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  • Articles  (33)
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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2015-09-10
    Description: Somaclonal variation arises in plants and animals when differentiated somatic cells are induced into a pluripotent state, but the resulting clones differ from each other and from their parents. In agriculture, somaclonal variation has hindered the micropropagation of elite hybrids and genetically modified crops, but the mechanism responsible remains unknown. The oil palm fruit 'mantled' abnormality is a somaclonal variant arising from tissue culture that drastically reduces yield, and has largely halted efforts to clone elite hybrids for oil production. Widely regarded as an epigenetic phenomenon, 'mantling' has defied explanation, but here we identify the MANTLED locus using epigenome-wide association studies of the African oil palm Elaeis guineensis. DNA hypomethylation of a LINE retrotransposon related to rice Karma, in the intron of the homeotic gene DEFICIENS, is common to all mantled clones and is associated with alternative splicing and premature termination. Dense methylation near the Karma splice site (termed the Good Karma epiallele) predicts normal fruit set, whereas hypomethylation (the Bad Karma epiallele) predicts homeotic transformation, parthenocarpy and marked loss of yield. Loss of Karma methylation and of small RNA in tissue culture contributes to the origin of mantled, while restoration in spontaneous revertants accounts for non-Mendelian inheritance. The ability to predict and cull mantling at the plantlet stage will facilitate the introduction of higher performing clones and optimize environmentally sensitive land resources.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Ong-Abdullah, Meilina -- Ordway, Jared M -- Jiang, Nan -- Ooi, Siew-Eng -- Kok, Sau-Yee -- Sarpan, Norashikin -- Azimi, Nuraziyan -- Hashim, Ahmad Tarmizi -- Ishak, Zamzuri -- Rosli, Samsul Kamal -- Malike, Fadila Ahmad -- Bakar, Nor Azwani Abu -- Marjuni, Marhalil -- Abdullah, Norziha -- Yaakub, Zulkifli -- Amiruddin, Mohd Din -- Nookiah, Rajanaidu -- Singh, Rajinder -- Low, Eng-Ti Leslie -- Chan, Kuang-Lim -- Azizi, Norazah -- Smith, Steven W -- Bacher, Blaire -- Budiman, Muhammad A -- Van Brunt, Andrew -- Wischmeyer, Corey -- Beil, Melissa -- Hogan, Michael -- Lakey, Nathan -- Lim, Chin-Ching -- Arulandoo, Xaviar -- Wong, Choo-Kien -- Choo, Chin-Nee -- Wong, Wei-Chee -- Kwan, Yen-Yen -- Alwee, Sharifah Shahrul Rabiah Syed -- Sambanthamurthi, Ravigadevi -- Martienssen, Robert A -- R01 GM067014/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2015 Sep 24;525(7570):533-7. doi: 10.1038/nature15365. Epub 2015 Sep 9.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Malaysian Palm Oil Board, 6, Persiaran Institusi, Bandar Baru Bangi, 43000 Kajang, Selangor, Malaysia. ; Orion Genomics, 4041 Forest Park Avenue, St Louis, Missouri 63108, USA. ; United Plantations Berhad, Jendarata Estate, 36009 Teluk Intan, Perak, Malaysia. ; Applied Agricultural Resources Sdn Bhd, No. 11, Jalan Teknologi 3/6, Taman Sains Selangor 1, 47810 Kota Damansara, Petaling Jaya, Selangor, Malaysia. ; FELDA Global Ventures R&D Sdn Bhd, c/o FELDA Biotechnology Centre, PT 23417, Lengkuk Teknologi, 71760 Bandar Enstek, Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia. ; Howard Hughes Medical Institute-Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, New York 11724, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26352475" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Alleles ; Alternative Splicing/genetics ; Arecaceae/*genetics/metabolism ; *DNA Methylation ; Epigenesis, Genetic/*genetics ; *Epigenomics ; Fruit/genetics ; Genes, Homeobox/genetics ; Genetic Association Studies ; Genome, Plant/*genetics ; Introns/genetics ; Molecular Sequence Data ; *Phenotype ; Plant Oils/analysis/metabolism ; RNA Splice Sites/genetics ; RNA, Small Interfering/genetics ; Retroelements/*genetics
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2011-09-13
    Description: Blood pressure is a heritable trait influenced by several biological pathways and responsive to environmental stimuli. Over one billion people worldwide have hypertension (〉/=140 mm Hg systolic blood pressure or 〉/=90 mm Hg diastolic blood pressure). Even small increments in blood pressure are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events. This genome-wide association study of systolic and diastolic blood pressure, which used a multi-stage design in 200,000 individuals of European descent, identified sixteen novel loci: six of these loci contain genes previously known or suspected to regulate blood pressure (GUCY1A3-GUCY1B3, NPR3-C5orf23, ADM, FURIN-FES, GOSR2, GNAS-EDN3); the other ten provide new clues to blood pressure physiology. A genetic risk score based on 29 genome-wide significant variants was associated with hypertension, left ventricular wall thickness, stroke and coronary artery disease, but not kidney disease or kidney function. We also observed associations with blood pressure in East Asian, South Asian and African ancestry individuals. Our findings provide new insights into the genetics and biology of blood pressure, and suggest potential novel therapeutic pathways for cardiovascular disease prevention.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3340926/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3340926/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉International Consortium for Blood Pressure Genome-Wide Association Studies -- Ehret, Georg B -- Munroe, Patricia B -- Rice, Kenneth M -- Bochud, Murielle -- Johnson, Andrew D -- Chasman, Daniel I -- Smith, Albert V -- Tobin, Martin D -- Verwoert, Germaine C -- Hwang, Shih-Jen -- Pihur, Vasyl -- Vollenweider, Peter -- O'Reilly, Paul F -- Amin, Najaf -- Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L -- Teumer, Alexander -- Glazer, Nicole L -- Launer, Lenore -- Zhao, Jing Hua -- Aulchenko, Yurii -- Heath, Simon -- Sober, Siim -- Parsa, Afshin -- Luan, Jian'an -- Arora, Pankaj -- Dehghan, Abbas -- Zhang, Feng -- Lucas, Gavin -- Hicks, Andrew A -- Jackson, Anne U -- Peden, John F -- Tanaka, Toshiko -- Wild, Sarah H -- Rudan, Igor -- Igl, Wilmar -- Milaneschi, Yuri -- Parker, Alex N -- Fava, Cristiano -- Chambers, John C -- Fox, Ervin R -- Kumari, Meena -- Go, Min Jin -- van der Harst, Pim -- Kao, Wen Hong Linda -- Sjogren, Marketa -- Vinay, D G -- Alexander, Myriam -- Tabara, Yasuharu -- Shaw-Hawkins, Sue -- Whincup, Peter H -- Liu, Yongmei -- Shi, Gang -- Kuusisto, Johanna -- Tayo, Bamidele -- Seielstad, Mark -- Sim, Xueling -- Nguyen, Khanh-Dung Hoang -- Lehtimaki, Terho -- Matullo, Giuseppe -- Wu, Ying -- Gaunt, Tom R -- Onland-Moret, N Charlotte -- Cooper, Matthew N -- Platou, Carl G P -- Org, Elin -- Hardy, Rebecca -- Dahgam, Santosh -- Palmen, Jutta -- Vitart, Veronique -- Braund, Peter S -- Kuznetsova, Tatiana -- Uiterwaal, Cuno S P M -- Adeyemo, Adebowale -- Palmas, Walter -- Campbell, Harry -- Ludwig, Barbara -- Tomaszewski, Maciej -- Tzoulaki, Ioanna -- Palmer, Nicholette D -- CARDIoGRAM consortium -- CKDGen Consortium -- KidneyGen Consortium -- EchoGen consortium -- CHARGE-HF consortium -- Aspelund, Thor -- Garcia, Melissa -- Chang, Yen-Pei C -- O'Connell, Jeffrey R -- Steinle, Nanette I -- Grobbee, Diederick E -- Arking, Dan E -- Kardia, Sharon L -- Morrison, Alanna C -- Hernandez, Dena -- Najjar, Samer -- McArdle, Wendy L -- Hadley, David -- Brown, Morris J -- Connell, John M -- Hingorani, Aroon D -- Day, Ian N M -- Lawlor, Debbie A -- Beilby, John P -- Lawrence, Robert W -- Clarke, Robert -- Hopewell, Jemma C -- Ongen, Halit -- Dreisbach, Albert W -- Li, Yali -- Young, J Hunter -- Bis, Joshua C -- Kahonen, Mika -- Viikari, Jorma -- Adair, Linda S -- Lee, Nanette R -- Chen, Ming-Huei -- Olden, Matthias -- Pattaro, Cristian -- Bolton, Judith A Hoffman -- Kottgen, Anna -- Bergmann, Sven -- Mooser, Vincent -- Chaturvedi, Nish -- Frayling, Timothy M -- Islam, Muhammad -- Jafar, Tazeen H -- Erdmann, Jeanette -- Kulkarni, Smita R -- Bornstein, Stefan R -- Grassler, Jurgen -- Groop, Leif -- Voight, Benjamin F -- Kettunen, Johannes -- Howard, Philip -- Taylor, Andrew -- Guarrera, Simonetta -- Ricceri, Fulvio -- Emilsson, Valur -- Plump, Andrew -- Barroso, Ines -- Khaw, Kay-Tee -- Weder, Alan B -- Hunt, Steven C -- Sun, Yan V -- Bergman, Richard N -- Collins, Francis S -- Bonnycastle, Lori L -- Scott, Laura J -- Stringham, Heather M -- Peltonen, Leena -- Perola, Markus -- Vartiainen, Erkki -- Brand, Stefan-Martin -- Staessen, Jan A -- Wang, Thomas J -- Burton, Paul R -- Soler Artigas, Maria -- Dong, Yanbin -- Snieder, Harold -- Wang, Xiaoling -- Zhu, Haidong -- Lohman, Kurt K -- Rudock, Megan E -- Heckbert, Susan R -- Smith, Nicholas L -- Wiggins, Kerri L -- Doumatey, Ayo -- Shriner, Daniel -- Veldre, Gudrun -- Viigimaa, Margus -- Kinra, Sanjay -- Prabhakaran, Dorairaj -- Tripathy, Vikal -- Langefeld, Carl D -- Rosengren, Annika -- Thelle, Dag S -- Corsi, Anna Maria -- Singleton, Andrew -- Forrester, Terrence -- Hilton, Gina -- McKenzie, Colin A -- Salako, Tunde -- Iwai, Naoharu -- Kita, Yoshikuni -- Ogihara, Toshio -- Ohkubo, Takayoshi -- Okamura, Tomonori -- Ueshima, Hirotsugu -- Umemura, Satoshi -- Eyheramendy, Susana -- Meitinger, Thomas -- Wichmann, H-Erich -- Cho, Yoon Shin -- Kim, Hyung-Lae -- Lee, Jong-Young -- Scott, James -- Sehmi, Joban S -- Zhang, Weihua -- Hedblad, Bo -- Nilsson, Peter -- Smith, George Davey -- Wong, Andrew -- Narisu, Narisu -- Stancakova, Alena -- Raffel, Leslie J -- Yao, Jie -- Kathiresan, Sekar -- O'Donnell, Christopher J -- Schwartz, Stephen M -- Ikram, M Arfan -- Longstreth, W T Jr -- Mosley, Thomas H -- Seshadri, Sudha -- Shrine, Nick R G -- Wain, Louise V -- Morken, Mario A -- Swift, Amy J -- Laitinen, Jaana -- Prokopenko, Inga -- Zitting, Paavo -- Cooper, Jackie A -- Humphries, Steve E -- Danesh, John -- Rasheed, Asif -- Goel, Anuj -- Hamsten, Anders -- Watkins, Hugh -- Bakker, Stephan J L -- van Gilst, Wiek H -- Janipalli, Charles S -- Mani, K Radha -- Yajnik, Chittaranjan S -- Hofman, Albert -- Mattace-Raso, Francesco U S -- Oostra, Ben A -- Demirkan, Ayse -- Isaacs, Aaron -- Rivadeneira, Fernando -- Lakatta, Edward G -- Orru, Marco -- Scuteri, Angelo -- Ala-Korpela, Mika -- Kangas, Antti J -- Lyytikainen, Leo-Pekka -- Soininen, Pasi -- Tukiainen, Taru -- Wurtz, Peter -- Ong, Rick Twee-Hee -- Dorr, Marcus -- Kroemer, Heyo K -- Volker, Uwe -- Volzke, Henry -- Galan, Pilar -- Hercberg, Serge -- Lathrop, Mark -- Zelenika, Diana -- Deloukas, Panos -- Mangino, Massimo -- Spector, Tim D -- Zhai, Guangju -- Meschia, James F -- Nalls, Michael A -- Sharma, Pankaj -- Terzic, Janos -- Kumar, M V Kranthi -- Denniff, Matthew -- Zukowska-Szczechowska, Ewa -- Wagenknecht, Lynne E -- Fowkes, F Gerald R -- Charchar, Fadi J -- Schwarz, Peter E H -- Hayward, Caroline -- Guo, Xiuqing -- Rotimi, Charles -- Bots, Michiel L -- Brand, Eva -- Samani, Nilesh J -- Polasek, Ozren -- Talmud, Philippa J -- Nyberg, Fredrik -- Kuh, Diana -- Laan, Maris -- Hveem, Kristian -- Palmer, Lyle J -- van der Schouw, Yvonne T -- Casas, Juan P -- Mohlke, Karen L -- Vineis, Paolo -- Raitakari, Olli -- Ganesh, Santhi K -- Wong, Tien Y -- Tai, E Shyong -- Cooper, Richard S -- Laakso, Markku -- Rao, Dabeeru C -- Harris, Tamara B -- Morris, Richard W -- Dominiczak, Anna F -- Kivimaki, Mika -- Marmot, Michael G -- Miki, Tetsuro -- Saleheen, Danish -- Chandak, Giriraj R -- Coresh, Josef -- Navis, Gerjan -- Salomaa, Veikko -- Han, Bok-Ghee -- Zhu, Xiaofeng -- Kooner, Jaspal S -- Melander, Olle -- Ridker, Paul M -- Bandinelli, Stefania -- Gyllensten, Ulf B -- Wright, Alan F -- Wilson, James F -- Ferrucci, Luigi -- Farrall, Martin -- Tuomilehto, Jaakko -- Pramstaller, Peter P -- Elosua, Roberto -- Soranzo, Nicole -- Sijbrands, Eric J G -- Altshuler, David -- Loos, Ruth J F -- Shuldiner, Alan R -- Gieger, Christian -- Meneton, Pierre -- Uitterlinden, Andre G -- Wareham, Nicholas J -- Gudnason, Vilmundur -- Rotter, Jerome I -- Rettig, Rainer -- Uda, Manuela -- Strachan, David P -- Witteman, Jacqueline C M -- Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa -- Beckmann, Jacques S -- Boerwinkle, Eric -- Vasan, Ramachandran S -- Boehnke, Michael -- Larson, Martin G -- Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta -- Psaty, Bruce M -- Abecasis, Goncalo R -- Chakravarti, Aravinda -- Elliott, Paul -- van Duijn, Cornelia M -- Newton-Cheh, Christopher -- Levy, Daniel -- Caulfield, Mark J -- Johnson, Toby -- 068545/Z/02/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 070191/Z/03/Z/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 077016/Z/05/Z/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 079895/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 080747/Z/06/Z/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 090532/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 1R01AG032098-01A/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- 1RL1MH083268-01/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- 263 MD 821336/MD/NIMHD NIH HHS/ -- 263 MD 9164/MD/NIMHD NIH HHS/ -- 263-MA-410953/PHS HHS/ -- 2M01RR010284/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- 33014/PHS HHS/ -- 55005617/Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- 5R01HL086694-03/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- 5R01HL087679-02/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- 5R01HL08770002/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- 5R01MH63706:02/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- 5U01CA086308/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- AG13196/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- CH/03/001/British Heart Foundation/United Kingdom -- CZB/4/276/Chief Scientist Office/United Kingdom -- CZB/4/710/Chief Scientist Office/United Kingdom -- DK062370/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- DK063491/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- DK072193/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- DK075787/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- DK078150/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- DK56350/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- ES10126/ES/NIEHS NIH HHS/ -- FS05/125/British Heart Foundation/United Kingdom -- G0000934/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- G0100222/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- G0400874/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- G0401527/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- G0500539/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- G0501942/British Heart Foundation/United Kingdom -- G0501942/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- G0600331/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- G0600705/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- G0601966/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- G0700931/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- G0701863/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- G0801056/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- G0902037/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- G0902313/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- G1000143/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- G19/35/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- G20234/Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council/United Kingdom -- G8802774/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- G9521010/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- G9521010D/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- HG003054/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- HG005581/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- HHSN268200625226C/PHS HHS/ -- HHSN268200782096/PHS HHS/ -- HHSN268200782096C/PHS HHS/ -- HL 54512/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- HL-87660/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- HL043851/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- HL080025/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- HL084729/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- HL085144/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- HL086718/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- HL087647/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- HL098283/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- HL36310/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- HL45508/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- HL53353/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- HL54512/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- HS06516/HS/AHRQ HHS/ -- K12RR023250/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- M01 RR16500/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- M01-RR00425/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- MC_PC_U127561128/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- MC_U106179471/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- MC_U106188470/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- MC_U123092720/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- MC_U123092723/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- MC_U127561128/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- MC_U137686857/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- MC_UP_A100_1003/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- MOP-82810/Canadian Institutes of Health Research/Canada -- MOP172605/Canadian Institutes of Health Research/Canada -- MOP77682/Canadian Institutes of Health Research/Canada -- N01 HC-15103/HC/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- N01 HC-55222/HC/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- N01 HC-95159/HC/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- N01 HC-95169/HC/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- N01-AG-1-2109/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- N01-AG-12100/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- N01-HC-25195/HC/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- N01-HC-35129/HC/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- N01-HC-45133/HC/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- N01-HC-55015/HC/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- N01-HC-55016/HC/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- N01-HC-55018/HC/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- N01-HC-55019/HC/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- N01-HC-55020/HC/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- N01-HC-55021/HC/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- N01-HC-55022/HC/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- N01-HC-75150/HC/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- N01-HC-85079/HC/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- N01-HC-85080/HC/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- N01-HC-85081/HC/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- N01-HC-85082/HC/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- N01-HC-85083/HC/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- N01-HC-85084/HC/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- N01-HC-85085/HC/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- N01-HC-85086/HC/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- N01-HC-95160/HC/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- 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HL086694-04A1/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL086694-05/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL087647/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL087652/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL088119/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01 NS39987/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- R01 NS42733/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- R01DK058845/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01DK066574/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01HL056931/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01HL060894/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01HL060919/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01HL06094/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01HL061019/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01HL071051/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01HL071205/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01HL071250/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01HL071251/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01HL071252/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01HL071258/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01HL071259/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01HL086694/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01HL087641/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01HL089650-02/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01HL59367/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R03 TW007165/TW/FIC NIH HHS/ -- R37HL051021/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- RG/07/005/23633/British Heart Foundation/United Kingdom -- RG/07/008/23674/British Heart Foundation/United Kingdom -- RG/08/008/25291/British Heart Foundation/United Kingdom -- RG/08/013/25942/British Heart Foundation/United Kingdom -- RG/08/014/24067/British Heart Foundation/United Kingdom -- RG/98002/British Heart Foundation/United Kingdom -- RG08/01/British Heart Foundation/United Kingdom -- RR-024156/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- RR20649/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- S06GM008016-320107/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- S06GM008016-380111/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- SP/04/002/British Heart Foundation/United Kingdom -- SP/08/005/25115/British Heart Foundation/United Kingdom -- TW008288/TW/FIC NIH HHS/ -- TW05596/TW/FIC NIH HHS/ -- U01 DK062418/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- U01 GM074518-04/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- U01 HL054466/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- U01 HL054466-11/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- U01 HL054471/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- U01 HL054473/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- U01 HL054527/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- U01 HL072515-06/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- U01 HL080295/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- U01 HL084756/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- U01 NS069208/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- U01 NS069208-01/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- U01DE018903/DE/NIDCR NIH HHS/ -- U01DE01899/DE/NIDCR NIH HHS/ -- U01HG004399/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- U01HG004402/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- U01HG004415/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- U01HG004422/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- U01HG004423/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- U01HG004436/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- U01HG004438/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- U01HG004446/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- U01HG004726/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- U01HG004728/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- U01HG004729/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- U01HG004735/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- U01HG004738/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- U10 HL054512/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- U10HL054512/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- U54 RR020278/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- UL1RR025005/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- Intramural NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2011 Sep 11;478(7367):103-9. doi: 10.1038/nature10405.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21909115" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Africa/ethnology ; Asia/ethnology ; Blood Pressure/*genetics/physiology ; Cardiovascular Diseases/*genetics ; Coronary Artery Disease/genetics ; Europe/ethnology ; Genetic Predisposition to Disease/*genetics ; Genome-Wide Association Study ; Humans ; Hypertension/genetics ; Kidney Diseases/genetics ; Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/*genetics ; Stroke/genetics
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: Broadly neutralizing antibodies against highly variable viral pathogens are much sought after to treat or protect against global circulating viruses. Here we probed the neutralizing antibody repertoires of four human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected donors with remarkably broad and potent neutralizing responses and rescued 17 new monoclonal antibodies that neutralize broadly across clades. Many of the new monoclonal antibodies are almost tenfold more potent than the recently described PG9, PG16 and VRC01 broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies and 100-fold more potent than the original prototype HIV broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies. The monoclonal antibodies largely recapitulate the neutralization breadth found in the corresponding donor serum and many recognize novel epitopes on envelope (Env) glycoprotein gp120, illuminating new targets for vaccine design. Analysis of neutralization by the full complement of anti-HIV broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies now available reveals that certain combinations of antibodies should offer markedly more favourable coverage of the enormous diversity of global circulating viruses than others and these combinations might be sought in active or passive immunization regimes. Overall, the isolation of multiple HIV broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies from several donors that, in aggregate, provide broad coverage at low concentrations is a highly positive indicator for the eventual design of an effective antibody-based HIV vaccine.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3393110/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3393110/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Walker, Laura M -- Huber, Michael -- Doores, Katie J -- Falkowska, Emilia -- Pejchal, Robert -- Julien, Jean-Philippe -- Wang, Sheng-Kai -- Ramos, Alejandra -- Chan-Hui, Po-Ying -- Moyle, Matthew -- Mitcham, Jennifer L -- Hammond, Phillip W -- Olsen, Ole A -- Phung, Pham -- Fling, Steven -- Wong, Chi-Huey -- Phogat, Sanjay -- Wrin, Terri -- Simek, Melissa D -- Protocol G Principal Investigators -- Koff, Wayne C -- Wilson, Ian A -- Burton, Dennis R -- Poignard, Pascal -- R01 AI033292/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI084817/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2011 Sep 22;477(7365):466-70. doi: 10.1038/nature10373.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Immunology and Microbial Science and IAVI Neutralizing Antibody Center, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California 92037, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21849977" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: AIDS Vaccines/biosynthesis/immunology ; Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology ; Antibodies, Neutralizing/*immunology ; Cell Line ; Epitope Mapping ; Epitopes/chemistry/immunology ; Glycoproteins/chemistry/immunology ; Glycosylation ; HEK293 Cells ; HIV/*classification/*immunology/isolation & purification ; HIV Antibodies/*immunology ; HIV Infections/immunology/therapy ; Human Immunodeficiency Virus Proteins/chemistry/immunology ; Humans ; Immune Sera/blood/immunology ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Neutralization Tests
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2012-07-24
    Description: Bacterial pathogens have evolved specific effector proteins that, by interfacing with host kinase signalling pathways, provide a mechanism to evade immune responses during infection. Although these effectors contribute to pathogen virulence, we realized that they might also serve as valuable synthetic biology reagents for engineering cellular behaviour. Here we exploit two effector proteins, the Shigella flexneri OspF protein and Yersinia pestis YopH protein, to rewire kinase-mediated responses systematically both in yeast and mammalian immune cells. Bacterial effector proteins can be directed to inhibit specific mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways selectively in yeast by artificially targeting them to pathway-specific complexes. Moreover, we show that unique properties of the effectors generate new pathway behaviours: OspF, which irreversibly inactivates mitogen-activated protein kinases, was used to construct a synthetic feedback circuit that shows novel frequency-dependent input filtering. Finally, we show that effectors can be used in T cells, either as feedback modulators to tune the T-cell response amplitude precisely, or as an inducible pause switch that can temporarily disable T-cell activation. These studies demonstrate how pathogens could provide a rich toolkit of parts to engineer cells for therapeutic or biotechnological applications.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3422413/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3422413/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Wei, Ping -- Wong, Wilson W -- Park, Jason S -- Corcoran, Ethan E -- Peisajovich, Sergio G -- Onuffer, James J -- Weiss, Arthur -- Lim, Wendell A -- P50 GM081879/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- P50GM081879/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- PN2 EY016546/EY/NEI NIH HHS/ -- PN2EY016546/EY/NEI NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM055040/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM062583/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01GM055040/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01GM062583/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- T32 GM007618/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2012 Aug 16;488(7411):384-8. doi: 10.1038/nature11259.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Cellular and Molecular Pharmacology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94158, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22820255" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins/genetics/metabolism ; Bacterial Proteins/genetics/*metabolism ; Biotechnology/*methods ; Cell Proliferation ; Cells, Cultured ; Feedback, Physiological ; Genetic Engineering/*methods ; Humans ; Interleukin-2/immunology ; Jurkat Cells ; Lymphocyte Activation/genetics ; *MAP Kinase Signaling System ; Osmolar Concentration ; Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases/genetics/metabolism ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae/*enzymology/genetics/metabolism ; Shigella flexneri/genetics/metabolism/pathogenicity ; T-Lymphocytes/cytology/*enzymology/immunology/metabolism ; Virulence Factors/genetics/*metabolism ; Yersinia pestis/genetics/metabolism/pathogenicity
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2012-08-24
    Description: Mutations generate sequence diversity and provide a substrate for selection. The rate of de novo mutations is therefore of major importance to evolution. Here we conduct a study of genome-wide mutation rates by sequencing the entire genomes of 78 Icelandic parent-offspring trios at high coverage. We show that in our samples, with an average father's age of 29.7, the average de novo mutation rate is 1.20 x 10(-8) per nucleotide per generation. Most notably, the diversity in mutation rate of single nucleotide polymorphisms is dominated by the age of the father at conception of the child. The effect is an increase of about two mutations per year. An exponential model estimates paternal mutations doubling every 16.5 years. After accounting for random Poisson variation, father's age is estimated to explain nearly all of the remaining variation in the de novo mutation counts. These observations shed light on the importance of the father's age on the risk of diseases such as schizophrenia and autism.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3548427/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3548427/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Kong, Augustine -- Frigge, Michael L -- Masson, Gisli -- Besenbacher, Soren -- Sulem, Patrick -- Magnusson, Gisli -- Gudjonsson, Sigurjon A -- Sigurdsson, Asgeir -- Jonasdottir, Aslaug -- Jonasdottir, Adalbjorg -- Wong, Wendy S W -- Sigurdsson, Gunnar -- Walters, G Bragi -- Steinberg, Stacy -- Helgason, Hannes -- Thorleifsson, Gudmar -- Gudbjartsson, Daniel F -- Helgason, Agnar -- Magnusson, Olafur Th -- Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur -- Stefansson, Kari -- MH071425/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- R01 MH071425/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2012 Aug 23;488(7412):471-5. doi: 10.1038/nature11396.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉deCODE Genetics, Sturlugata 8, 101 Reykjavik, Iceland. kong@decode.is〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22914163" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adult ; Autistic Disorder/epidemiology/etiology/*genetics ; Chromosomes, Human/genetics ; Female ; *Genetic Predisposition to Disease ; Genome, Human/genetics ; Humans ; Iceland/epidemiology ; Male ; Middle Aged ; Mothers ; *Mutation Rate ; Ovum/metabolism ; *Paternal Age ; Pedigree ; Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/genetics ; Risk Factors ; Schizophrenia/epidemiology/etiology/*genetics ; Selection, Genetic/genetics ; Sequence Analysis, DNA ; Spermatozoa/metabolism ; Young Adult
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2012-03-20
    Description: Targeted therapies have demonstrated efficacy against specific subsets of molecularly defined cancers. Although most patients with lung cancer are stratified according to a single oncogenic driver, cancers harbouring identical activating genetic mutations show large variations in their responses to the same targeted therapy. The biology underlying this heterogeneity is not well understood, and the impact of co-existing genetic mutations, especially the loss of tumour suppressors, has not been fully explored. Here we use genetically engineered mouse models to conduct a 'co-clinical' trial that mirrors an ongoing human clinical trial in patients with KRAS-mutant lung cancers. This trial aims to determine if the MEK inhibitor selumetinib (AZD6244) increases the efficacy of docetaxel, a standard of care chemotherapy. Our studies demonstrate that concomitant loss of either p53 (also known as Tp53) or Lkb1 (also known as Stk11), two clinically relevant tumour suppressors, markedly impaired the response of Kras-mutant cancers to docetaxel monotherapy. We observed that the addition of selumetinib provided substantial benefit for mice with lung cancer caused by Kras and Kras and p53 mutations, but mice with Kras and Lkb1 mutations had primary resistance to this combination therapy. Pharmacodynamic studies, including positron-emission tomography (PET) and computed tomography (CT), identified biological markers in mice and patients that provide a rationale for the differential efficacy of these therapies in the different genotypes. These co-clinical results identify predictive genetic biomarkers that should be validated by interrogating samples from patients enrolled on the concurrent clinical trial. These studies also highlight the rationale for synchronous co-clinical trials, not only to anticipate the results of ongoing human clinical trials, but also to generate clinically relevant hypotheses that can inform the analysis and design of human studies.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3385933/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3385933/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Chen, Zhao -- Cheng, Katherine -- Walton, Zandra -- Wang, Yuchuan -- Ebi, Hiromichi -- Shimamura, Takeshi -- Liu, Yan -- Tupper, Tanya -- Ouyang, Jing -- Li, Jie -- Gao, Peng -- Woo, Michele S -- Xu, Chunxiao -- Yanagita, Masahiko -- Altabef, Abigail -- Wang, Shumei -- Lee, Charles -- Nakada, Yuji -- Pena, Christopher G -- Sun, Yanping -- Franchetti, Yoko -- Yao, Catherine -- Saur, Amy -- Cameron, Michael D -- Nishino, Mizuki -- Hayes, D Neil -- Wilkerson, Matthew D -- Roberts, Patrick J -- Lee, Carrie B -- Bardeesy, Nabeel -- Butaney, Mohit -- Chirieac, Lucian R -- Costa, Daniel B -- Jackman, David -- Sharpless, Norman E -- Castrillon, Diego H -- Demetri, George D -- Janne, Pasi A -- Pandolfi, Pier Paolo -- Cantley, Lewis C -- Kung, Andrew L -- Engelman, Jeffrey A -- Wong, Kwok-Kin -- 1U01CA141576/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- CA122794/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- CA137008/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- CA137008-01/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- CA137181/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- CA140594/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- CA147940/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- K23 CA157631/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- P01 CA120964/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- P30 CA016086/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- P50 CA090578/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- P50 CA090578-06/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- P50CA090578/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA122794/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA122794-01/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA137008/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA137008-01/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA137181/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA137181-01A2/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA140594/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA140594-01/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA163896/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- RC2 CA147940/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- RC2 CA147940-01/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- U01 CA141576/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- U01 CA141576-01/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2012 Mar 18;483(7391):613-7. doi: 10.1038/nature10937.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22425996" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols ; Benzimidazoles/*pharmacology/therapeutic use ; Biomarkers, Tumor/genetics/metabolism ; *Clinical Trials, Phase II as Topic ; *Disease Models, Animal ; Drug Evaluation, Preclinical ; Fluorodeoxyglucose F18 ; Genes, p53/genetics ; Humans ; Lung Neoplasms/*drug therapy/enzymology/*genetics/metabolism ; MAP Kinase Signaling System/drug effects ; Mice ; Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinases/antagonists & inhibitors ; Mutation/genetics ; Pharmacogenetics/*methods ; Positron-Emission Tomography ; Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases/deficiency/genetics ; Proto-Oncogene Proteins/genetics/metabolism ; Proto-Oncogene Proteins p21(ras)/genetics/metabolism ; Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic ; Reproducibility of Results ; Taxoids/*therapeutic use ; Tomography, X-Ray Computed ; Treatment Outcome ; ras Proteins/genetics/metabolism
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2012-12-04
    Description: Although initially viewed as unregulated, increasing evidence suggests that cellular necrosis often proceeds through a specific molecular program. In particular, death ligands such as tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha activate necrosis by stimulating the formation of a complex containing receptor-interacting protein 1 (RIP1) and receptor-interacting protein 3 (RIP3). Relatively little is known regarding how this complex formation is regulated. Here, we show that the NAD-dependent deacetylase SIRT2 binds constitutively to RIP3 and that deletion or knockdown of SIRT2 prevents formation of the RIP1-RIP3 complex in mice. Furthermore, genetic or pharmacological inhibition of SIRT2 blocks cellular necrosis induced by TNF-alpha. We further demonstrate that RIP1 is a critical target of SIRT2-dependent deacetylation. Using gain- and loss-of-function mutants, we demonstrate that acetylation of RIP1 lysine 530 modulates RIP1-RIP3 complex formation and TNF-alpha-stimulated necrosis. In the setting of ischaemia-reperfusion injury, RIP1 is deacetylated in a SIRT2-dependent fashion. Furthermore, the hearts of Sirt2(-/-) mice, or wild-type mice treated with a specific pharmacological inhibitor of SIRT2, show marked protection from ischaemic injury. Taken together, these results implicate SIRT2 as an important regulator of programmed necrosis and indicate that inhibitors of this deacetylase may constitute a novel approach to protect against necrotic injuries, including ischaemic stroke and myocardial infarction.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Narayan, Nisha -- Lee, In Hye -- Borenstein, Ronen -- Sun, Junhui -- Wong, Renee -- Tong, Guang -- Fergusson, Maria M -- Liu, Jie -- Rovira, Ilsa I -- Cheng, Hwei-Ling -- Wang, Guanghui -- Gucek, Marjan -- Lombard, David -- Alt, Fredrick W -- Sack, Michael N -- Murphy, Elizabeth -- Cao, Liu -- Finkel, Toren -- Intramural NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2012 Dec 13;492(7428):199-204. doi: 10.1038/nature11700. Epub 2012 Nov 28.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Center for Molecular Medicine, National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23201684" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Acetylation ; Animals ; Cell Line ; Female ; HEK293 Cells ; HeLa Cells ; Humans ; Jurkat Cells ; Male ; Mice ; Necrosis/*enzymology ; Nuclear Pore Complex Proteins/metabolism ; Protein Binding ; Receptor-Interacting Protein Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism ; Sirtuin 2/*genetics/*metabolism
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2013-01-29
    Description: Cellular reprogramming of somatic cells to patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) enables in vitro modelling of human genetic disorders for pathogenic investigations and therapeutic screens. However, using iPSC-derived cardiomyocytes (iPSC-CMs) to model an adult-onset heart disease remains challenging owing to the uncertainty regarding the ability of relatively immature iPSC-CMs to fully recapitulate adult disease phenotypes. Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia/cardiomyopathy (ARVD/C) is an inherited heart disease characterized by pathological fatty infiltration and cardiomyocyte loss predominantly in the right ventricle, which is associated with life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias. Over 50% of affected individuals have desmosome gene mutations, most commonly in PKP2, encoding plakophilin-2 (ref. 9). The median age at presentation of ARVD/C is 26 years. We used previously published methods to generate iPSC lines from fibroblasts of two patients with ARVD/C and PKP2 mutations. Mutant PKP2 iPSC-CMs demonstrate abnormal plakoglobin nuclear translocation and decreased beta-catenin activity in cardiogenic conditions; yet, these abnormal features are insufficient to reproduce the pathological phenotypes of ARVD/C in standard cardiogenic conditions. Here we show that induction of adult-like metabolic energetics from an embryonic/glycolytic state and abnormal peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-gamma) activation underlie the pathogenesis of ARVD/C. By co-activating normal PPAR-alpha-dependent metabolism and abnormal PPAR-gamma pathway in beating embryoid bodies (EBs) with defined media, we established an efficient ARVD/C in vitro model within 2 months. This model manifests exaggerated lipogenesis and apoptosis in mutant PKP2 iPSC-CMs. iPSC-CMs with a homozygous PKP2 mutation also had calcium-handling deficits. Our study is the first to demonstrate that induction of adult-like metabolism has a critical role in establishing an adult-onset disease model using patient-specific iPSCs. Using this model, we revealed crucial pathogenic insights that metabolic derangement in adult-like metabolic milieu underlies ARVD/C pathologies, enabling us to propose novel disease-modifying therapeutic strategies.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3753229/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3753229/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Kim, Changsung -- Wong, Johnson -- Wen, Jianyan -- Wang, Shirong -- Wang, Cheng -- Spiering, Sean -- Kan, Natalia G -- Forcales, Sonia -- Puri, Pier Lorenzo -- Leone, Teresa C -- Marine, Joseph E -- Calkins, Hugh -- Kelly, Daniel P -- Judge, Daniel P -- Chen, Huei-Sheng Vincent -- R01 AR052779/AR/NIAMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 AR056712/AR/NIAMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL058493/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL101189/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL105194/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- TCR05004/Telethon/Italy -- England -- Nature. 2013 Feb 7;494(7435):105-10. doi: 10.1038/nature11799. Epub 2013 Jan 27.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Del E. Webb Neuroscience, Aging & Stem Cell Research Center, Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute, La Jolla, California 92037, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23354045" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Active Transport, Cell Nucleus ; Age of Onset ; Apoptosis/genetics ; Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular ; Dysplasia/genetics/*metabolism/*pathology/physiopathology ; Cellular Reprogramming ; Culture Media/pharmacology ; Embryoid Bodies/drug effects/physiology ; Energy Metabolism/genetics ; Fatty Acids/metabolism ; Fibroblasts/metabolism/pathology ; Glucose/metabolism ; Glycolysis ; Humans ; Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells/metabolism/*pathology ; Lipogenesis/genetics ; *Models, Biological ; Myocardial Contraction/drug effects ; Myocytes, Cardiac/pathology ; PPAR alpha/metabolism ; PPAR gamma/metabolism ; Phenotype ; Plakophilins/genetics ; Time Factors ; beta Catenin/metabolism
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2015-08-27
    Description: The GGGGCC (G4C2) repeat expansion in a noncoding region of C9orf72 is the most common cause of sporadic and familial forms of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal dementia. The basis for pathogenesis is unknown. To elucidate the consequences of G4C2 repeat expansion in a tractable genetic system, we generated transgenic fly lines expressing 8, 28 or 58 G4C2-repeat-containing transcripts that do not have a translation start site (AUG) but contain an open-reading frame for green fluorescent protein to detect repeat-associated non-AUG (RAN) translation. We show that these transgenic animals display dosage-dependent, repeat-length-dependent degeneration in neuronal tissues and RAN translation of dipeptide repeat (DPR) proteins, as observed in patients with C9orf72-related disease. This model was used in a large-scale, unbiased genetic screen, ultimately leading to the identification of 18 genetic modifiers that encode components of the nuclear pore complex (NPC), as well as the machinery that coordinates the export of nuclear RNA and the import of nuclear proteins. Consistent with these results, we found morphological abnormalities in the architecture of the nuclear envelope in cells expressing expanded G4C2 repeats in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, we identified a substantial defect in RNA export resulting in retention of RNA in the nuclei of Drosophila cells expressing expanded G4C2 repeats and also in mammalian cells, including aged induced pluripotent stem-cell-derived neurons from patients with C9orf72-related disease. These studies show that a primary consequence of G4C2 repeat expansion is the compromise of nucleocytoplasmic transport through the nuclear pore, revealing a novel mechanism of neurodegeneration.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4631399/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4631399/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Freibaum, Brian D -- Lu, Yubing -- Lopez-Gonzalez, Rodrigo -- Kim, Nam Chul -- Almeida, Sandra -- Lee, Kyung-Ha -- Badders, Nisha -- Valentine, Marc -- Miller, Bruce L -- Wong, Philip C -- Petrucelli, Leonard -- Kim, Hong Joo -- Gao, Fen-Biao -- Taylor, J Paul -- AG019724/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- N079725/PHS HHS/ -- NS079725/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- P01 AG019724/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- R01 NS057553/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- R01 NS079725/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2015 Sep 3;525(7567):129-33. doi: 10.1038/nature14974. Epub 2015 Aug 26.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, St Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee 38105, USA. ; Department of Neurology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts 01605, USA. ; Memory and Aging Center, Department of Neurology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94158, USA. ; Department of Pathology, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA. ; Department of Neuroscience, Mayo Clinic Florida, Jacksonville, Florida 32224, USA. ; Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, St Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee 38105, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26308899" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Active Transport, Cell Nucleus/*genetics ; Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis/genetics/pathology ; Animals ; Animals, Genetically Modified ; DNA Repeat Expansion/*genetics ; Drosophila melanogaster/*cytology/genetics/*metabolism ; Eye/metabolism ; Female ; Frontotemporal Dementia/genetics/pathology ; HeLa Cells ; Humans ; Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells/cytology/metabolism ; Male ; Muscles/cytology/metabolism ; Neurons/cytology/metabolism ; Nuclear Pore/genetics/metabolism/pathology ; Open Reading Frames/*genetics ; Phenotype ; Protein Biosynthesis ; Proteins/*genetics ; RNA/genetics/metabolism ; RNA Transport/*genetics ; Salivary Glands/cytology/metabolism/pathology
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2015-02-25
    Description: Immunoglobulin E (IgE) is a central mediator of allergic (atopic) inflammation. Therapies directed against IgE can alleviate hay fever and allergic asthma. Genetic association studies have not yet identified novel therapeutic targets or pathways underlying IgE regulation. We therefore surveyed epigenetic associations between serum IgE concentrations and methylation at loci concentrated in CpG islands genome wide in 95 nuclear pedigrees, using DNA from peripheral blood leukocytes. We validated positive results in additional families and in subjects from the general population. Here we show replicated associations--with a meta-analysis false discovery rate less than 10(-4)--between IgE and low methylation at 36 loci. Genes annotated to these loci encode known eosinophil products, and also implicate phospholipid inflammatory mediators, specific transcription factors and mitochondrial proteins. We confirmed that methylation at these loci differed significantly in isolated eosinophils from subjects with and without asthma and high IgE levels. The top three loci accounted for 13% of IgE variation in the primary subject panel, explaining the tenfold higher variance found compared with that derived from large single-nucleotide polymorphism genome-wide association studies. This study identifies novel therapeutic targets and biomarkers for patient stratification for allergic diseases.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4416961/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4416961/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Liang, Liming -- Willis-Owen, Saffron A G -- Laprise, Catherine -- Wong, Kenny C C -- Davies, Gwyneth A -- Hudson, Thomas J -- Binia, Aristea -- Hopkin, Julian M -- Yang, Ivana V -- Grundberg, Elin -- Busche, Stephan -- Hudson, Marie -- Ronnblom, Lars -- Pastinen, Tomi M -- Schwartz, David A -- Lathrop, G Mark -- Moffatt, Miriam F -- Cookson, William O C M -- 096964/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 097117/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- P01-ES18181/ES/NIEHS NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL101251-01/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- WT 077959/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- WT096964/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- England -- Nature. 2015 Apr 30;520(7549):670-4. doi: 10.1038/nature14125. Epub 2015 Feb 18.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Departments of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. ; National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College, London SW3 6LY, UK. ; Universite du Quebec a Chicoutimi, Saguenay, Quebec G7H 2B1, Canada. ; Institute of Life Science, College of Medicine, Swansea University, Swansea SA2 8PP, UK. ; 1] Ontario Institute for Cancer Research, Toronto, Ontario M5G 0A3, Canada [2] Departments of Medical Biophysics and Molecular Genetics, University of Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A1, Canada. ; University of Colorado School of Medicine and National Jewish Health, Denver, Colorado 80206, USA. ; Department of Human Genetics, McGill University and Genome Quebec Innovation Centre, Montreal H3A 1B1, Canada. ; Jewish General Hospital and Lady Davis Research Institute, Montreal H3T 1E2, Canada. ; Department of Medical Sciences, SciLifeLab, Uppsala University, Uppsala SE-751 44, Sweden. ; 1] Department of Human Genetics, McGill University and Genome Quebec Innovation Centre, Montreal H3A 1B1, Canada [2] Department of Medical Genetics, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal H3H 1P3, Canada.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25707804" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adolescent ; Adult ; Asthma/blood/genetics ; Child ; CpG Islands/genetics ; DNA Methylation/*genetics ; Eosinophils/cytology/metabolism ; Epigenesis, Genetic/*genetics ; Female ; *Genetic Association Studies ; Genome, Human/*genetics ; Humans ; Immunoglobulin E/*blood ; Inflammation Mediators ; Male ; Middle Aged ; Mitochondrial Proteins/genetics ; Pedigree ; Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/genetics ; Transcription Factors/genetics ; Young Adult
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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