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  • Adjuvant radiochemotherapy  (1)
  • III TRIAL  (1)
  • Key words Rectal cancer  (1)
  • Multimodal therapy  (1)
  • 1
    Keywords: radiotherapy ; FOLLOW-UP ; COLON-CANCER ; chemoradiation ; ADJUVANT CHEMOTHERAPY ; capecitabine ; III TRIAL ; total mesorectal excision ; LEUCOVORIN ; MRC CR07
    Abstract: BACKGROUND: Preoperative chemoradiotherapy with infusional fluorouracil, total mesorectal excision surgery, and postoperative chemotherapy with fluorouracil was established by the German CAO/ARO/AIO-94 trial as a standard combined modality treatment for locally advanced rectal cancer. Here we compare the previously established regimen with an investigational regimen in which oxaliplatin was added to both preoperative chemoradiotherapy and postoperative chemotherapy. METHODS: In this multicentre, open-label, randomised, phase 3 study we randomly assigned patients with rectal adenocarcinoma, clinically staged as cT3-4 or any node-positive disease, to two groups: a control group receiving standard fluorouracil-based combined modality treatment, consisting of preoperative radiotherapy of 50.4 Gy in 28 fractions plus infusional fluorouracil (1000 mg/m(2) on days 1-5 and 29-33), followed by surgery and four cycles of bolus fluorouracil (500 mg/m(2) on days 1-5 and 29); or to an investigational group receiving preoperative radiotherapy of 50.4 Gy in 28 fractions plus infusional fluorouracil (250 mg/m(2) on days 1-14 and 22-35) and oxaliplatin (50 mg/m(2) on days 1, 8, 22, and 29), followed by surgery and eight cycles of oxaliplatin (100 mg/m(2) on days 1 and 15), leucovorin (400 mg/m(2) on days 1 and 15), and infusional fluorouracil (2400 mg/m(2) on days 1-2 and 15-16). Randomisation was done with computer-generated block-randomisation codes stratified by centre, clinical T category (cT1-3 vs cT4), and clinical N category (cN0 vs cN1-2) without masking. The primary endpoint was disease-free survival, defined as the time between randomisation and non-radical surgery of the primary tumour (R2 resection), locoregional recurrence after R0/1 resection, metastatic disease or progression, or death from any cause, whichever occurred first. Survival and cumulative incidence of recurrence analyses followed the intention-to-treat principle; toxicity analyses included all patients treated. Enrolment of patients in this trial is completed and follow-up is ongoing. This study is registered with, number NCT00349076. FINDINGS: Of the 1265 patients initially enrolled, 1236 were assessable (613 in the investigational group and 623 in the control group). With a median follow-up of 50 months (IQR 38-61), disease-free survival at 3 years was 75.9% (95% CI 72.4-79.5) in the investigational group and 71.2% (95% CI 67.6-74.9) in the control group (hazard ratio [HR] 0.79, 95% CI 0.64-0.98; p=0.03). Preoperative grade 3-4 toxic effects occurred in 144 (24%) of 607 patients who actually received fluorouracil and oxaliplatin during chemoradiotherapy and in 128 (20%) of 625 patients who actually received fluorouracil chemoradiotherapy. Of 445 patients who actually received adjuvant fluorouracil and leucovorin and oxaliplatin, 158 (36%) had grade 3-4 toxic effects, as did 170 (36%) of 470 patients who actually received adjuvant fluorouracil. Late grade 3-4 adverse events in patients who received protocol-specified preoperative and postoperative treatment occurred in 112 (25%) of 445 patients in the investigational group, and in 100 (21%) of 470 patients in the control group. INTERPRETATION: Adding oxaliplatin to fluorouracil-based neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy and adjuvant chemotherapy (at the doses and intensities used in this trial) significantly improved disease-free survival of patients with clinically staged cT3-4 or cN1-2 rectal cancer compared with our former fluorouracil-based combined modality regimen (based on CAO/ARO/AIO-94). The regimen established by CAO/ARO/AIO-04 can be deemed a new treatment option for patients with locally advanced rectal cancer. FUNDING: German Cancer Aid (Deutsche Krebshilfe).
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 26189067
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1435-2451
    Keywords: Key words Rectal cancer ; Local relapse ; Multimodal therapy ; Adjuvant radiotherapy ; Adjuvant radiochemotherapy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Background: Local relapse is a major problem after potentially curative rectal cancer surgery. Although the incidence of local recurrences may be reduced by specialized surgical techniques such as total mesorectal excision (TME), local relapse rates of 20% or higher are the surgical reality today. Studies using adjuvant postoperative radiotherapy, chemotherapy, radiochemotherapy or immunotherapy have tried to reduce local relapse rates and distant progression. Postoperative radiochemotherapy has been the recommended standard, after complete resection of Union Internationale Contra la Cancrum (UICC) stages II and III rectal cancers. In view of recent positive results with preoperative radiotherapy of TME without adjuvant therapy, we found it important to review the literature to update the recommendable adjuvant procedure in rectal cancer. Method/Patients: The literature from 1985 to May 1998 was reviewed for studies trying to either confirm or improve adjuvant therapy in rectal cancer. Only randomized controlled trials were analyzed with regard to their effectiveness in reducing the absolute rates of local recurrence and improving survival. Results: Two trials applying adjuvant radiotherapy were able to demonstrate the reduction of local relapse rates, one trial with marginal significance, both without impact on survival. Four trials involving 1104 patients with rectal cancer stages UICC II–III compared postoperative radiochemotherapy with either surgical controls, adjuvant radiotherapy or conventional radiochemotherapy. In these trials, local relapse rates were significantly reduced by 11–18%, and survival rates significantly improved by 10–14%. Severe acute toxicities occurred in 50–61% of the patients, compromising compatibility, and caused death in 0–1%. Small-bowel obstruction leading to surgery was noted in 2–6% and to death in up to 2% of the patients. Intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) improved local control and survival after surgery of locally advanced disease/local relapse. Conclusion: In view of four trials demonstrating a significant benefit of postoperative radiochemotherapy and with regard to recent still-debatable results of preoperative short-term radiotherapy optimal surgery with lowest local relapse rates plus postoperative radiochemotherapy remains the actual recommendable standard for rectal cancer surgery in R0 resected tumors stages UICC II+III.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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