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  • Articles  (2)
  • Industrial chemistry  (1)
  • chymotrypsin  (1)
  • 1990-1994  (2)
  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0570-0833
    Keywords: Thermodynamics ; Thermodynamics ; Industrial chemistry ; Chemical process design ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Thermodynamic properties are essential for quantitative process design to produce chemical products. Caloric properties are required for heat balances, but these properties are usually available or estimated easily. More important - and often much more difficult to estimate - are the chemical potentials of components in mixtures; it is these potentials which determine phase equilibria, as required for separation operations, and chemical equilibria, as required for chemical reactors and for separation operations based on chemical reactions. Molecular thermodynamics is an engineering-oriented science for calculating the desired chemical potentials from a minimum of experimental data. This applied science, based on classical and statistical thermodynamics, yields chemical potentials through models that are based on molecular physics and physical chemistry. Selected examples are cited to illustrate the applicability of molecular thermodynamics: group-contribution methods for obtaining chemical potentials in highly nonideal mixtures as required for distillation-column and process-safety design; equation of state for precipitation of uniform-sized crystals from supercritical fluids; molecular-orbital calculations to guide process development for alternatives to environmentally dangerous chlorofluorohydrocarbons; molecular-simulation calculations for separation of gas mixtures with porous adsorbents; equilibria in two-phase aqueous systems for separation of protein mixtures; and, finally, extended polymer-solution thermodynamics to guide synthesis of hydrogels suitable for protein recovery from soybeans and for novel drug-delivery devices.
    Additional Material: 18 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: reverse micelle ; solubilization ; light scattering ; chymotrypsin ; LADH ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Solubilization properties of α-chymotrypsin and alcohol dehydrogenase (LADH) in reverse micelles are reported for three different solubilization techniques. The solubilization properties for these two proteins depend on the method used for protein addition. The addition of a dry protein powder to a reverse-micelle-containing organic phase does not appreciably solubilize the protein until the diameter of the reverse micelle is similar to that of the protein. However, when an aqueous protein solution is injected an organic phase, protein solubilization is not strongly dependent on micelle size. For chymotrypsin, multiple protein occupancy occurs at large micelle size, with as many as 11 chymotrypsin molecules solubilized in one reverse micelle. The solubilization of chymotrypsin using a phase-transter technique with a positively charged surfactant follows the expected traned based on protein-surfactant electrostatic interactions. When a negatively charged sufactants is used for phase transfer, at low pH the solubilization data do not fit this electrostatic interaction mechanism. In this case, proteinsurfactant aggregation may be occurring at the aqueousorganic interface.
    Additional Material: 10 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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