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  • 1
    Keywords: DISEASE ; MORTALITY ; ASSOCIATION ; PREVALENCE ; COMPLICATIONS ; MORBIDITY ; EUROPEANS ; ENGLAND ; US POPULATION ; ASIANS
    Abstract: This study describes the distribution of glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) and glucose concentrations in the combined year 1 (2008-2009), year 2 (2009-2010) and year 3 (2010-2011) of the National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS) rolling programme. The NDNS rolling programme is a nationally representative survey of food consumption, nutrient intakes and nutritional status of people aged 1.5 years and over living in England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland. The study population comprised survey members who completed three or four days of dietary recording and who provided a blood sample. After excluding survey members with self-reported diabetes (n=25), there were 1016 results for HbA1c and 942 for glucose (not the same individuals in each case). Around 5.4% of men and 1.7% of women aged 19-64 years, and 5.1% of men and 5.9% of women aged 〉/=65 years had impaired fasting glucose (glucose concentrations 6.1-6.9 mmol/L). Over 20% of men aged 〉/=65 years had fasting glucose concentrations above the clinical cut-off for diabetes (〉/=7 mmol/L) compared to 2.1% of women of similar age (p=0.007). Similarly, 16.4% of men had HbA1c concentrations 〉/=6.5%, compared to 1.5% of women (p=0.003). Children and teenagers had fasting glucose and HbA1c values largely within the normal range. To conclude, this is the first study to provide data on the distribution of HbA1c and glucose concentrations in a nationally representative sample of the British population. The high prevalence of men aged 〉/=65 years with HbA1c and glucose concentrations above the clinical cut-off of diabetes warrants further attention.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 24052516
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Blood-brain barrier ; Cerebral edema ; Cerebral ischemia ; Hypertension ; Reperfusion
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary After 180 min of temporary middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats, the affect of phenylephrine-induced hypertension on blood-brain barrier permeability was assessed. One of the following blood-pressure regimens was maintained during either a 30- or 120-min period of reperfusion: (a) 30/Norm, 30 min of normotensive reperfusion was allowed; (b) 30/HTN, mean arterial blood pressure was increased by 35 mm Hg during 30 min of reperfusion; (c) 120/Norm, 120 min of normotensive reperfusion was allowed; or (d) 120/HTN, mean arterial blood pressure was increased by 35 mm Hg during 120 min of reperfusion. Evans blue (30 mg/kg) was given, and brains were analyzed for Evans blue by spectrophotometry. Evans blue (μg/g brain tissue, mean ± SD) was greater (P〈0.05) in both hypertensive groups versus their time matched normotensive groups (30/HTN: 80±16 versus 18±6 in the 30/Norm group; 120/HTN: 17±6 versus 8±3 in the 120/Norm group). In addition, Evans blue was greater (P〈0.05) in both 30-min groups versus their pressure matched 120-min groups (30/Norm: 18±6 versus 8±3 in the 120/Norm group; 30/HTN: 80±16 versus 17±6 in the 120/HTN group). The data are consistent with previous studies which have demonstrated an opening of the blood-brain barrier at the onset of reperfusion. In addition, the data support a hypothesis that changes in blood-brain barrier permeability are more sensitive to hypertension in the early period of reperfusion.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Focal cerebral ischemia ; Spontaneously hypertensive rat ; Hypertension ; Edema ; 2,3,5-Triphenyltetrazolium chloride
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The effect of induced hypertension instituted after a 2-h delay following middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) on brain edoma formation and histochemical injury was studied. Under isoflurane anesthesia, the MCA of 14 spontaneously hypertensive rats was occluded. In the control group (n=7), the mean arterial pressure (MAP) was not manipulated. In the hypertensive group (n=7), the MAP was elevated by 25–30 mm Hg beginning 2 h after MCAO. Four hours after MCAO, the rats were killed and the brains harvested. The brains were sectioned along coronal planes spanning the distribution of ischemia produced by MCAO. Specific gravity (SG) was determined in the subcortex and in two sites in the cortex (core and periphery of the ischemic territory). The extent of neuronal injury was determined by 2,3,5-triphyenyltetrazolium staining. In the ischemic core, there was no difference in SG in the subcortex and cortex in the two groups. In the periphery of the ischemic territory, SG in the cortex was greater (less edema accumulation) in the hypertensive group (1.041±0.001 vs 1.039±0.001, P 〈 0.05). The area of histochemical injury (as a percent of the cross-sectional area of the hemisphere) was less in the hypertensive group (33±3% vs 21±2%, P 〈 0.05). The data indicate that phenylephrine-induced hypertension instituted 2 h after MCAO does not aggravate edema in the ischemic core, that it improves edema in the periphery of the ischemic territory, and that it reduces the area of histochemical neuronal dysfunction.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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