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  • diabetes  (6)
  • Geometridae  (5)
  • Immunocytochemistry  (5)
  • Springer  (16)
  • Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
  • Blackwell Science Pty
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  • Springer  (16)
  • Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
  • Blackwell Science Pty
  • Macmillian Magazines Ltd.
  • Elsevier  (1)
  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-1561
    Keywords: Lepidoptera ; Geometridae ; Operophtera bruceata (Hulst) ; Bruce spanworm ; Operophetra brumata L. ; winter moth ; sex pheromone ; (Z,Z,Z)-1,3,6,9-nonadecatetraene ; inhibitor ; (E,Z,Z)-1,3,6,9-nonadecatetraene
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract A single sex pherormone component was isolated from abdominal tip extracts of female Bruce spanworm.Operophtera bruceata (Hulst). This was identified as (Z,Z,Z)-1,3,6,9-nonadecatetraene by capillary gas chromatography (GC), electroantennography, and mass spectrometry. In addition, hexane extracts of female abdominal tips from Bruce spanworm and the winter moth.O. brumata L., were analyzed by GC coupled to an electroantennographic detector (GC-EAD). The extracts ofO. bruceata andO. brumata females elicited only a single response, at the same retention time, from antennae of their conspecific and reciprocal males. In field tests conducted in Saskatchewan, traps baited with the synthetic tetraene captured Bruce spanworm males. In tests carried out on Vancouver Island, British Columbia, where the two species coexist, both Bruce spanworm and winter moth males were captured. The attractancy of lures containing the synthetic pheromone alone and in combination with several structurally related analogs was field tested at both locations. One of these, an isomer of the natural pheromone, (E,Z,Z)-1,3,6,9-nonadecatetraene, inhibited the capture of Bruce spanworm males but had no effect upon the number of winter moth males which were taken. Thus, populations of these two very similar species can be distinguished by employing traps baited with pheromone ± the inhibitor. Coneorifice Hara traps were found useful for field trapping males of both species.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-1561
    Keywords: Pheromone ; sex attractant ; Noctuidae ; Geometridae ; epoxide
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract Pheromone components and sex attractant blends consisting of 3Z,6Z,9Z-triene hydrocarbons and racemic and chiral forms of3Z,6Z-cis-9, 10-epoxydienes have been elucidated for two noctuid and one geometrid moth species. MaleEuclidea cuspidea moths were attracted to blends of 3Z,6Z,9Z-heneicosatriene (3Z,6Z,9Z-21∶H) with 3Z,6Z-cis-9,10-epoxyheneicosadiene (3Z,6Z-cis-9,10-epoxy-21∶H). In addition to these compounds, 3Z,6Z,9Z-20∶H, and two regioisomeric C21 epoxides were tentatively identified in pheromone gland extracts.Caenurgina distincta moths were attracted by an 8∶∶1 blend of 3Z,6Z,9Z-20∶H with3Z,6Z-cis- 9,10-epoxy-20∶H.Eupithecia annulata moths were attracted by either 3Z,6Z-cis-9,10-epoxy-20∶H or 3Z,6Z-cis-9,10-epoxy-21∶H, and by the 95,10R enantiomer of each epoxide. 3Z,6Z,9Z-21∶H and 3Z,6Z-cis-9,10-epoxy-21∶H were tentatively identified from pheromone glands. Pheromone components were identified by a combination of coupled gas chromatography-electroantennography, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and field bioassays.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-1561
    Keywords: Alsophila pometaria(Harris) ; fall cankerworm ; Lepidoptera ; Geometridae ; sex pheromone ; (Z,Z,Z,E)-3,6,9,11-nonadecatetraene ; (Z,Z,Z,Z)-3,6,9,11-nonadecatetraene ; (Z,Z,Z)-3,6,9-nonadecatriene ; synthesis ; hydrocarbons
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract (Z,Z,Z,E)-3,6,9,11-Nonadecatetraene and (Z,Z,Z,Z)-3,6,9,11-nonadecatetraene, sex pheromone components ofAlsophila pometaria, were synthesized by stereoselective Wittig reactions and found to be spectroscopically and chromatographically identical to isolated natural material. Flight-tunnel bioassays and field-trapping experiments confirmed that the two tetraenes together with (Z,Z,Z)-3,6,9-nonadecatriene are sex pheromone components. While traps baited with either tetraene individually captured conspecific males in field-trapping experiments, addition of the triene, which captured no males by itself, to either tetraene resulted in synergistic responses.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-1561
    Keywords: Alsophila pometaria (Harris) ; fall cankerworm ; Lepidoptera ; Geometridae ; sex pheromone ; (Z,Z,Z)-3,6,9-nonadecatriene ; (Z,Z,Z,E)-3,6,9,11-nonadecatetraene ; (Z,Z,Z,Z)-3,6,9,11-nonadecatetraene
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract A sex pheromone extract from fall cankerworm moths,Alsophila pometaria, attracted conspecific males in field tests. Four EAG-active components were isolated from the extract and identified by GC-MS, highfield PMR spectroscopy, and microchemical techniques asn-nonadecane (I), (Z,Z,Z)-3,6,9-nonadecatriene (II), (Z,Z,Z,E)-3,6,9,11-nonadecatetraene (III), and (Z,Z,Z,Z)-3,6,9,11-nonadecatetrane (IV). Studies of the behavioral responses of male moths in a flight tunnel to the isolated components showed II, III, and IV were the major components of the sex pheromone. No sex pheromone behavioral responses were observed for I.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-1561
    Keywords: Sex attractants ; Lepidoptera ; Geometridae ; Noctuidae ; stereospecific synthesis ; (3Z,6Z,9Z)-triene hydrocarbons ; (3Z,6Z,9S,10R)-9,10-epoxydienes ; (3Z,6Z,9R, 10S)-9,10-epoxydienes ; electroantennogram
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract Male moths belonging to 17 species of Geometridae and nine species of Noctuidae were captured in traps baited with synthetic chemicals as part of a field screening program. The compounds tested were the C18-C22 homologs of: (1) (3Z,6Z,9Z)-triene hydrocarbons; (2) mixtures containing equal quantities of (3Z,6Z)-cis-9,10-expoxydienes, (3Z,92Z)-cis-6,7-epoxydienes, and (6Z,9Z)-cis-3,4-epoxydienes; (3) (3Z,6Z)-9S,10R-epoxydienes; (4) (3Z,6Z)-9R,10S-epoxydienes; and (5) (3Z,6Z,9Z,11E)-nonadecatetraene. Field captures and electroantennographic assays revealed a high degree of specificity in the responses of many species to the synthetic chemicals. In several species the ability of males to discriminate between the 9S,10R and 9R,10S enantiomers of the monoepoxydiene isomers was clearly shown. Synergists and inhibitors were discovered for several of the reported attractants, some of which were not previously known to have semiochemical activity. The geometrid moths captured includedEpirrhoe sperryi (Herbulot),Mesoleuca ruficillata (Guenée),Triphosa haesitata (Guenée),Metanema inatomaria (Guenée),Prochoerodes transversata (Drury),Cabera erythemaria (Guenée),Synaxis jubararia (Hulst),Dysstroma brunneata ethela (Hulst),Eulithes testata (Linnaeus),Sicya macularia (Harris),Xanthorhoe iduata (Guenée),X. abrasaria aquilonaria (Herrich-Schäffer),X. munitata (Hübner),Itame loricaria (Eversmann),Eupithecia annulata (Hulst),E. rovocastaliata (Packard) andE. satyrata dodata (Taylor). The noctuid moths captured includedBleptina caradrinalis (Guenée),Idia américalis (Guenée),I. aemula (Hübner),Rivula propinqualis (Guenée),Lomanaltes eductalis (Walker),Spargaloma sexpunctata (Grote),Caenurgina distincta (Neumuller),Euclidia cuspidea (Hübner), andZale duplicata (Bethune). Six of the nine noctuid species captured belong to three subfamilies for which sex attractants had not been reported previously. Details for the stereospecific synthesis of (3Z,6Z)-cis-9,10-epoxydienes are also reported.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Urotensin ; Caudal neurosecretory system ; Immunocytochemistry
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The localization of urotensin I has been investigated in the caudal neurosecretory system of the white sucker (Catostomus commersoni). The peptide is present in all the cells of the system both large and small, in the large axons passing to the urophysis, and in fine beaded fibres not only within the urophysis but also in a fine plexus lateral to the large cells in the spinal cord proper. The possibility that the caudal neurosecretory system is not a functionally uniform system but rather a collection of dissimilar cells of different synaptic inputs with a common entity, urotensin I, is discussed. Moreover, the feasibility of a urotensin I feedback loop is described.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Prostate gland ; Keratin ; Vitamin A ; Epithelium ; Immunocytochemistry ; Man
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Expression of certain cytokeratins can be indicative of the state of differentiation of epithelial cells. The basal cells in the normal adult human prostatic epithelium are characterized by the expression of cytokeratins 5 and 14, whereas the secretory luminal cells contain cytokeratins 8 and 18. Cells cultured from the prostatic epithelium expressed cytokeratins 5, 8, and 18, and thus had features of both basal and luminal cells. Certain growth-inhibitory conditions altered keratin expression in conjunction with growth modulation. Deletion of peptide factors and hormones from the culture medium induced the expression of cytokeratins 1 and 10, associated with a squamous phenotype. These same squamous keratins were found in very dense, stratified cultures that were maintained at confluency in standard, complete medium for extended periods. Retinoic acid enhanced the expression of secretory luminal cell-associated cytokeratins 8 and 18 in semi-confluent cultures. Other growth inhibitory factors such as suramin, transforming growth factor-β, and interferon-γ had no effect on keratin expression. These observations indicate that the differentiation of prostatic epithelial cells can be directed toward alternate pathways, either squamous or secretory, by different growth-inhibitory conditions. However, not all growth inhibitory factors altered differentiation, demonstrating that growth inhibition in itself is not a sufficient inducer of differentiation.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Substance P ; Immunocytochemistry ; Ciliary ganglion ; Monkey, Macaca fascicularis (Primates) ; Cat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The present study describes substance P-like immunoreactivity in the ciliary ganglia of monkey (Macaca fascicularis) and cat. About 60% of neurons in the monkey ciliary ganglion and 40% in the cat ciliary ganglion were substance P-like immunoreactive, ranging from faint to moderate staining. Substance P-like immunoreactivity was located in cell bodies, dendritic profiles and axons. In the monkey, substance P-like immunoreactive pericellular arborisations were associated with about 0.5%–3% of the ganglion cells, which were either negatively, faintly or moderately stained. An electron-microscopic study demonstrated the presence of either substance P-like immunoreactive positive or negative axon terminals synapsing or closely associated with positive dendritic profiles in both the monkey and cat ciliary ganglia. The results suggest that substance P plays an important role in the ciliary ganglion, perhaps as a modulator or transmitter.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-0568
    Keywords: Immunocytochemistry ; Electron microscopy ; CR3 receptors ; Amoeboid microglia ; Rats
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The present study described the labelling of amoeboid microglial cells in the postnatal rat brain with OX-42, an antibody that recognizes type 3 complement receptors CR3 in mononuclear phagocytes. Of the diverse morphological forms of amoeboid microglia present in the corpus callosum in early postnatal (2–5 days) rats, cells with a round regular outline, or showing short stout processes, were the most intensely stained. When traced from the main cell colony into the borderline zone with the cortex, the immunoreactivity of amoeboid microglia that assumed a ramified form was drastically reduced. Examination of materials from the late postnatal (8–12 days) age group showed that the majority of the OX-42 positive cells in the corpus callosum became oval, elongated and ramified. Immunoelectron microscopy confirmed the above observations, and also showed that the immunoreactivity in the round amoeboid microglia was localized in their plasma membrane, surface projections and invaginations, as well as in some of the subsurface vacuoles. The immunoreactivity was reduced in the oval cells, and diminished in the elongated or ramified form. It is proposed that the presence of CR3 membrane receptors in amoeboid microglial cells is related to their active role in endocytosis. These, however, diminish with the growth of the brain.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-0428
    Keywords: Glycaemic index ; leguminous seeds ; low blood glucose rise ; diabetes ; diabetic diet ; fat ; sugars ; protein
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Recently diabetic patients have been encouraged to increase their carbohydrate intake, but exact details of which foods to use are lacking. To determine whether sufficiently large differences existed to justify more specific dietary advice, we compared the glycaemic responses to 50 g carbohydrate portions of different foods, taken as breakfast test meals by groups of five to seven diabetic patients. Two-to threefold differences were seen amongst the 15 foods tested. The glycaemic responses for spaghetti, ‘All-bran’, rice and beans were significantly below those for bread, while ‘Cornflakes’ were above. Factors predicted to influence this were without effect, including: substituting wholemeal for white bread, increasing substantially the simple sugars (using ‘All-bran’ or bananas instead of wholemeal bread) and doubling meal protein by adding cottage cheese to bread. Paired comparisons of the glycaemic response to the five legumes with those of the seven other starchy foods (breads, spaghetti, rice, Cornflakes, oatmeal porridge and potatoes) showed that the mean peak rise in blood glucose concentration and mean area under the glucose curve after beans were 23 and 28% lower, respectively, than the mean for the other foods (p 〈 0.001). Such results suggest a potentially valuable role for dried leguminous seeds in carbohydrate exchanges for individuals with impaired carbohydrate tolerance. These large differences in the blood glucose response to different food cannot at present be predicted directly from tables of chemical composition. Nevertheless, physiological testing may both aid in understanding the factors responsible and help selection of the appropriate carbohydrate foods for the diabetic diet.
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