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  • 1
    ISSN: 1423-0127
    Keywords: Hypoxia ; Microvascular permeability ; pulmonary
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Within the last 30 years, researchers have explored what role hypoxia might play in causing permeability changes in the pulmonary microvasculature. Since the data accumulated thus far are unclear, the effects of hypoxia on microvascular transport in the isolated, Ringer's perfused adult rabbit lung was observed and the following parameters were measured or computed for both oxygenated and hypoxic perfusates: pulmonary arterial (ra) and pulmonary venous (rv) resistances, pulmonary capillary filtration coefficients (Kf), and pulmonary capillary endothelial reflection coefficients (σ) for NaCl and inulin. Separate reservoir bottles were used to create the desired oxygenated (aeration of solution with 95% O2-5% CO2) gas mixture or hypoxic (aeration of solution with 95% N2-5% CO2) gas mixture. A higher, but not significant, resistance value was found during the oxygenated state. A significant increase in the pulmonary capillary filtration coefficient during hypoxia (10.72 × 10−4±0.446 × 10−4 cm3/s cm H2O for the hypoxic perfusate and 8.80 × 10−4±0.384 × 10−4 cm3/s cm H2O for the oxygenated perfusate) was found and a significant difference between oxygenated and hypoxic pulmonary capillary reflection coefficients for inulin was computed (oxygenated solution revealed a finding of 0.120±0.003 and the hypoxic solution revealed 0.105±0.002). These findings imply a change in the microvascular permeability during hypoxia. According to the pore theory, a change in pore number, pore size, or both could have occurred. However, from the reflection coefficient data, a change in pore radius seems most likely.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1440
    Keywords: Acetatehemodialysis ; Bicarbonatehe-modialysis ; Pulmonary gasexchange ; Cardiopulmonary instability ; pCO2 in dialysate ; Hypoxia
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary We compared the effects of various dialysate composition on pulmonary and transdialyzer gas exchange in patients during hemodialysis. Under acetate hemodialysis there was a permanent loss of CO2 (45–68 ml/min) into the dialysate resulting in a significant decrease of arterial pO2, which can be explained by a reduced alveolar ventilation. The pulmonary oxygen uptake increased up to +20% during treatment, reflecting rising energy metabolism and possibly increased cardiopulmonary instability. Using different concentrates for bicarbonatehemodialysis we saw a moderate to clinical relevant uptake of CO2 (40–60 ml/min) from the dialysate into the blood of the patients, cause the pCO2 in the dialysate varied between 45 and 115 mmHg. Bicarbonate hemodialysis with high pCO2-levels in the dialysate led to hyperventilation and markedly increased oxygen consumption. In critically ill hemodialysis patients the pathophysiologic effects on pulmonary gas exchange of either acetatehemodialysis and bicarbonatehemodialysis with high pCO2 can explain the higher incidence of severe complications.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Respiration Physiology 41 (1980), S. 227-232 
    ISSN: 0034-5687
    Keywords: Control of breathing ; Cortical lesions ; Frontal lobes ; Hypoxia ; Orbital gyrus
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Respiration Physiology 56 (1984), S. 237-244 
    ISSN: 0034-5687
    Keywords: Cats ; Dynamic responses ; Hypercapnia ; Hypoglossal nerve ; Hypoxia ; Phrenic nerve
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Respiration Physiology 73 (1988), S. 175-187 
    ISSN: 0034-5687
    Keywords: Anesthesia ; Cat ; Facial nerve ; Hypercapnia ; Hypoglossal nerve ; Hypoxia ; Phrenic nerve ; Pulmonary stretch receptor
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0034-5687
    Keywords: Decerebrate cats ; High altitude ; Hypoxia ; Suprapontine facilitatory mechanism ; Ventilatory acclimitization ; Ventilatory response
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2013-07-13
    Description: Cell-surface receptors frequently use scaffold proteins to recruit cytoplasmic targets, but the rationale for this is uncertain. Activated receptor tyrosine kinases, for example, engage scaffolds such as Shc1 that contain phosphotyrosine (pTyr)-binding (PTB) domains. Using quantitative mass spectrometry, here we show that mammalian Shc1 responds to epidermal growth factor (EGF) stimulation through multiple waves of distinct phosphorylation events and protein interactions. After stimulation, Shc1 rapidly binds a group of proteins that activate pro-mitogenic or survival pathways dependent on recruitment of the Grb2 adaptor to Shc1 pTyr sites. Akt-mediated feedback phosphorylation of Shc1 Ser 29 then recruits the Ptpn12 tyrosine phosphatase. This is followed by a sub-network of proteins involved in cytoskeletal reorganization, trafficking and signal termination that binds Shc1 with delayed kinetics, largely through the SgK269 pseudokinase/adaptor protein. Ptpn12 acts as a switch to convert Shc1 from pTyr/Grb2-based signalling to SgK269-mediated pathways that regulate cell invasion and morphogenesis. The Shc1 scaffold therefore directs the temporal flow of signalling information after EGF stimulation.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Zheng, Yong -- Zhang, Cunjie -- Croucher, David R -- Soliman, Mohamed A -- St-Denis, Nicole -- Pasculescu, Adrian -- Taylor, Lorne -- Tate, Stephen A -- Hardy, W Rod -- Colwill, Karen -- Dai, Anna Yue -- Bagshaw, Rick -- Dennis, James W -- Gingras, Anne-Claude -- Daly, Roger J -- Pawson, Tony -- MOP-13466-6849/Canadian Institutes of Health Research/Canada -- England -- Nature. 2013 Jul 11;499(7457):166-71. doi: 10.1038/nature12308.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Samuel Lunenfeld Research Institute, Mount Sinai Hospital, 600 University Avenue, Toronto M5G 1X5, Canada.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23846654" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Breast/cytology ; Cell Line ; Epidermal Growth Factor/*metabolism ; Epithelial Cells/cytology ; Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases/metabolism ; Feedback, Physiological ; GRB2 Adaptor Protein/deficiency/genetics/metabolism ; Humans ; Mice ; Multiprotein Complexes/chemistry/metabolism ; Phosphorylation ; Protein Binding ; Protein-Tyrosine Kinases ; Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism ; Rats ; Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor/agonists/metabolism ; Shc Signaling Adaptor Proteins/deficiency/genetics/*metabolism ; *Signal Transduction ; Time Factors
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2011-02-26
    Description: Metarhizium anisopliae infects mosquitoes through the cuticle and proliferates in the hemolymph. To allow M. anisopliae to combat malaria in mosquitoes with advanced malaria infections, we produced recombinant strains expressing molecules that target sporozoites as they travel through the hemolymph to the salivary glands. Eleven days after a Plasmodium-infected blood meal, mosquitoes were treated with M. anisopliae expressing salivary gland and midgut peptide 1 (SM1), which blocks attachment of sporozoites to salivary glands; a single-chain antibody that agglutinates sporozoites; or scorpine, which is an antimicrobial toxin. These reduced sporozoite counts by 71%, 85%, and 90%, respectively. M. anisopliae expressing scorpine and an [SM1](8):scorpine fusion protein reduced sporozoite counts by 98%, suggesting that Metarhizium-mediated inhibition of Plasmodium development could be a powerful weapon for combating malaria.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4153607/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4153607/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Fang, Weiguo -- Vega-Rodriguez, Joel -- Ghosh, Anil K -- Jacobs-Lorena, Marcelo -- Kang, Angray -- St Leger, Raymond J -- 5R21A1079429-02/PHS HHS/ -- R01 AI031478/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R21 AI079429/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R21 AI088033/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2011 Feb 25;331(6020):1074-7. doi: 10.1126/science.1199115.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Entomology, University of Maryland, 4112 Plant Sciences Building, College Park, MD 20742, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21350178" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Anopheles gambiae/*microbiology/*parasitology/physiology ; Antibodies, Protozoan/immunology ; Base Sequence ; Cloning, Molecular ; Defensins/genetics/metabolism ; Feeding Behavior ; Female ; Hemolymph/metabolism/microbiology/parasitology ; Humans ; Insect Vectors/*microbiology/*parasitology/physiology ; Malaria, Falciparum/transmission ; Metarhizium/*genetics/physiology ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Oligopeptides/genetics/metabolism ; Organisms, Genetically Modified ; Pest Control, Biological ; Plasmodium falciparum/*physiology ; Protozoan Proteins/immunology ; Salivary Glands/metabolism/parasitology ; Spores, Fungal/physiology ; Sporozoites/physiology ; Transformation, Genetic ; Transgenes
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2013-12-18
    Description: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified several risk variants for late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD). These common variants have replicable but small effects on LOAD risk and generally do not have obvious functional effects. Low-frequency coding variants, not detected by GWAS, are predicted to include functional variants with larger effects on risk. To identify low-frequency coding variants with large effects on LOAD risk, we carried out whole-exome sequencing (WES) in 14 large LOAD families and follow-up analyses of the candidate variants in several large LOAD case-control data sets. A rare variant in PLD3 (phospholipase D3; Val232Met) segregated with disease status in two independent families and doubled risk for Alzheimer's disease in seven independent case-control series with a total of more than 11,000 cases and controls of European descent. Gene-based burden analyses in 4,387 cases and controls of European descent and 302 African American cases and controls, with complete sequence data for PLD3, reveal that several variants in this gene increase risk for Alzheimer's disease in both populations. PLD3 is highly expressed in brain regions that are vulnerable to Alzheimer's disease pathology, including hippocampus and cortex, and is expressed at significantly lower levels in neurons from Alzheimer's disease brains compared to control brains. Overexpression of PLD3 leads to a significant decrease in intracellular amyloid-beta precursor protein (APP) and extracellular Abeta42 and Abeta40 (the 42- and 40-residue isoforms of the amyloid-beta peptide), and knockdown of PLD3 leads to a significant increase in extracellular Abeta42 and Abeta40. Together, our genetic and functional data indicate that carriers of PLD3 coding variants have a twofold increased risk for LOAD and that PLD3 influences APP processing. This study provides an example of how densely affected families may help to identify rare variants with large effects on risk for disease or other complex traits.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4050701/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4050701/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Cruchaga, Carlos -- Karch, Celeste M -- Jin, Sheng Chih -- Benitez, Bruno A -- Cai, Yefei -- Guerreiro, Rita -- Harari, Oscar -- Norton, Joanne -- Budde, John -- Bertelsen, Sarah -- Jeng, Amanda T -- Cooper, Breanna -- Skorupa, Tara -- Carrell, David -- Levitch, Denise -- Hsu, Simon -- Choi, Jiyoon -- Ryten, Mina -- UK Brain Expression Consortium -- Hardy, John -- Trabzuni, Daniah -- Weale, Michael E -- Ramasamy, Adaikalavan -- Smith, Colin -- Sassi, Celeste -- Bras, Jose -- Gibbs, J Raphael -- Hernandez, Dena G -- Lupton, Michelle K -- Powell, John -- Forabosco, Paola -- Ridge, Perry G -- Corcoran, Christopher D -- Tschanz, Joann T -- Norton, Maria C -- Munger, Ronald G -- Schmutz, Cameron -- Leary, Maegan -- Demirci, F Yesim -- Bamne, Mikhil N -- Wang, Xingbin -- Lopez, Oscar L -- Ganguli, Mary -- Medway, Christopher -- Turton, James -- Lord, Jenny -- Braae, Anne -- Barber, Imelda -- Brown, Kristelle -- Alzheimer's Research UK Consortium -- Passmore, Peter -- Craig, David -- Johnston, Janet -- McGuinness, Bernadette -- Todd, Stephen -- Heun, Reinhard -- Kolsch, Heike -- Kehoe, Patrick G -- Hooper, Nigel M -- Vardy, Emma R L C -- Mann, David M -- Pickering-Brown, Stuart -- Kalsheker, Noor -- Lowe, James -- Morgan, Kevin -- David Smith, A -- Wilcock, Gordon -- Warden, Donald -- Holmes, Clive -- Pastor, Pau -- Lorenzo-Betancor, Oswaldo -- Brkanac, Zoran -- Scott, Erick -- Topol, Eric -- Rogaeva, Ekaterina -- Singleton, Andrew B -- Kamboh, M Ilyas -- St George-Hyslop, Peter -- Cairns, Nigel -- Morris, John C -- Kauwe, John S K -- Goate, Alison M -- 081864/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 089698/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 089703/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 100140/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 1R01AG041797/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- 5U24AG026395/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- AG005133/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- AG023652/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- AG030653/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- AG041718/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- AG07562/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- G0802189/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- G0802462/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- G0901254/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- G1100695/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- K01 AG046374/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- MC_G1000734/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- NIH P50 AG05681/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- NIH R01039700/PHS HHS/ -- P01 AG003991/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- P01 AG026276/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- P01 AG03991/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- P30 NS069329/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- P30-NS069329/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- P50 AG005133/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- P50 AG005681/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- R01 AG011380/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- R01 AG030653/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- R01 AG035083/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- R01 AG039700/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- R01 AG041718/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- R01 AG041797/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- R01 AG042611/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- R01 AG044546/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- R01-AG035083/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- R01-AG042611/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- R01-AG044546/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- R01-AG11380/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- R01-AG18712/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- R01-AG21136/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- R01AG21136/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- R25 DA027995/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- U24 AG021886/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- U24 AG026395/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- U24AG21886/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- WT089698/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- ZIA AG000950-11/Intramural NIH HHS/ -- ZO1 AG000950-10/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- ZO1AG000950-11/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- Canadian Institutes of Health Research/Canada -- England -- Nature. 2014 Jan 23;505(7484):550-4. doi: 10.1038/nature12825. Epub 2013 Dec 11.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉1] Department of Psychiatry, Washington University, 425 South Euclid Avenue, St. Louis, Missouri 63110, USA [2] Hope Center Program on Protein Aggregation and Neurodegeneration, Washington University 425 South Euclid Avenue, St. Louis, Missouri 63110, USA. ; 1] Department of Psychiatry, Washington University, 425 South Euclid Avenue, St. Louis, Missouri 63110, USA [2] Hope Center Program on Protein Aggregation and Neurodegeneration, Washington University 425 South Euclid Avenue, St. Louis, Missouri 63110, USA [3]. ; 1] Department of Psychiatry, Washington University, 425 South Euclid Avenue, St. Louis, Missouri 63110, USA [2]. ; Department of Psychiatry, Washington University, 425 South Euclid Avenue, St. Louis, Missouri 63110, USA. ; 1] Department of Molecular Neuroscience, UCL Institute of Neurology, Queen Square, London WC1N 3BG, UK [2] Laboratory of Neurogenetics, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Building 35 Room 1A1014, 35 Lincoln Drive, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA. ; Department of Molecular Neuroscience, UCL Institute of Neurology, Queen Square, London WC1N 3BG, UK. ; Department of Medical and Molecular Genetics, King's College London, 16 De Crespigny Park, London SE5 8AF UK. ; MRC Sudden Death Brain Bank Project, University of Edinburgh, South Bridge, Edinburgh EH8 9YL UK. ; 1] Institute of Psychiatry, King's College London, 16 De Crespigny Park, London SE5 8AF, UK [2] Neuroimaging Genetics, QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute, 300 Herston Road, Herston, Queensland 4006, Australia. ; Institute of Psychiatry, King's College London, 16 De Crespigny Park, London SE5 8AF, UK. ; Istituto di Genetica delle Popolazioni - CNR, Trav. La Crucca, 3 - Reg. Baldinca - 07100 Li Punti, Sassari, Italy. ; Department of Biology, Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah 84602, USA. ; 1] Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Utah State University, Logan, Utah 84322, USA [2] Center for Epidemiologic Studies, Utah State University, Logan, Utah 84322, USA. ; 1] Center for Epidemiologic Studies, Utah State University, Logan, Utah 84322, USA [2] Department of Psychology, Utah State University, Logan, Utah 84322, USA. ; 1] Center for Epidemiologic Studies, Utah State University, Logan, Utah 84322, USA [2] Department of Psychology, Utah State University, Logan, Utah 84322, USA [3] Department of Family Consumer and Human Development, Utah State University, Logan, Utah 84322, USA. ; 1] Department of Family Consumer and Human Development, Utah State University, Logan, Utah 84322, USA [2] Department of Nutrition, Dietetics, and Food Sciences, Utah State University, Logan, Utah 84322, USA. ; Department of Human Genetics, University of Pittsburgh, 130 Desoto Street, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15261, USA. ; 1] Alzheimer's Disease Research Center, University of Pittsburgh, 130 Desoto Street, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15261, USA [2] Department of Neurology, University of Pittsburgh, 130 Desoto Street, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15261, USA. ; Department of Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh, 130 Desoto Street, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15261, USA. ; Human Genetics, School of Molecular Medical Sciences, University of Nottingham, Queen's Medical Centre, Nottingham NG7 2UH, UK. ; Queen's University Belfast, University Road, Belfast BT7 1NN, UK. ; Royal Derby Hospital, Uttoxeter Road, Derby, DE22 3NE, UK. ; University of Bonn, Regina-Pacis-Weg 3, 53113 Bonn, Germany. ; University of Bristol, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol, City of Bristol BS8 1TH, UK. ; University of Leeds, Woodhouse Lane, Leeds, West Yorkshire LS2 9JT, UK. ; University of Newcastle, Newcastle upon Tyne, Tyne and Wear NE1 7RU, UK. ; University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester, Greater Manchester M13 9PL, UK. ; University of Oxford (OPTIMA), Wellington Square, Oxford OX1 2JD, UK. ; 1] Neurogenetics Laboratory, Division of Neurosciences, Center for Applied Medical Research, University of Navarra, Avenida Pio XII, 55. 31008 Pamplona, Navarra, Spain [2] Department of Neurology, Clinica Universidad de Navarra, School of Medicine, University of Navarra Avenida Pio XII, 36. 31008 Pamplona, Spain [3] CIBERNED, Centro de Investigacion Biomedica en Red de Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Spain. ; Neurogenetics Laboratory, Division of Neurosciences, Center for Applied Medical Research, University of Navarra, Avenida Pio XII, 55. 31008 Pamplona, Navarra, Spain. ; University of Washington, 325 Ninth Avenue, Seattle, Washington 98104-2499, USA. ; The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California 3344 North Torrey Pines Court, La Jolla, California 92037, USA. ; Tanz Centre for Research in Neurodegenerative Diseases, University of Toronto, 60 Leonard Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M5T 2S8, Canada. ; Laboratory of Neurogenetics, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Building 35 Room 1A1014, 35 Lincoln Drive, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA. ; 1] Department of Human Genetics, University of Pittsburgh, 130 Desoto Street, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15261, USA [2] Alzheimer's Disease Research Center, University of Pittsburgh, 130 Desoto Street, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15261, USA [3] Department of Neurology, University of Pittsburgh, 130 Desoto Street, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15261, USA. ; 1] Tanz Centre for Research in Neurodegenerative Diseases, University of Toronto, 60 Leonard Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M5T 2S8, Canada [2] Cambridge Institute for Medical Research, and the Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Cambridge, Hills Road, Cambridge CB2 0XY, UK. ; 1] Hope Center Program on Protein Aggregation and Neurodegeneration, Washington University 425 South Euclid Avenue, St. Louis, Missouri 63110, USA [2] Pathology and Immunology, Washington University, 425 South Euclid Avenue, St. Louis, Missouri 63110, USA. ; 1] Pathology and Immunology, Washington University, 425 South Euclid Avenue, St. Louis, Missouri 63110, USA [2] Department of Neurology, Washington University, 425 South Euclid Avenue, St. Louis, Missouri 63110, USA [3] Knight ADRC, Washington University, 425 South Euclid Avenue, St. Louis, Missouri 63110, USA. ; 1] Department of Psychiatry, Washington University, 425 South Euclid Avenue, St. Louis, Missouri 63110, USA [2] Hope Center Program on Protein Aggregation and Neurodegeneration, Washington University 425 South Euclid Avenue, St. Louis, Missouri 63110, USA [3] Department of Neurology, Washington University, 425 South Euclid Avenue, St. Louis, Missouri 63110, USA [4] Knight ADRC, Washington University, 425 South Euclid Avenue, St. Louis, Missouri 63110, USA [5] Department of Genetics, Washington University, 425 South Euclid Avenue, St. Louis, Missouri 63110, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24336208" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: African Americans/genetics ; Age of Onset ; Aged ; Aged, 80 and over ; Alzheimer Disease/*genetics/metabolism ; Amyloid beta-Peptides/metabolism ; Amyloid beta-Protein Precursor/metabolism ; Brain/metabolism ; Case-Control Studies ; Europe/ethnology ; Exome/genetics ; Female ; Genetic Predisposition to Disease/*genetics ; Genetic Variation/*genetics ; Humans ; Male ; Peptide Fragments/metabolism ; Phospholipase D/deficiency/*genetics/metabolism ; Protein Processing, Post-Translational/genetics ; Proteolysis
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2013-11-15
    Description: Glucose homeostasis is a vital and complex process, and its disruption can cause hyperglycaemia and type II diabetes mellitus. Glucokinase (GK), a key enzyme that regulates glucose homeostasis, converts glucose to glucose-6-phosphate in pancreatic beta-cells, liver hepatocytes, specific hypothalamic neurons, and gut enterocytes. In hepatocytes, GK regulates glucose uptake and glycogen synthesis, suppresses glucose production, and is subject to the endogenous inhibitor GK regulatory protein (GKRP). During fasting, GKRP binds, inactivates and sequesters GK in the nucleus, which removes GK from the gluconeogenic process and prevents a futile cycle of glucose phosphorylation. Compounds that directly hyperactivate GK (GK activators) lower blood glucose levels and are being evaluated clinically as potential therapeutics for the treatment of type II diabetes mellitus. However, initial reports indicate that an increased risk of hypoglycaemia is associated with some GK activators. To mitigate the risk of hypoglycaemia, we sought to increase GK activity by blocking GKRP. Here we describe the identification of two potent small-molecule GK-GKRP disruptors (AMG-1694 and AMG-3969) that normalized blood glucose levels in several rodent models of diabetes. These compounds potently reversed the inhibitory effect of GKRP on GK activity and promoted GK translocation both in vitro (isolated hepatocytes) and in vivo (liver). A co-crystal structure of full-length human GKRP in complex with AMG-1694 revealed a previously unknown binding pocket in GKRP distinct from that of the phosphofructose-binding site. Furthermore, with AMG-1694 and AMG-3969 (but not GK activators), blood glucose lowering was restricted to diabetic and not normoglycaemic animals. These findings exploit a new cellular mechanism for lowering blood glucose levels with reduced potential for hypoglycaemic risk in patients with type II diabetes mellitus.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Lloyd, David J -- St Jean, David J Jr -- Kurzeja, Robert J M -- Wahl, Robert C -- Michelsen, Klaus -- Cupples, Rod -- Chen, Michelle -- Wu, John -- Sivits, Glenn -- Helmering, Joan -- Komorowski, Renee -- Ashton, Kate S -- Pennington, Lewis D -- Fotsch, Christopher -- Vazir, Mukta -- Chen, Kui -- Chmait, Samer -- Zhang, Jiandong -- Liu, Longbin -- Norman, Mark H -- Andrews, Kristin L -- Bartberger, Michael D -- Van, Gwyneth -- Galbreath, Elizabeth J -- Vonderfecht, Steven L -- Wang, Minghan -- Jordan, Steven R -- Veniant, Murielle M -- Hale, Clarence -- England -- Nature. 2013 Dec 19;504(7480):437-40. doi: 10.1038/nature12724. Epub 2013 Nov 13.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Metabolic Disorders, Amgen Inc., One Amgen Center Drive, Thousand Oaks, California 91320, USA. ; Department of Therapeutic Discovery, Amgen Inc., One Amgen Center Drive, Thousand Oaks, California 91320, USA. ; Department of Comparative Biology & Safety Sciences, Amgen Inc., One Amgen Center Drive, Thousand Oaks, California 91320, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24226772" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing ; Animals ; Blood Glucose/metabolism ; Carrier Proteins/*antagonists & inhibitors/metabolism ; Cell Nucleus/enzymology ; Crystallography, X-Ray ; Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/blood/*drug therapy/enzymology ; Disease Models, Animal ; Hepatocytes ; Humans ; Hyperglycemia/blood/drug therapy/enzymology ; Hypoglycemic Agents/chemistry/*pharmacology/*therapeutic use ; Liver/cytology/enzymology/metabolism ; Male ; Models, Molecular ; Organ Specificity ; Phosphorylation/drug effects ; Piperazines/chemistry/metabolism/pharmacology/therapeutic use ; Protein Binding/drug effects ; Protein Transport/drug effects ; Rats ; Rats, Wistar ; Sulfonamides/chemistry/metabolism/pharmacology/therapeutic use
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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