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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-2307
    Keywords: Endocrine tissues ; Endocrine tumours ; Cytoskeleton ; Immunohistochemistry ; Gel-electrophoresis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The presence and distribution of intermediate filament proteins, such as cytokeratins, vimentin, neurofilament proteins and glial fibrillary acidic protein were assessed immunohistochemically in pituitary adenomas, medullary thyroid carcinomas, endocrine pancreatic tumours, gastric, intestinal and bronchial carcinoids, parathyroid adenomas, pheochromocytomas, paragangliomas and related non-neoplastic tissues. In some cases, immunohistochemical results were correlated with cytoskeletal proteins as analysed by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Cytokeratin antibodies with broad range of immunoreactivity (i.e. to murine liver cytokeratin component D) reacted with epithelial cells in all non-neoplastic endocrine tissues and related neuroendocrine tumours studied, except for adrenal medulla, pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma, independently of hormone production and biological behaviour. In contrast, antibodies to epidermis-derived cytokeratins failed to stain endocrine tissues and tumours. Paranuclear cytokeratin accumulations were seen in bronchial, gastric, and intestinal carcinoids and seem to be a common feature of neuroendocrine tumours. One-and two-dimensional SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of non-neoplastic endocrine tissues and related tumours revealed two major keratin polypeptides corresponding to cytokeratins No. 8 and 18 of the cytokeratin catalog of human cells (Moll et al. 1982). According to this cytokeratin polypeptide composition, endocrine tissues and related tumours conform to the “simple type” of epithelia. Vimentin-related immunoreactivity was restricted to stromal cells and to folliculo-stellate cells in normal pituitary gland, Schwann cells in carcinoids and satellite cells in normal adrenal medulla and in pheochromocytomas. Neurofilament protein- (70 kD)-antibodies only stained nerve fibers in normal tissues and at the periphery of carcinoid tumour cell complexes, and, to a variable degree, cells in nontumorous adrenal medulla, pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas. Furthermore, neurofilament reactivity was observed along with cytokeratin expression in two bronchial carcinoids.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-2307
    Keywords: Gastrointestinal carcinomas ; Tissue polypeptide antigen (TPA) ; Cytokeratins ; Immunohistochemistry
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The presence and distribution of tissue polypeptide antigen (TPA) were assessed in gastrointestinal carcinomas of different origin, morphology and degree of differentiation. Immunocytochemistry was employed, using the PAP technique on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded material and compared with the results obtained with antibodies to cytokeratins. Like cytokeratins, TPA was a reliable marker of epithelial differentiation and showed tissue distribution patterns similar to cytokeratins, as revealed by antibodies with broad-range cytokeratin immunoreactivity. In most carcinomas, TPA-specific immunostaining was less intense than in non-neoplastic tissue. No direct relationship between intensity of TPA staining and morphological degree of differentiation and proliferation was found. TPA staining was most pronounced at the periphery of the cells. In stratified epithelium, i.e. oesophageal mucosa, basally located cells exceeded superficial cells in TPA immunoreactivity in contrast to the cytokeratin antibodies which decorated the more superficially placed cell layers. TPA and cytokeratin staining patterns were similar in neoplastic and non-neoplastic gastric, intestinal mucosa, as well as in biliary tract epithelium. Antral and cardial mucoid glands of the stomach as well as gastric carcinomas of the pylorocardial type remained unstained with both types of antibodies. Similar staining with TPA and cytokeratin antibodies was also observed in pancreatic and liver tissue. In this study, hepatocytes were, although weakly, stained by TPA antibodies and an identical staining was found with benign and malignant hepatocellular neoplasms. Ductal and ductular TPA-staining was most conspicuous and so was the immunoreactivity of cholangiocellular carcinomas. A comparison between TPA and cytokeratins was also made by immunoblotting which revealed immunoreactivity of antibodies to TPA with cytokeratin polypeptides of different species (man, mouse) and organs (epidermis, liver), particularly with the cytokeratin component 8 of human liver and the related component A of mouse liver. The significance of this finding is uncertain until the pertinent epitopes have been revealed by monoclonal mapping of the components which exhibit similar molecular weights by SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-2307
    Keywords: Intermediate filaments ; Desmosomes ; Testicular tumours Germ cell tumours ; Immunohistochemistry
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Seminomas and non-seminomatous testicular germ cell tumours were studied for the presence of cytokeratin and vimentin filaments and desmosomes using immunohistochemical methods. In the majority of the classical seminomas and in seminomatous areas of mixed tumours most tumour cells appeared to lack cytokeratin filaments. Some seminomas contained a focally variable proportion of cells exhibiting cytokeratin-positive structures while other cases contained only few seminoma cells with a well developed fibrillar cytokeratin network. Gel electrophoresis of cytoskeletal proteins from microdissected regions revealed cytokeratin polypeptides nos. 8 and 18 typical of simple epithelia. In one seminoma, however, all, or almost all, tumour cells contained cytokeratin filaments. This finding is in line with the assumption of transitional forms between seminoma and embryonal carcinoma. Despite the lack - or variable expression - of cytokeratin filaments most seminoma cells contained desmosomes, although often few in number and irregularly distributed at the circumference of the cells. Loosely arranged and often very sparse vimentin fibrils were found in many, but not all seminoma cells. Double label immunofluorescence microscopy suggested that the majority of desmosomes was associated with intermediate filaments of the vimentin type. In contrast, in carcinoma cells of malignant teratomas, in well differentiated epithelial cells of intermediate-type malignant teratomas and in trophoblastic cells present in trophoblastic-type malignant teratomas cytokeratin filament bundles as well as desmosomes were decorated. The arrangement and density of the cytokeratin filament skeleton and of desmosomes varied with degree of maturation of the tissue. The most regular distribution and intensive staining of cytokeratin filaments and desmoplakin was found in “mature” tissues. Vimentin was demonstrated in mesenchymal areas and stroma cells. The results show that seminomas are distinguished from most other germ cell and non-germ cell tumours by the presence of true desmosomes together with scanty vimentin filaments in most tumour cells. In addition, they indicate that seminoma cells can be heterogenous in their cytoskeletal complement and may include cells with cytokeratin expression, indicative of a multi-potential character of the initially transformed cell(s).
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-2307
    Keywords: Breast carcinoma ; Cytokeratin ; Involucrin ; Immunohistochemistry
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The expression of involucrin, a structural component of the envelope of mature squamous epithelium, was studied in 166 paraffin-embedded breast carcinomas. In 41 cases (24.7%) involucrin-positive, light microscopically non squamous tumour cells were detected. The number of involucrin-positive tumour cells varied considerably from case to case. For further characterization, involucrin-positive cases were studied using monoclonal antibodies to various cytokeratins (PKK1, EAB 903, EAB 904) and, in selected cases, double immunostaining with antibodies to cytokeratins and involucrin were performed. Coexpression of involucrin and cytokeratins demonstrated by PKK1 was seen in all tumour cells, whereas coexpression of involucrin and cytokeratins detected by EAB 904 was only seen in single and scattered cells in a few cases. Cytokeratins detected by EAB 903 were not coexpressed with involucrin in our cases. Our results indicate heterogeneity of cytokeratins in breast carcinomas and suggest a dissociation in the regulation of involucrin and cytokeratin expression.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-2307
    Keywords: Immunohistochemistry ; Pituitary gland ; Pituitary adenomas ; Cytokeratins ; Intermediate filaments
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Ten non-neoplastic pituitary glands and 22 pituitary adenomas producing different hormones were studied by immunofluorescence microscopy as well as peroxidase-antiperoxidase and biotin-avidin techniques on frozen sections and formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded material using antibodies to cytokeratin, vimentin, GFAP, neurofilament protein and different pituitary hormones. The endocrine cells in non-neoplastic pituitary glands as well as in most pituitary adenomas were cytokeratin-positive. The cytoplasmic cytokeratin distribution patterns of non-neoplastic and tumor cells were similar and typical of the type of hormone produced: GH-producing normal cells showed a paranuclear condensation of cytokeratin-reactive intermediate filaments; this accumulation was even further accentuated in GH-producing adenomas resulting in fibrous bodies (Kovacs and Horvath 1978) decorated by cytokeratin antibodies. Prolactin-producing cells showed a less intense cytoplasmic cytokeratin-specific staining with focal paranuclear accentuation in non-neoplastic as well as in neoplastic glands. ACTH-producing cells in normal pituitary glands as well as in adenomas exhibited a strong and more uniform cytoplasmic cytokeratin staining. The cytokeratin reactivity in glycoprotein hormone-producing cells of non-neoplastic tissue and adenomas was weak. Vimentin and GFAP reactivity was confined to agranular folliculo-stellate cells. The specific and different distribution patterns of cytokeratins in pituitary cells can, therefore, provide an (indirect) indication to the production of a specific hormone if immunocytochemistry fails to demonstrate hormone production.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Immunohistochemistry ; Folliculo-stellate cells ; Pituitary gland ; Pituitary adenoma ; S-100 protein
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Presence and distribution of S-100 protein (S-100), neuron-specific enolase (NSE), cytokeratin polypeptides, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), vimentin, actin, lysozyme and pituitary hormones (prolactin, hGH, ACTH, β-FSH, β-LH, β-TSH, alpha subunit) in folliculo-stellate cells (FSC) were studied in seven normal human pituitary glands and 28 pituitary adenomas using peroxidase-antiperoxidase and the avidin-biotin immunohistochemical techniques. Approximately 5% of the cells of the adenohypophysis were agranular, non-hormon-producing FSC most of which showed a conspicuous and strong reaction with S-100 antibodies but some were, in addition, GFAP- and vimentin-positive. In contrast to endocrine cells (EC), FSC were not decorated by antibodies to NSE or cytokeratins. In addition to supportive functions, these cells, due to their close special relationship to EC, seem to have transport and other metabolic functions yet to be elucidated. By their S-100 reactivity and their distribution FSC are comparable to glial cells of the central and schwann and satellite cells of the peripheral nervous system (PNS) as well as to supportive cells in neuroendocrine organs and related tumors (e.g., pheochromocytomas, paragangliomas, carcinoids). With one exception, S-100 reactive FSC were not found in pituitary adenomas. The immunohistochemical demonstration of S-100 protein in pituitary tissue is, therefore, a reliable aid in the discrimination between adenomas and normal pituitary tissue, particularly in small and poorly preserved specimens. In one adenoma FSC were found in addition to ACTH-producing tumor cells. This seems to be an extremely rare event suggesting a combination tumor.
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