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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Keywords: R-Bodies ; Kappa particles ; Free-living hydrogen bacteria ; Induction ; Electron microscopy ; Chemical composition ; Defective prophages ; Plasmids
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract R-Bodies have been found in a recently isolated pseudomonas-like free-living hydrogen oxidizing bacterium. Their isolation, fine structure and chemical composition are described and compared with the R-bodies from the kappa particles (Caedobacter), obligate endosymbionts of Paramecium aurelia. The 2K 1 R-bodies exhibited essential characteristics of the kappa R-bodies; however, their size and some other structural aspects proved that they represent a new type of R-bodies. The presence of phage tail-like particles in cells induced with Mitomycin C is in favour of the hypothesis that the R-bodies might be coded by defective prophages, or by extrachromosomal elements.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Archives of microbiology 100 (1974), S. 25-39 
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Keywords: NAD-Dependent Hydrogenase ; Hydrogen Dehydrogenase ; Nocardia opaca Strain 1 b ; Hydrogen Bacteria ; Chemolithoautotrophic Bacteria ; Gram-Positive Hydrogen Bacteria
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Nocardia opaca strain 1 b has a NAD-dependent hydrogenase (hydrogen dehydrogenase). The enzyme has been purified from autotrophically grown cells and tested for optimal assay conditions and stability. The purification procedure involved protamine sulfate treatment, ammonium sulfate precipitation, and separation by DEAE-cellulose and Sephadex G-200 chromatography and resulted in a 63-fold increase of specific activity at a 11.7% enzyme recovery. The final specific activity was 103 μmoles H2/min·mg protein. The purified enzyme was dependent on nickel and magnesium ions at 0.5 and 5.0 mM concentrations, respectively, as well as flavin mononucleotide at a 5–10 μM concentration. Straight enzyme kinetics were achieved by preincubating the enzyme in the presence of NADH2. A high stability of the enzyme was observed in 0.1 M potassium phosphate buffer, pH 6.5, in the presence of 0.5 mM nickel and 5 mM magnesium ions under hydrogen atmosphere. Even under air the enzyme was remarkably stable, although less than under hydrogen. From double reciprocal plots of substrate saturation curves the Michaelis-Menten constants were calculated: For saturating NAD-concentration the K m was 0.063 mM H2 and for saturating hydrogen concentration the K m was 0.123 mM NAD.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Archives of microbiology 103 (1975), S. 133-140 
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Keywords: Alcaligenes eutrophus Strain H16 ; Aromatic Amino Acid ; Biosynthesis, Regulation of ; DAHP-Synthase ; Hydrogen Bacteria
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Properties and regulation of 3-deoxy-d-arabino-heptulosonate 7-phosphate synthase (DAHP-synthase), EC4.1.2.15, from Alcaligenes eutrophus H16 were investigated. DAHP synthase was unstable during manipulations such as dialysis, dilution, ammonium sulfate fractionation, chromatography on DEAE-cellulose or Sephadex G-200. For kinetic measurements Sephadex G-25 treated crude extracts were used. The enzyme was not affected by thiol reagents, EDTA or divalent metal ions. The activation energy, ΔH, amounted to 16100 cal/mole. Between pH 7.2 and pH 8.2 there was little change of enzyme activity. The K m -values for the two substrates were found to be 0.043 mM phosphoenolpyruvate and 0.055 mM erythrose-4-phosphate. DAHP-synthase was inhibited by 0.5 mM phenylanine for 60% and by 0.5 mM tyrosine for 20%. In the presence of both amino acids cumulative inhibition occurred amounting to about 70%. No other amino acid exerted inhibitory effects. A repression of DAHP-synthase by the aromatic amino acids was not observed. Some other strains of hydrogen bacteria were included in this study. The DAHP synthase from strain 12/60/X and Corynebacterium autotrophicum 7C was unregulated. The enzyme from strain 33/X was subject to retro-tyrosine inhibition and from strain 3/2, H1 and H20 were subject to cumulative inhibition.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Keywords: Aquaspirillum autotrophicum ; Hydrogen bacterium ; Growth ; Chemolithoautotrophy ; Particulate hydrogenase ; Induction ; Repression ; Natural habitats
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Aquaspirillum autrotrophicum, an aerobic hydrogen bacterium recently isolated from an eutrophic freshwater lake, was characterized physiologically. It grew autotrophically in a fermenter with a doubling time of 4 h. Heterotrophic growth was faster. pH-Optimum ranged from 5.0–7.5, temperature optimum was about 28° C. During autotrophic growth about 10 moles hydrogen were consumed per 1 mole carbon dioxide fixed. Hydrogenase activity is inducible. CO2 did not enhance the oxy-hydrogen reaction by intact cells. The hydrogenase activity was localized in the particulate fraction. The hydrogenase reduced methylene blue and phenazine methosulfate; pyridine nucleotides were not reduced. In cell-free extracts, hydrogenase was sensitive to oxygen. Ribulosebisphosphate carboxylase was present in autotrophically-grown cells and absent from heterotrophically grown cells. Hydrogenase induction in heterotrophically-grown cells followed parabolic kinetics. Oxygen and D-gluconate repressed hydrogenase synthesis, whereas citrate, DL-lactate and pyruvate stimulated its formation. The repressive effect was delayed. The results suggest that the control of hydrogenase synthesis occurred at the transcriptional level, and that mRNA coding for the hydrogenase had a relatively long life span. D-Gluconate was degraded via the Entner-Doudoroff pathway, the enzymes of which were constitutively formed. Enzymes of the pentosephosphate and Embden-Meyerhof pathways (except phosphofructokinase) were present, too. Hydrogen did not inhibit heterotrophic growth. The possible competitive advantage of the physiological properties described with regard to the natural habitat was discussed.
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