Key words Acute myeloid leukemia
Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
Abstract Intensive chemotherapy followed by treatment with interleukin-2 (IL-2) was evaluated in a prospective, randomized, multicenter trial including 18 patients with refractory anemia with excess of blasts in transformation (RAEB-T), 86 patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) evolving from myelodysplastic syndromes, and six patients with secondary AML after previous chemotherapy. Median age was 58 years (range: 18–76 years). Forty-nine patients (45%) achieved a complete remission (CR) after two induction cycles with idarubicin, ara-C, and etoposide, 52% of them aged ≤60 years and 35% aged 〉60 years (p=0.06). After two consolidation courses, patients were randomized to four cycles of either high- or low-dose IL-2. Patients aged up to 55 years with an HLA-identical sibling donor were eligible for allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. The median relapse-free survival was 12.5 months, with a probability of ongoing CR at 6.5 years of 19%. Overall survival of all patients was 8 months, and 21 months for the CR patients. Median survival was significantly longer among patients aged ≤60 years than among the older patients (16 vs 6 months, p〈0.001). Median duration of survival and relapse-free survival were not statistically different in the two IL-2 treatment arms.
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