Risk Factors ; Schizophrenia/epidemiology/etiology/*genetics ; Selection, Genetic/genetics ; Sequence Analysis, DNA ; Spermatozoa/metabolism ; Young Adult
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Keywords: RECEPTOR ; CANCER ; POPULATION ; RISK ; SITE ; DISTINCT ; GENE ; GENES ; GENOME ; RESOLUTION ; BINDING ; SEQUENCE ; ASSOCIATION ; SUSCEPTIBILITY ; SUSCEPTIBILITY LOCUS ; ALPHA ; BREAST ; breast cancer ; BREAST-CANCER ; genetics ; SNP ; POPULATIONS ; PROJECT ; ESTROGEN-RECEPTOR ; HETEROGENEITY ; ORIGIN ; TAMOXIFEN ; ASSOCIATIONS ; SNPs ; SCIENCE ; ESTROGEN ; HAPLOTYPE ; LOCUS ; TRAITS ; estrogen receptor ; BINDING-SITE ; CHINESE POPULATION ; GENOME-WIDE ASSOCIATION ; AFRICAN-AMERICAN ; ESTROGEN-RECEPTOR-ALPHA ; CONFER SUSCEPTIBILITY ; BINDING SITE ; Genetic ; COMMON VARIANTS ; ANCESTRY ; PANEL ; CAUSAL VARIANTS
    Abstract: We used an approach that we term ancestry-shift refinement mapping to investigate an association, originally discovered in a GWAS of a Chinese population, between rs2046210[T] and breast cancer susceptibility. The locus is on 6q25.1 in proximity to the C6orf97 and estrogen receptor alpha (ESR1) genes. We identified a panel of SNPs that are correlated with rs2046210 in Chinese, but not necessarily so in other ancestral populations, and genotyped them in breast cancer case: control samples of Asian, European, and African origin, a total of 10,176 cases and 13,286 controls. We found that rs2046210[T] does not confer substantial risk of breast cancer in Europeans and Africans (OR = 1.04, P = 0.099, and OR = 0.98, P = 0.77, respectively). Rather, in those ancestries, an association signal arises from a group of less common SNPs typified by rs9397435. The rs9397435[G] allele was found to confer risk of breast cancer in European (OR = 1.15, P = 1.2x10(-3)), African (OR = 1.35, P = 0.014), and Asian (OR = 1.23, P = 2.9x10(-4)) population samples. Combined over all ancestries, the OR was 1.19 (P = 3.9x10(-7)), was without significant heterogeneity between ancestries (P-het = 0.36) and the SNP fully accounted for the association signal in each ancestry. Haplotypes bearing rs9397435[G] are well tagged by rs2046210[ T] only in Asians. The rs9397435[G] allele showed associations with both estrogen receptor positive and estrogen receptor negative breast cancer. Using early-draft data from the 1,000 Genomes project, we found that the risk allele of a novel SNP (rs77275268), which is closely correlated with rs9397435, disrupts a partially methylated CpG sequence within a known CTCF binding site. These studies demonstrate that shifting the analysis among ancestral populations can provide valuable resolution in association mapping
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 20661439
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  • 3
    Keywords: EXPRESSION ; BREAST-CANCER ; REDUCED RISK ; SKIN-CANCER ; CASP8 GENE ; GENOME-WIDE ASSOCIATION ; COMMON VARIANTS ; SEQUENCE VARIANTS ; INACTIVATING MUTATIONS ; GENETIC-VARIANTS
    Abstract: In an ongoing screen for DNA sequence variants that confer risk of cutaneous basal cell carcinoma (BCC), we conduct a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of 24,988,228 SNPs and small indels detected through whole-genome sequencing of 2,636 Icelanders and imputed into 4,572 BCC patients and 266,358 controls. Here we show the discovery of four new BCC susceptibility loci: 2p24 MYCN (rs57244888[C], OR=0.76, P=4.7 x 10(-12)), 2q33 CASP8-ALS2CR12 (rs13014235[C], OR=1.15, P=1.5 x 10(-9)), 8q21 ZFHX4 (rs28727938[G], OR=0.70, P=3.5 x 10(-12)) and 10p14 GATA3 (rs73635312[A], OR=0.74, P=2.4 x 10(-16)). Fine mapping reveals that two variants correlated with rs73635312[A] occur in conserved binding sites for the GATA3 transcription factor. In addition, expression microarrays and RNA-seq show that rs13014235[C] and a related SNP rs700635[C] are associated with expression of CASP8 splice variants in which sequences from intron 8 are retained.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 25855136
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  • 4
    Keywords: SPECTRA ; carcinoma ; CELL ; NEW-YORK ; POPULATION ; RISK ; RISK-FACTORS ; SKIN ; ASSOCIATION ; polymorphism ; SUSCEPTIBILITY ; VARIANTS ; ACID ; genetics ; MELANOMA ; POPULATIONS ; INDIVIDUALS ; heredity ; MELANOCORTIN-1 RECEPTOR MC1R ; basal cell carcinoma ; CELL CARCINOMA ; VARIANT ; INCREASE ; hair ; HAPLOTYPE ; NONMELANOMA SKIN-CANCER ; USA ; PIGMENTATION ; INCREASES ; GENOME-WIDE ASSOCIATION ; association study ; BASAL-CELL ; CONFERS RISK ; AGOUTI ; EYE-COLOR ; GENE VARIANTS ; MC1R
    Abstract: Fair color increases risk of cutaneous melanoma (CM) and basal cell carcinoma (BCC). Recent genome-wide association studies have identified variants affecting hair, eye and skin pigmentation in Europeans. Here, we assess the effect of these variants on risk of CM and BCC in European populations comprising 2,121 individuals with CM, 2,163 individuals with BCC and over 40,000 controls. A haplotype near ASIP, known to affect a similar spectrum of pigmentation traits as MC1R variants, conferred significant risk of CM (odds ratio (OR) 1.45, P = 1.2 x 10(-9)) and BCC (OR = 1.33, P = 1.2 x 10(-6)). The variant in TYR encoding the R402Q amino acid substitution, previously shown to affect eye color and tanning response, conferred risk of CM (OR = 1.21, P = 2.8 x 10(-7)) and BCC (OR = 1.14, P = 6.1 x 10(-4)). An eye color variant in TYRP1 was associated with risk of CM (OR = 1.15, P = 4.6 x 10(-4)). The association of all three variants is robust with respect to adjustment for the effect of pigmentation
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 18488027
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2011-03-04
    Description: Microtubules have pivotal roles in fundamental cellular processes and are targets of antitubulin chemotherapeutics. Microtubule-targeted agents such as Taxol and vincristine are prescribed widely for various malignancies, including ovarian and breast adenocarcinomas, non-small-cell lung cancer, leukaemias and lymphomas. These agents arrest cells in mitosis and subsequently induce cell death through poorly defined mechanisms. The strategies that resistant tumour cells use to evade death induced by antitubulin agents are also unclear. Here we show that the pro-survival protein MCL1 (ref. 3) is a crucial regulator of apoptosis triggered by antitubulin chemotherapeutics. During mitotic arrest, MCL1 protein levels decline markedly, through a post-translational mechanism, potentiating cell death. Phosphorylation of MCL1 directs its interaction with the tumour-suppressor protein FBW7, which is the substrate-binding component of a ubiquitin ligase complex. The polyubiquitylation of MCL1 then targets it for proteasomal degradation. The degradation of MCL1 was blocked in patient-derived tumour cells that lacked FBW7 or had loss-of-function mutations in FBW7, conferring resistance to antitubulin agents and promoting chemotherapeutic-induced polyploidy. Additionally, primary tumour samples were enriched for FBW7 inactivation and elevated MCL1 levels, underscoring the prominent roles of these proteins in oncogenesis. Our findings suggest that profiling the FBW7 and MCL1 status of tumours, in terms of protein levels, messenger RNA levels and genetic status, could be useful to predict the response of patients to antitubulin chemotherapeutics.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Wertz, Ingrid E -- Kusam, Saritha -- Lam, Cynthia -- Okamoto, Toru -- Sandoval, Wendy -- Anderson, Daniel J -- Helgason, Elizabeth -- Ernst, James A -- Eby, Mike -- Liu, Jinfeng -- Belmont, Lisa D -- Kaminker, Josh S -- O'Rourke, Karen M -- Pujara, Kanan -- Kohli, Pawan Bir -- Johnson, Adam R -- Chiu, Mark L -- Lill, Jennie R -- Jackson, Peter K -- Fairbrother, Wayne J -- Seshagiri, Somasekar -- Ludlam, Mary J C -- Leong, Kevin G -- Dueber, Erin C -- Maecker, Heather -- Huang, David C S -- Dixit, Vishva M -- CA043540/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- CA80188/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2011 Mar 3;471(7336):110-4. doi: 10.1038/nature09779.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Early Discovery Biochemistry, Genentech, South San Francisco, California 94080, USA. ingrid@gene.com〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21368834" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Apoptosis/drug effects ; Cell Cycle Proteins/genetics/*metabolism ; Cell Line ; Cell Line, Tumor ; Cell Transformation, Neoplastic/drug effects ; Drug Resistance, Neoplasm ; F-Box Proteins/genetics/*metabolism ; Fibroblasts ; Humans ; Mice ; Mitosis/drug effects ; Myeloid Cell Leukemia Sequence 1 Protein ; Paclitaxel/pharmacology ; Pharmacogenetics ; Phosphorylation/drug effects ; Polyploidy ; Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex/metabolism ; Protein Binding/drug effects ; Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2/deficiency/genetics/*metabolism ; RNA, Messenger/genetics/metabolism ; Tubulin/*metabolism ; Tubulin Modulators/*pharmacology ; Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases/deficiency/genetics/*metabolism ; Vincristine/pharmacology
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2013-05-07
    Description: Low bone mineral density (BMD) is used as a parameter of osteoporosis. Genome-wide association studies of BMD have hitherto focused on BMD as a quantitative trait, yielding common variants of small effects that contribute to the population diversity in BMD. Here we use BMD as a dichotomous trait, searching for variants that may have a direct effect on the risk of pathologically low BMD rather than on the regulation of BMD in the healthy population. Through whole-genome sequencing of Icelandic individuals, we found a rare nonsense mutation within the leucine-rich-repeat-containing G-protein-coupled receptor 4 (LGR4) gene (c.376C〉T) that is strongly associated with low BMD, and with osteoporotic fractures. This mutation leads to termination of LGR4 at position 126 and fully disrupts its function. The c.376C〉T mutation is also associated with electrolyte imbalance, late onset of menarche and reduced testosterone levels, as well as an increased risk of squamous cell carcinoma of the skin and biliary tract cancer. Interestingly, the phenotype of carriers of the c.376C〉T mutation overlaps that of Lgr4 mutant mice.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Styrkarsdottir, Unnur -- Thorleifsson, Gudmar -- Sulem, Patrick -- Gudbjartsson, Daniel F -- Sigurdsson, Asgeir -- Jonasdottir, Aslaug -- Jonasdottir, Adalbjorg -- Oddsson, Asmundur -- Helgason, Agnar -- Magnusson, Olafur T -- Walters, G Bragi -- Frigge, Michael L -- Helgadottir, Hafdis T -- Johannsdottir, Hrefna -- Bergsteinsdottir, Kristin -- Ogmundsdottir, Margret H -- Center, Jacqueline R -- Nguyen, Tuan V -- Eisman, John A -- Christiansen, Claus -- Steingrimsson, Erikur -- Jonasson, Jon G -- Tryggvadottir, Laufey -- Eyjolfsson, Gudmundur I -- Theodors, Asgeir -- Jonsson, Thorvaldur -- Ingvarsson, Thorvaldur -- Olafsson, Isleifur -- Rafnar, Thorunn -- Kong, Augustine -- Sigurdsson, Gunnar -- Masson, Gisli -- Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur -- Stefansson, Kari -- HL-102923/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- HL-102924/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- HL-102925/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- HL-102926/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- HL-103010/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2013 May 23;497(7450):517-20. doi: 10.1038/nature12124. Epub 2013 May 5.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉deCODE Genetics/Amgen, 101 Reykjavik, Iceland. unnurth@decode.is〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23644456" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Australia ; Biliary Tract Neoplasms/*genetics ; Bone Density/*genetics ; Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/*genetics ; Codon, Nonsense/*genetics ; Denmark ; Down-Regulation/genetics ; Female ; Heterozygote ; Humans ; Iceland ; Male ; Menarche/genetics ; Mice ; Mice, Knockout ; Osteoporotic Fractures/*genetics ; Phenotype ; Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled/chemistry/deficiency/*genetics/metabolism ; Skin Neoplasms/*genetics ; Testosterone/analysis ; Water-Electrolyte Imbalance/*genetics
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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