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  • Industrial Chemistry and Chemical Engineering  (4)
  • Wiley-Blackwell  (4)
  • 1990-1994  (4)
  • 1
    ISSN: 0934-0866
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Industrial Chemistry and Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Dispersion of monosized drops downstream a point injection in a grid-generated turbulence is studied. Influence of extra bodyforces is also investigated by use of ferrofluid drops and magnetic field. Datas are obtained through LDV and given for fluid and particles mean and fluctuant velocities. Presence probability repartition for particles downstream the injection is obtained by LDV counting.
    Additional Material: 10 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0930-7516
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Industrial Chemistry and Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The optimization of a chemical synthesis aims at an adjustment of the operating conditions, i.e. pH, temperature and initial concentrations, in order to obtain maximum yield, minimum operating costs or similar. The optimization effort may be considerable so that, in many cases, its cost cannot be justified, especially for small volume products. This paper introduces a new strategy, namely to establish the optimum operating conditions with a relatively small effort. The new approach is illustrated by the synthesis of 2-furyl oxirane. In the first step, a simplified mechanistic process model has to be determined on the basis of easily accessible experimental data. Initial and final concentrations of all reacting components, reaction time and temperature must be known. A two-step evaluation yields the stoichiometric coefficients of all the occurring reactions as well as the parameters of the Arrhenius model. This so-called trend model is used in the optimization of the operating conditions. It is not only important to know the optimum operating conditions but also to maintain them as close as possible in practical operation. An adaptive controller is well suited to such an application and its use is discussed.
    Additional Material: 9 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0268-2605
    Keywords: Tributyltin ; ethylation ; seawater analysis ; gas chromatography ; flame photometric detection ; organotin speciation ; Chemistry ; Industrial Chemistry and Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Using sodium tetraethylborate as an alkylation reagent, one-step ethylation and extraction of organotin compounds in seawater was performed directly in the aqueous phase to obtain optimal rection conditions. No further purification or concentration of the extract was required before GC FPD analysis. The detection limit for monobutyl-dibutyl-and tributyl-tin was approximately 0.4 ng dm-3, which is adequate for any currently know toxicity effect. The linearity range (0-200 ng dm-3) was solely dependent on the detector response curve. Compared with the Grignard reaction after extraction in an organic solvent, this new ethylation procedure reduces the number of analytical steps, thus saving time and improving reliability.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0930-7516
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Industrial Chemistry and Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: This paper describes the development of a dynamic simulation model for stirred tank batch or semi-batch chemical reactors fitted with an alternative heating-cooling system. Heat and mass balances are established for the reactor and its jacket. Since the general purpose of our research is the thermal control of these reactors, special attention is devoted to the behaviour of the heating-cooling system. In this article, we are particularly concerned with an alternative system, i.e. different fluids at a constant temperature can be alternatively delivered to the jacket. The computer simulation programme is flexible, enabling simulation of a batch or semi-batch reaction vessel, ranging from a laboratory pilot plant to a full-scale production plant. A control algorithm is included which allows reactor operation with open or closed-loop temperature control. To demonstrate the good performance of the simulation model, experimental results are presented for both a pilot plant and an industrial reactor.
    Additional Material: 17 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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