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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2011-01-21
    Description: Many tumours are composed of genetically diverse cells; however, little is known about how diversity evolves or the impact that diversity has on functional properties. Here, using xenografting and DNA copy number alteration (CNA) profiling of human BCR-ABL1 lymphoblastic leukaemia, we demonstrate that genetic diversity occurs in functionally defined leukaemia-initiating cells and that many diagnostic patient samples contain multiple genetically distinct leukaemia-initiating cell subclones. Reconstructing the subclonal genetic ancestry of several samples by CNA profiling demonstrated a branching multi-clonal evolution model of leukaemogenesis, rather than linear succession. For some patient samples, the predominant diagnostic clone repopulated xenografts, whereas in others it was outcompeted by minor subclones. Reconstitution with the predominant diagnosis clone was associated with more aggressive growth properties in xenografts, deletion of CDKN2A and CDKN2B, and a trend towards poorer patient outcome. Our findings link clonal diversity with leukaemia-initiating-cell function and underscore the importance of developing therapies that eradicate all intratumoral subclones.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Notta, Faiyaz -- Mullighan, Charles G -- Wang, Jean C Y -- Poeppl, Armando -- Doulatov, Sergei -- Phillips, Letha A -- Ma, Jing -- Minden, Mark D -- Downing, James R -- Dick, John E -- Canadian Institutes of Health Research/Canada -- England -- Nature. 2011 Jan 20;469(7330):362-7. doi: 10.1038/nature09733.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Division of Stem Cell and Developmental Biology, Campbell Family Institute for Cancer Research/Ontario Cancer Institute, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1L7, Canada.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21248843" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Cell Survival ; Clone Cells/*metabolism/*pathology ; Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p15/deficiency/genetics ; DNA Copy Number Variations/genetics ; Disease Progression ; *Evolution, Molecular ; Fusion Proteins, bcr-abl/*genetics ; Genes, p16 ; Humans ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred NOD ; Mice, SCID ; Models, Biological ; Neoplasm Transplantation ; Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis ; Philadelphia Chromosome ; Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/genetics ; Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/*genetics/*pathology ; Survival Rate ; Transplantation, Heterologous
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2012-06-23
    Description: Medulloblastoma is a malignant childhood brain tumour comprising four discrete subgroups. Here, to identify mutations that drive medulloblastoma, we sequenced the entire genomes of 37 tumours and matched normal blood. One-hundred and thirty-six genes harbouring somatic mutations in this discovery set were sequenced in an additional 56 medulloblastomas. Recurrent mutations were detected in 41 genes not yet implicated in medulloblastoma; several target distinct components of the epigenetic machinery in different disease subgroups, such as regulators of H3K27 and H3K4 trimethylation in subgroups 3 and 4 (for example, KDM6A and ZMYM3), and CTNNB1-associated chromatin re-modellers in WNT-subgroup tumours (for example, SMARCA4 and CREBBP). Modelling of mutations in mouse lower rhombic lip progenitors that generate WNT-subgroup tumours identified genes that maintain this cell lineage (DDX3X), as well as mutated genes that initiate (CDH1) or cooperate (PIK3CA) in tumorigenesis. These data provide important new insights into the pathogenesis of medulloblastoma subgroups and highlight targets for therapeutic development.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3412905/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3412905/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Robinson, Giles -- Parker, Matthew -- Kranenburg, Tanya A -- Lu, Charles -- Chen, Xiang -- Ding, Li -- Phoenix, Timothy N -- Hedlund, Erin -- Wei, Lei -- Zhu, Xiaoyan -- Chalhoub, Nader -- Baker, Suzanne J -- Huether, Robert -- Kriwacki, Richard -- Curley, Natasha -- Thiruvenkatam, Radhika -- Wang, Jianmin -- Wu, Gang -- Rusch, Michael -- Hong, Xin -- Becksfort, Jared -- Gupta, Pankaj -- Ma, Jing -- Easton, John -- Vadodaria, Bhavin -- Onar-Thomas, Arzu -- Lin, Tong -- Li, Shaoyi -- Pounds, Stanley -- Paugh, Steven -- Zhao, David -- Kawauchi, Daisuke -- Roussel, Martine F -- Finkelstein, David -- Ellison, David W -- Lau, Ching C -- Bouffet, Eric -- Hassall, Tim -- Gururangan, Sridharan -- Cohn, Richard -- Fulton, Robert S -- Fulton, Lucinda L -- Dooling, David J -- Ochoa, Kerri -- Gajjar, Amar -- Mardis, Elaine R -- Wilson, Richard K -- Downing, James R -- Zhang, Jinghui -- Gilbertson, Richard J -- P01 CA096832/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- P01CA96832/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- P30 CA021765/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- P30CA021765/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA129541/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01CA129541/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2012 Aug 2;488(7409):43-8. doi: 10.1038/nature11213.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉St Jude Children's Research Hospital, Washington University Pediatric Cancer Genome Project, Memphis, Tennessee 38105, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22722829" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; CREB-Binding Protein/genetics ; Cadherins/genetics ; Cdh1 Proteins ; Cell Cycle Proteins/deficiency/genetics ; Cell Lineage ; Cerebellar Neoplasms/*classification/*genetics/pathology ; Child ; DEAD-box RNA Helicases/genetics ; DNA Copy Number Variations ; DNA Helicases/genetics ; DNA Mutational Analysis ; Disease Models, Animal ; Genome, Human/genetics ; Genomics ; Hedgehog Proteins/metabolism ; Histone Demethylases/genetics ; Histones/metabolism ; Humans ; Medulloblastoma/*classification/*genetics/pathology ; Methylation ; Mice ; Mutation/*genetics ; Nuclear Proteins/genetics ; Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/genetics ; Transcription Factors/genetics ; Wnt Proteins/metabolism ; beta Catenin/genetics
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2012-01-13
    Description: Retinoblastoma is an aggressive childhood cancer of the developing retina that is initiated by the biallelic loss of RB1. Tumours progress very quickly following RB1 inactivation but the underlying mechanism is not known. Here we show that the retinoblastoma genome is stable, but that multiple cancer pathways can be epigenetically deregulated. To identify the mutations that cooperate with RB1 loss, we performed whole-genome sequencing of retinoblastomas. The overall mutational rate was very low; RB1 was the only known cancer gene mutated. We then evaluated the role of RB1 in genome stability and considered non-genetic mechanisms of cancer pathway deregulation. For example, the proto-oncogene SYK is upregulated in retinoblastoma and is required for tumour cell survival. Targeting SYK with a small-molecule inhibitor induced retinoblastoma tumour cell death in vitro and in vivo. Thus, retinoblastomas may develop quickly as a result of the epigenetic deregulation of key cancer pathways as a direct or indirect result of RB1 loss.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3289956/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3289956/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Zhang, Jinghui -- Benavente, Claudia A -- McEvoy, Justina -- Flores-Otero, Jacqueline -- Ding, Li -- Chen, Xiang -- Ulyanov, Anatoly -- Wu, Gang -- Wilson, Matthew -- Wang, Jianmin -- Brennan, Rachel -- Rusch, Michael -- Manning, Amity L -- Ma, Jing -- Easton, John -- Shurtleff, Sheila -- Mullighan, Charles -- Pounds, Stanley -- Mukatira, Suraj -- Gupta, Pankaj -- Neale, Geoff -- Zhao, David -- Lu, Charles -- Fulton, Robert S -- Fulton, Lucinda L -- Hong, Xin -- Dooling, David J -- Ochoa, Kerri -- Naeve, Clayton -- Dyson, Nicholas J -- Mardis, Elaine R -- Bahrami, Armita -- Ellison, David -- Wilson, Richard K -- Downing, James R -- Dyer, Michael A -- CA21765/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- CA64402/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- EY014867/EY/NEI NIH HHS/ -- EY018599/EY/NEI NIH HHS/ -- GM81607/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA155202/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 EY014867/EY/NEI NIH HHS/ -- R01 EY014867-02/EY/NEI NIH HHS/ -- R01 EY018599/EY/NEI NIH HHS/ -- R01 EY018599-03/EY/NEI NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2012 Jan 11;481(7381):329-34. doi: 10.1038/nature10733.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Computational Biology and Bioinformatics, St Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee 38105, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22237022" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Aneuploidy ; Animals ; Cell Death/drug effects ; Cell Line ; Cell Survival/drug effects ; Chromosomal Instability/genetics ; Epigenesis, Genetic/*genetics ; Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic ; Genes, Retinoblastoma/genetics ; *Genomics ; Humans ; Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/antagonists & ; inhibitors/genetics/metabolism ; Mice ; *Molecular Targeted Therapy ; Mutation/genetics ; Protein Kinase Inhibitors/*pharmacology/therapeutic use ; Protein-Tyrosine Kinases/antagonists & inhibitors/genetics/metabolism ; Retinoblastoma/*drug therapy/*genetics/pathology ; Retinoblastoma Protein/deficiency/genetics ; Sequence Analysis, DNA ; Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2012-01-13
    Description: Early T-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ETP ALL) is an aggressive malignancy of unknown genetic basis. We performed whole-genome sequencing of 12 ETP ALL cases and assessed the frequency of the identified somatic mutations in 94 T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia cases. ETP ALL was characterized by activating mutations in genes regulating cytokine receptor and RAS signalling (67% of cases; NRAS, KRAS, FLT3, IL7R, JAK3, JAK1, SH2B3 and BRAF), inactivating lesions disrupting haematopoietic development (58%; GATA3, ETV6, RUNX1, IKZF1 and EP300) and histone-modifying genes (48%; EZH2, EED, SUZ12, SETD2 and EP300). We also identified new targets of recurrent mutation including DNM2, ECT2L and RELN. The mutational spectrum is similar to myeloid tumours, and moreover, the global transcriptional profile of ETP ALL was similar to that of normal and myeloid leukaemia haematopoietic stem cells. These findings suggest that addition of myeloid-directed therapies might improve the poor outcome of ETP ALL.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3267575/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3267575/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Zhang, Jinghui -- Ding, Li -- Holmfeldt, Linda -- Wu, Gang -- Heatley, Sue L -- Payne-Turner, Debbie -- Easton, John -- Chen, Xiang -- Wang, Jianmin -- Rusch, Michael -- Lu, Charles -- Chen, Shann-Ching -- Wei, Lei -- Collins-Underwood, J Racquel -- Ma, Jing -- Roberts, Kathryn G -- Pounds, Stanley B -- Ulyanov, Anatoly -- Becksfort, Jared -- Gupta, Pankaj -- Huether, Robert -- Kriwacki, Richard W -- Parker, Matthew -- McGoldrick, Daniel J -- Zhao, David -- Alford, Daniel -- Espy, Stephen -- Bobba, Kiran Chand -- Song, Guangchun -- Pei, Deqing -- Cheng, Cheng -- Roberts, Stefan -- Barbato, Michael I -- Campana, Dario -- Coustan-Smith, Elaine -- Shurtleff, Sheila A -- Raimondi, Susana C -- Kleppe, Maria -- Cools, Jan -- Shimano, Kristin A -- Hermiston, Michelle L -- Doulatov, Sergei -- Eppert, Kolja -- Laurenti, Elisa -- Notta, Faiyaz -- Dick, John E -- Basso, Giuseppe -- Hunger, Stephen P -- Loh, Mignon L -- Devidas, Meenakshi -- Wood, Brent -- Winter, Stuart -- Dunsmore, Kimberley P -- Fulton, Robert S -- Fulton, Lucinda L -- Hong, Xin -- Harris, Christopher C -- Dooling, David J -- Ochoa, Kerri -- Johnson, Kimberly J -- Obenauer, John C -- Evans, William E -- Pui, Ching-Hon -- Naeve, Clayton W -- Ley, Timothy J -- Mardis, Elaine R -- Wilson, Richard K -- Downing, James R -- Mullighan, Charles G -- CA114766/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- CA98413/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- CA98543/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- P30 CA021765/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- P30 CA021765-33/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- P30CA021765/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- U01GM92666/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- U54 HG003079/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2012 Jan 11;481(7380):157-63. doi: 10.1038/nature10725.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Computational Biology and Bioinformatics, St Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee 38105, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22237106" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Age of Onset ; Child ; DNA Copy Number Variations/genetics ; Genes, ras/genetics ; Genetic Predisposition to Disease/*genetics ; Genome, Human/genetics ; Genomics ; Hematopoiesis/genetics ; Histones/metabolism ; Humans ; Janus Kinases/genetics/metabolism ; Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/drug therapy/genetics/pathology ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Mutation/*genetics ; Precursor T-Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/drug therapy/*genetics/pathology ; Receptors, Interleukin-7/genetics ; Sequence Analysis, DNA ; Signal Transduction/genetics ; Stem Cells/metabolism/pathology ; T-Lymphocytes/metabolism/pathology ; Translocation, Genetic/genetics
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2014-02-21
    Description: Members of the nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) family of transcriptional regulators are central mediators of the cellular inflammatory response. Although constitutive NF-kappaB signalling is present in most human tumours, mutations in pathway members are rare, complicating efforts to understand and block aberrant NF-kappaB activity in cancer. Here we show that more than two-thirds of supratentorial ependymomas contain oncogenic fusions between RELA, the principal effector of canonical NF-kappaB signalling, and an uncharacterized gene, C11orf95. In each case, C11orf95-RELA fusions resulted from chromothripsis involving chromosome 11q13.1. C11orf95-RELA fusion proteins translocated spontaneously to the nucleus to activate NF-kappaB target genes, and rapidly transformed neural stem cells--the cell of origin of ependymoma--to form these tumours in mice. Our data identify a highly recurrent genetic alteration of RELA in human cancer, and the C11orf95-RELA fusion protein as a potential therapeutic target in supratentorial ependymoma.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4050669/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4050669/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Parker, Matthew -- Mohankumar, Kumarasamypet M -- Punchihewa, Chandanamali -- Weinlich, Ricardo -- Dalton, James D -- Li, Yongjin -- Lee, Ryan -- Tatevossian, Ruth G -- Phoenix, Timothy N -- Thiruvenkatam, Radhika -- White, Elsie -- Tang, Bo -- Orisme, Wilda -- Gupta, Kirti -- Rusch, Michael -- Chen, Xiang -- Li, Yuxin -- Nagahawhatte, Panduka -- Hedlund, Erin -- Finkelstein, David -- Wu, Gang -- Shurtleff, Sheila -- Easton, John -- Boggs, Kristy -- Yergeau, Donald -- Vadodaria, Bhavin -- Mulder, Heather L -- Becksfort, Jared -- Gupta, Pankaj -- Huether, Robert -- Ma, Jing -- Song, Guangchun -- Gajjar, Amar -- Merchant, Thomas -- Boop, Frederick -- Smith, Amy A -- Ding, Li -- Lu, Charles -- Ochoa, Kerri -- Zhao, David -- Fulton, Robert S -- Fulton, Lucinda L -- Mardis, Elaine R -- Wilson, Richard K -- Downing, James R -- Green, Douglas R -- Zhang, Jinghui -- Ellison, David W -- Gilbertson, Richard J -- P01 CA096832/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- P01CA96832/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- P30 CA021765/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- P30CA021765/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA129541/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01CA129541/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2014 Feb 27;506(7489):451-5. doi: 10.1038/nature13109. Epub 2014 Feb 19.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉1] St. Jude Children's Research Hospital - Washington University Pediatric Cancer Genome Project, Memphis, Tennessee 38105, USA [2] Department of Computational Biology and Bioinformatics, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee 38105, USA [3]. ; 1] Department of Developmental Neurobiology, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee 38105, USA [2]. ; 1] Department of Pathology, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee 38105, USA [2]. ; 1] Department of Immunology, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee 38105, USA [2]. ; 1] St. Jude Children's Research Hospital - Washington University Pediatric Cancer Genome Project, Memphis, Tennessee 38105, USA [2] Department of Pathology, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee 38105, USA. ; 1] St. Jude Children's Research Hospital - Washington University Pediatric Cancer Genome Project, Memphis, Tennessee 38105, USA [2] Department of Computational Biology and Bioinformatics, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee 38105, USA. ; Department of Pathology, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee 38105, USA. ; Department of Developmental Neurobiology, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee 38105, USA. ; Department of Computational Biology and Bioinformatics, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee 38105, USA. ; 1] Department of Computational Biology and Bioinformatics, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee 38105, USA [2] Structural Biology, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee 38105, USA. ; St. Jude Children's Research Hospital - Washington University Pediatric Cancer Genome Project, Memphis, Tennessee 38105, USA. ; Structural Biology, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee 38105, USA. ; 1] St. Jude Children's Research Hospital - Washington University Pediatric Cancer Genome Project, Memphis, Tennessee 38105, USA [2] Department of Oncology, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee 38105, USA. ; Department of Radiological Sciences, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee 38105, USA. ; Department of Surgery, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee 38105, USA. ; MD Anderson Cancer Center Orlando, Pediatric Hematology/Oncology, 92 West Miller MP 318, Orlando, Florida 32806, USA. ; 1] St. Jude Children's Research Hospital - Washington University Pediatric Cancer Genome Project, Memphis, Tennessee 38105, USA [2] The Genome Institute, Washington University School of Medicine in St Louis, St Louis, Missouri 63108, USA [3] Department of Genetics, Washington University School of Medicine in St Louis, St Louis, Missouri 63108, USA. ; 1] St. Jude Children's Research Hospital - Washington University Pediatric Cancer Genome Project, Memphis, Tennessee 38105, USA [2] The Genome Institute, Washington University School of Medicine in St Louis, St Louis, Missouri 63108, USA. ; 1] St. Jude Children's Research Hospital - Washington University Pediatric Cancer Genome Project, Memphis, Tennessee 38105, USA [2] The Genome Institute, Washington University School of Medicine in St Louis, St Louis, Missouri 63108, USA [3] Department of Genetics, Washington University School of Medicine in St Louis, St Louis, Missouri 63108, USA [4] Siteman Cancer Center, Washington University School of Medicine in St Louis, St Louis, Missouri 63108, USA. ; Department of Immunology, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee 38105, USA. ; 1] St. Jude Children's Research Hospital - Washington University Pediatric Cancer Genome Project, Memphis, Tennessee 38105, USA [2] Department of Developmental Neurobiology, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee 38105, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24553141" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/genetics/metabolism ; Animals ; Base Sequence ; Brain Neoplasms/genetics/metabolism/pathology ; Cell Line ; Cell Nucleus/metabolism ; *Cell Transformation, Neoplastic/genetics ; Chromosomes, Human, Pair 11/genetics ; Ependymoma/*genetics/*metabolism/pathology ; Female ; Humans ; Mice ; Models, Genetic ; Molecular Sequence Data ; NF-kappa B/genetics/*metabolism ; Neural Stem Cells/metabolism/pathology ; Oncogene Proteins, Fusion/genetics/metabolism ; Phosphoproteins/genetics/metabolism ; Proteins/genetics/*metabolism ; *Signal Transduction ; Transcription Factor RelA/genetics/*metabolism ; Translocation, Genetic/genetics
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2015-07-23
    Description: G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) signal primarily through G proteins or arrestins. Arrestin binding to GPCRs blocks G protein interaction and redirects signalling to numerous G-protein-independent pathways. Here we report the crystal structure of a constitutively active form of human rhodopsin bound to a pre-activated form of the mouse visual arrestin, determined by serial femtosecond X-ray laser crystallography. Together with extensive biochemical and mutagenesis data, the structure reveals an overall architecture of the rhodopsin-arrestin assembly in which rhodopsin uses distinct structural elements, including transmembrane helix 7 and helix 8, to recruit arrestin. Correspondingly, arrestin adopts the pre-activated conformation, with a approximately 20 degrees rotation between the amino and carboxy domains, which opens up a cleft in arrestin to accommodate a short helix formed by the second intracellular loop of rhodopsin. This structure provides a basis for understanding GPCR-mediated arrestin-biased signalling and demonstrates the power of X-ray lasers for advancing the frontiers of structural biology.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4521999/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4521999/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Kang, Yanyong -- Zhou, X Edward -- Gao, Xiang -- He, Yuanzheng -- Liu, Wei -- Ishchenko, Andrii -- Barty, Anton -- White, Thomas A -- Yefanov, Oleksandr -- Han, Gye Won -- Xu, Qingping -- de Waal, Parker W -- Ke, Jiyuan -- Tan, M H Eileen -- Zhang, Chenghai -- Moeller, Arne -- West, Graham M -- Pascal, Bruce D -- Van Eps, Ned -- Caro, Lydia N -- Vishnivetskiy, Sergey A -- Lee, Regina J -- Suino-Powell, Kelly M -- Gu, Xin -- Pal, Kuntal -- Ma, Jinming -- Zhi, Xiaoyong -- Boutet, Sebastien -- Williams, Garth J -- Messerschmidt, Marc -- Gati, Cornelius -- Zatsepin, Nadia A -- Wang, Dingjie -- James, Daniel -- Basu, Shibom -- Roy-Chowdhury, Shatabdi -- Conrad, Chelsie E -- Coe, Jesse -- Liu, Haiguang -- Lisova, Stella -- Kupitz, Christopher -- Grotjohann, Ingo -- Fromme, Raimund -- Jiang, Yi -- Tan, Minjia -- Yang, Huaiyu -- Li, Jun -- Wang, Meitian -- Zheng, Zhong -- Li, Dianfan -- Howe, Nicole -- Zhao, Yingming -- Standfuss, Jorg -- Diederichs, Kay -- Dong, Yuhui -- Potter, Clinton S -- Carragher, Bridget -- Caffrey, Martin -- Jiang, Hualiang -- Chapman, Henry N -- Spence, John C H -- Fromme, Petra -- Weierstall, Uwe -- Ernst, Oliver P -- Katritch, Vsevolod -- Gurevich, Vsevolod V -- Griffin, Patrick R -- Hubbell, Wayne L -- Stevens, Raymond C -- Cherezov, Vadim -- Melcher, Karsten -- Xu, H Eric -- DK071662/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- EY005216/EY/NEI NIH HHS/ -- EY011500/EY/NEI NIH HHS/ -- GM073197/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- GM077561/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- GM095583/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- GM097463/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- GM102545/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- GM103310/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- GM104212/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- GM108635/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- P30EY000331/EY/NEI NIH HHS/ -- P41 GM103310/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- P41GM103393/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- P41RR001209/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- P50 GM073197/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- P50 GM073210/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK066202/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK071662/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 EY011500/EY/NEI NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM087413/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM109955/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- S10 RR027270/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- U54 GM094586/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- U54 GM094599/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- U54 GM094618/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2015 Jul 30;523(7562):561-7. doi: 10.1038/nature14656. Epub 2015 Jul 22.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Laboratory of Structural Sciences, Center for Structural Biology and Drug Discovery, Van Andel Research Institute, Grand Rapids, Michigan 49503, USA. ; Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, and Center for Applied Structural Discovery, Biodesign Institute, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287-1604, USA. ; Department of Chemistry, Bridge Institute, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089, USA. ; Center for Free Electron Laser Science, Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, 22607 Hamburg, Germany. ; Joint Center for Structural Genomics, Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California 94025, USA. ; 1] Laboratory of Structural Sciences, Center for Structural Biology and Drug Discovery, Van Andel Research Institute, Grand Rapids, Michigan 49503, USA [2] Department of Obstetrics &Gynecology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore. ; The National Resource for Automated Molecular Microscopy, New York Structural Biology Center, New York, New York 10027, USA. ; Department of Molecular Therapeutics, The Scripps Research Institute, Scripps Florida, Jupiter, Florida 33458, USA. ; Jules Stein Eye Institute and Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095, USA. ; Department of Biochemistry, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A8, Canada. ; Department of Pharmacology, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37232, USA. ; Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California 94025, USA. ; 1] Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California 94025, USA [2] BioXFEL, NSF Science and Technology Center, 700 Ellicott Street, Buffalo, New York 14203, USA. ; 1] Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, and Center for Applied Structural Discovery, Biodesign Institute, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287-1604, USA [2] Department of Physics, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287, USA. ; 1] Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, and Center for Applied Structural Discovery, Biodesign Institute, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287-1604, USA [2] Beijing Computational Science Research Center, Haidian District, Beijing 10084, China. ; 1] Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, and Center for Applied Structural Discovery, Biodesign Institute, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287-1604, USA [2] Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53211, USA. ; State Key Laboratory of Drug Research, Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201203, China. ; Department of Obstetrics &Gynecology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore. ; Swiss Light Source at Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen, Switzerland. ; Department of Biological Sciences, Bridge Institute, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089, USA. ; School of Medicine and School of Biochemistry and Immunology, Trinity College, Dublin 2, Ireland. ; 1] BioXFEL, NSF Science and Technology Center, 700 Ellicott Street, Buffalo, New York 14203, USA [2] Ben May Department for Cancer Research, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA. ; Laboratory of Biomolecular Research at Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen, Switzerland. ; Department of Biology, Universitat Konstanz, 78457 Konstanz, Germany. ; Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China. ; 1] Center for Free Electron Laser Science, Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, 22607 Hamburg, Germany [2] Centre for Ultrafast Imaging, 22761 Hamburg, Germany. ; 1] Department of Biochemistry, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A8, Canada [2] Department of Molecular Genetics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A8, Canada. ; 1] Department of Chemistry, Bridge Institute, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089, USA [2] Department of Biological Sciences, Bridge Institute, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089, USA [3] iHuman Institute, ShanghaiTech University, 2F Building 6, 99 Haike Road, Pudong New District, Shanghai 201210, China. ; 1] Laboratory of Structural Sciences, Center for Structural Biology and Drug Discovery, Van Andel Research Institute, Grand Rapids, Michigan 49503, USA [2] VARI-SIMM Center, Center for Structure and Function of Drug Targets, CAS-Key Laboratory of Receptor Research, Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201203, China.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26200343" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Arrestin/*chemistry/*metabolism ; Binding Sites ; Crystallography, X-Ray ; Disulfides/chemistry/metabolism ; Humans ; Lasers ; Mice ; Models, Molecular ; Multiprotein Complexes/biosynthesis/chemistry/metabolism ; Protein Binding ; Reproducibility of Results ; Rhodopsin/*chemistry/*metabolism ; Signal Transduction ; X-Rays
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2014-08-12
    Description: Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a genetic disease caused by mutation or deletion of the survival of motor neuron 1 (SMN1) gene. A paralogous gene in humans, SMN2, produces low, insufficient levels of functional SMN protein due to alternative splicing that truncates the transcript. The decreased levels of SMN protein lead to progressive neuromuscular degeneration and high rates of mortality. Through chemical screening and optimization, we identified orally available small molecules that shift the balance of SMN2 splicing toward the production of full-length SMN2 messenger RNA with high selectivity. Administration of these compounds to Delta7 mice, a model of severe SMA, led to an increase in SMN protein levels, improvement of motor function, and protection of the neuromuscular circuit. These compounds also extended the life span of the mice. Selective SMN2 splicing modifiers may have therapeutic potential for patients with SMA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Naryshkin, Nikolai A -- Weetall, Marla -- Dakka, Amal -- Narasimhan, Jana -- Zhao, Xin -- Feng, Zhihua -- Ling, Karen K Y -- Karp, Gary M -- Qi, Hongyan -- Woll, Matthew G -- Chen, Guangming -- Zhang, Nanjing -- Gabbeta, Vijayalakshmi -- Vazirani, Priya -- Bhattacharyya, Anuradha -- Furia, Bansri -- Risher, Nicole -- Sheedy, Josephine -- Kong, Ronald -- Ma, Jiyuan -- Turpoff, Anthony -- Lee, Chang-Sun -- Zhang, Xiaoyan -- Moon, Young-Choon -- Trifillis, Panayiota -- Welch, Ellen M -- Colacino, Joseph M -- Babiak, John -- Almstead, Neil G -- Peltz, Stuart W -- Eng, Loren A -- Chen, Karen S -- Mull, Jesse L -- Lynes, Maureen S -- Rubin, Lee L -- Fontoura, Paulo -- Santarelli, Luca -- Haehnke, Daniel -- McCarthy, Kathleen D -- Schmucki, Roland -- Ebeling, Martin -- Sivaramakrishnan, Manaswini -- Ko, Chien-Ping -- Paushkin, Sergey V -- Ratni, Hasane -- Gerlach, Irene -- Ghosh, Anirvan -- Metzger, Friedrich -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2014 Aug 8;345(6197):688-93. doi: 10.1126/science.1250127.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉PTC Therapeutics, 100 Corporate Court, South Plainfield, NJ 07080, USA. ; Section of Neurobiology, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089, USA. ; PTC Therapeutics, 100 Corporate Court, South Plainfield, NJ 07080, USA. friedrich.metzger@roche.com speltz@ptcbio.com. ; SMA Foundation, 888 Seventh Avenue, Suite 400, New York, NY 10019, USA. ; Department of Stem Cell and Regenerative Biology and the Harvard Stem Cell Institute, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA. ; Roche Pharmaceutical Research and Early Development, Roche Innovation Center Basel, F. Hoffmann-La Roche, Grenzacherstrasse 124, 4070 Basel, Switzerland. ; Roche Pharmaceutical Research and Early Development, Roche Innovation Center Basel, F. Hoffmann-La Roche, Grenzacherstrasse 124, 4070 Basel, Switzerland. friedrich.metzger@roche.com speltz@ptcbio.com.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25104390" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Administration, Oral ; Alternative Splicing/*drug effects ; Animals ; Cells, Cultured ; Coumarins/*administration & dosage/chemistry ; Disease Models, Animal ; Drug Evaluation, Preclinical ; Humans ; Isocoumarins/*administration & dosage/chemistry ; Longevity/*drug effects ; Mice ; Muscular Atrophy, Spinal/*drug therapy/genetics/metabolism ; Pyrimidinones/*administration & dosage/chemistry ; RNA, Messenger/genetics ; Sequence Deletion ; Small Molecule Libraries/*administration & dosage/chemistry ; Survival of Motor Neuron 2 Protein/*genetics/metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2011-01-29
    Description: 'Orang-utan' is derived from a Malay term meaning 'man of the forest' and aptly describes the southeast Asian great apes native to Sumatra and Borneo. The orang-utan species, Pongo abelii (Sumatran) and Pongo pygmaeus (Bornean), are the most phylogenetically distant great apes from humans, thereby providing an informative perspective on hominid evolution. Here we present a Sumatran orang-utan draft genome assembly and short read sequence data from five Sumatran and five Bornean orang-utan genomes. Our analyses reveal that, compared to other primates, the orang-utan genome has many unique features. Structural evolution of the orang-utan genome has proceeded much more slowly than other great apes, evidenced by fewer rearrangements, less segmental duplication, a lower rate of gene family turnover and surprisingly quiescent Alu repeats, which have played a major role in restructuring other primate genomes. We also describe a primate polymorphic neocentromere, found in both Pongo species, emphasizing the gradual evolution of orang-utan genome structure. Orang-utans have extremely low energy usage for a eutherian mammal, far lower than their hominid relatives. Adding their genome to the repertoire of sequenced primates illuminates new signals of positive selection in several pathways including glycolipid metabolism. From the population perspective, both Pongo species are deeply diverse; however, Sumatran individuals possess greater diversity than their Bornean counterparts, and more species-specific variation. Our estimate of Bornean/Sumatran speciation time, 400,000 years ago, is more recent than most previous studies and underscores the complexity of the orang-utan speciation process. Despite a smaller modern census population size, the Sumatran effective population size (N(e)) expanded exponentially relative to the ancestral N(e) after the split, while Bornean N(e) declined over the same period. Overall, the resources and analyses presented here offer new opportunities in evolutionary genomics, insights into hominid biology, and an extensive database of variation for conservation efforts.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3060778/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3060778/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Locke, Devin P -- Hillier, LaDeana W -- Warren, Wesley C -- Worley, Kim C -- Nazareth, Lynne V -- Muzny, Donna M -- Yang, Shiaw-Pyng -- Wang, Zhengyuan -- Chinwalla, Asif T -- Minx, Pat -- Mitreva, Makedonka -- Cook, Lisa -- Delehaunty, Kim D -- Fronick, Catrina -- Schmidt, Heather -- Fulton, Lucinda A -- Fulton, Robert S -- Nelson, Joanne O -- Magrini, Vincent -- Pohl, Craig -- Graves, Tina A -- Markovic, Chris -- Cree, Andy -- Dinh, Huyen H -- Hume, Jennifer -- Kovar, Christie L -- Fowler, Gerald R -- Lunter, Gerton -- Meader, Stephen -- Heger, Andreas -- Ponting, Chris P -- Marques-Bonet, Tomas -- Alkan, Can -- Chen, Lin -- Cheng, Ze -- Kidd, Jeffrey M -- Eichler, Evan E -- White, Simon -- Searle, Stephen -- Vilella, Albert J -- Chen, Yuan -- Flicek, Paul -- Ma, Jian -- Raney, Brian -- Suh, Bernard -- Burhans, Richard -- Herrero, Javier -- Haussler, David -- Faria, Rui -- Fernando, Olga -- Darre, Fleur -- Farre, Domenec -- Gazave, Elodie -- Oliva, Meritxell -- Navarro, Arcadi -- Roberto, Roberta -- Capozzi, Oronzo -- Archidiacono, Nicoletta -- Della Valle, Giuliano -- Purgato, Stefania -- Rocchi, Mariano -- Konkel, Miriam K -- Walker, Jerilyn A -- Ullmer, Brygg -- Batzer, Mark A -- Smit, Arian F A -- Hubley, Robert -- Casola, Claudio -- Schrider, Daniel R -- Hahn, Matthew W -- Quesada, Victor -- Puente, Xose S -- Ordonez, Gonzalo R -- Lopez-Otin, Carlos -- Vinar, Tomas -- Brejova, Brona -- Ratan, Aakrosh -- Harris, Robert S -- Miller, Webb -- Kosiol, Carolin -- Lawson, Heather A -- Taliwal, Vikas -- Martins, Andre L -- Siepel, Adam -- Roychoudhury, Arindam -- Ma, Xin -- Degenhardt, Jeremiah -- Bustamante, Carlos D -- Gutenkunst, Ryan N -- Mailund, Thomas -- Dutheil, Julien Y -- Hobolth, Asger -- Schierup, Mikkel H -- Ryder, Oliver A -- Yoshinaga, Yuko -- de Jong, Pieter J -- Weinstock, George M -- Rogers, Jeffrey -- Mardis, Elaine R -- Gibbs, Richard A -- Wilson, Richard K -- G0501331/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- HG002238/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- HG002385/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- MC_U137761446/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- P01 AG022064/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM059290/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM59290/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 HG002939/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- U54 HG003079/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- U54 HG003079-08/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- U54 HG003273/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- England -- Nature. 2011 Jan 27;469(7331):529-33. doi: 10.1038/nature09687.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉The Genome Center at Washington University, Washington University School of Medicine, 4444 Forest Park Avenue, Saint Louis, Missouri 63108, USA. dlocke@wustl.edu〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21270892" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Centromere/genetics ; Cerebrosides/metabolism ; Chromosomes ; Evolution, Molecular ; Female ; Gene Rearrangement/genetics ; Genetic Speciation ; *Genetic Variation ; Genetics, Population ; Genome/*genetics ; Humans ; Male ; Phylogeny ; Pongo abelii/*genetics ; Pongo pygmaeus/*genetics ; Population Density ; Population Dynamics ; Species Specificity
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2011-04-29
    Description: Innate immune cells must be able to distinguish between direct binding to microbes and detection of components shed from the surface of microbes located at a distance. Dectin-1 (also known as CLEC7A) is a pattern-recognition receptor expressed by myeloid phagocytes (macrophages, dendritic cells and neutrophils) that detects beta-glucans in fungal cell walls and triggers direct cellular antimicrobial activity, including phagocytosis and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In contrast to inflammatory responses stimulated upon detection of soluble ligands by other pattern-recognition receptors, such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs), these responses are only useful when a cell comes into direct contact with a microbe and must not be spuriously activated by soluble stimuli. In this study we show that, despite its ability to bind both soluble and particulate beta-glucan polymers, Dectin-1 signalling is only activated by particulate beta-glucans, which cluster the receptor in synapse-like structures from which regulatory tyrosine phosphatases CD45 and CD148 (also known as PTPRC and PTPRJ, respectively) are excluded (Supplementary Fig. 1). The 'phagocytic synapse' now provides a model mechanism by which innate immune receptors can distinguish direct microbial contact from detection of microbes at a distance, thereby initiating direct cellular antimicrobial responses only when they are required.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3084546/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3084546/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Goodridge, Helen S -- Reyes, Christopher N -- Becker, Courtney A -- Katsumoto, Tamiko R -- Ma, Jun -- Wolf, Andrea J -- Bose, Nandita -- Chan, Anissa S H -- Magee, Andrew S -- Danielson, Michael E -- Weiss, Arthur -- Vasilakos, John P -- Underhill, David M -- AI066120/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- AI071116/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI066120/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI066120-05/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI071116/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI071116-04/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2011 Apr 28;472(7344):471-5. doi: 10.1038/nature10071.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉IBD and Immunobiology Research Institute, 8700 Beverly Boulevard, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, California 90048, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21525931" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Antigens, CD45/deficiency/metabolism ; Cell Wall/chemistry/immunology ; Cells, Cultured ; Humans ; Immunity, Innate/*immunology ; Immunological Synapses/*immunology ; Lectins, C-Type ; Macrophages/immunology ; Membrane Proteins/deficiency/genetics/*immunology ; Mice ; *Models, Immunological ; Nerve Tissue Proteins/deficiency/genetics/*immunology ; Phagocytosis/*immunology ; Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism ; Receptor-Like Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases, Class 3/deficiency/metabolism ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae/chemistry/immunology ; Signal Transduction/immunology ; Solubility ; beta-Glucans/chemistry/immunology
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2011-03-11
    Description: Relapsed acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) is a leading cause of death due to disease in young people, but the biological determinants of treatment failure remain poorly understood. Recent genome-wide profiling of structural DNA alterations in ALL have identified multiple submicroscopic somatic mutations targeting key cellular pathways, and have demonstrated substantial evolution in genetic alterations from diagnosis to relapse. However, DNA sequence mutations in ALL have not been analysed in detail. To identify novel mutations in relapsed ALL, we resequenced 300 genes in matched diagnosis and relapse samples from 23 patients with ALL. This identified 52 somatic non-synonymous mutations in 32 genes, many of which were novel, including the transcriptional coactivators CREBBP and NCOR1, the transcription factors ERG, SPI1, TCF4 and TCF7L2, components of the Ras signalling pathway, histone genes, genes involved in histone modification (CREBBP and CTCF), and genes previously shown to be targets of recurring DNA copy number alteration in ALL. Analysis of an extended cohort of 71 diagnosis-relapse cases and 270 acute leukaemia cases that did not relapse found that 18.3% of relapse cases had sequence or deletion mutations of CREBBP, which encodes the transcriptional coactivator and histone acetyltransferase CREB-binding protein (CREBBP, also known as CBP). The mutations were either present at diagnosis or acquired at relapse, and resulted in truncated alleles or deleterious substitutions in conserved residues of the histone acetyltransferase domain. Functionally, the mutations impaired histone acetylation and transcriptional regulation of CREBBP targets, including glucocorticoid responsive genes. Several mutations acquired at relapse were detected in subclones at diagnosis, suggesting that the mutations may confer resistance to therapy. These results extend the landscape of genetic alterations in leukaemia, and identify mutations targeting transcriptional and epigenetic regulation as a mechanism of resistance in ALL.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3076610/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3076610/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Mullighan, Charles G -- Zhang, Jinghui -- Kasper, Lawryn H -- Lerach, Stephanie -- Payne-Turner, Debbie -- Phillips, Letha A -- Heatley, Sue L -- Holmfeldt, Linda -- Collins-Underwood, J Racquel -- Ma, Jing -- Buetow, Kenneth H -- Pui, Ching-Hon -- Baker, Sharyn D -- Brindle, Paul K -- Downing, James R -- DE018183/DE/NIDCR NIH HHS/ -- P30 CA021765/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- P30 CA021765-31/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R21 DE018183/DE/NIDCR NIH HHS/ -- R21 DE018183-02/DE/NIDCR NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2011 Mar 10;471(7337):235-9. doi: 10.1038/nature09727.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Pathology, St Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee 38105, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21390130" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Acetylation ; CREB-Binding Protein/chemistry/*genetics/metabolism ; Drug Resistance, Neoplasm/genetics ; Epigenesis, Genetic/genetics ; Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic ; Histone Acetyltransferases/genetics/metabolism ; Histones/metabolism ; Humans ; Mutation/*genetics ; Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/*genetics ; Protein Structure, Tertiary/genetics ; Recurrence
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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