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  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-1561
    Keywords: Morning-glory ; Ipomoea hederacea ; growth inhibition ; p-coumaric acid ; allelopathic interactions ; leucine ; methionine ; glucose ; nitrate
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract Studies of allelopathy have emphasized primarily the identification and quantification of phytotoxins in soils, with only limited attention directed toward how organic (carbon) and inorganic constituents (nutrients) in the soil may modify the action of such phytotoxins. In the present study, increasing carbon (C) levels (up to 108μg C/g soil) supplied as glucose, phenylalanine, orp-hydroxybenzoic acid did not alter morning-glory biomass, but similar C levels supplied as leucine, methionine, orp-coumaric acid were inversely related to morning-glory biomass. Similar joint action and multiplicative analyses were used to describe morning-glory biomass response to various C sources and to generate dose isolines for combinations ofp-coumaric acid and methionine at two NO3-N levels and for combinations ofp-coumaric acid and glucose at one NO3-N level. Methionine, glucose, and NO3-N treatments influenced the inhibitory action ofp-coumaric acid on biomass production of morning-glory seedlings. For example, results from the multiplicative analysis indicated that a 10% inhibition of morning-glory biomass required 7.5μgp-coumaric acid/g soil, while the presence of 3.68μg methionine/g soil thep-coumaric acid concentration required for 10% inhibition was only 3.75μg/ g soil. Similar response trends were obtained forp-coumaric acid and glucose. The higher NO3-N (14 vs. 3.5μg/g) treatments lowered the methionine and increased thep-coumaric acid concentrations required for 10% inhibition of morning-glory biomass. These results suggested that allelopathic interactions in soil environments can be a function of interacting neutral substances (e.g., glucose), promoters (e.g., NO3-N), and/or inhibitors (e.g., methionine andp-coumaric acid) of plant growth.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-1561
    Keywords: Cover crops ; wheat ; Triticum aestivum ; soybean ; Glycine max ; soil extracts ; germination bioassays ; phenolic acids ; hydroxamic acids ; allelopathy ; slope analysis ; ivy-leaved morning glory ; Ipomoea hederacea ; crimson clover ; Trifolium incarnalum
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract The primary objective of this research was to determine if soil extracts could be used directly in bioassays for the detection of allelopathic activity. Here we describe: (1) a way to estimate levels of allelopathic compounds in soil; (2) how pH, solute potential, and/or ion content of extracts may modify the action of allelopathic compounds on germination and radicle and hypocotyl length of crimson clover (Trifolium incarnatum L.) and ivyleaved morning glory (Ipomoea hederacea L. Jacquin.); and (3) how biological activity of soil extracts may be determined. A water-autoclave extraction procedure was chosen over the immediate-water and 5-hr EDTA extraction procedures, because the autoclave procedure was effective in extracting solution and reversibly bound ferulic acid as well as phenolic acids from wheat debris. The resulting soil extracts were used directly in germination bioassays. A mixture of phenolic acids similar to that obtained from wheat-no-till soils did not affect germination of clover or morning glory and radicle and hypocotyl length of morning glory. The mixture did, however, reduce radicle and hypocotyl length of clover. Individual phenolic acids also did not inhibit germination, but did reduce radicle and hypocotyl length of both species. 6-MBOA (6-methoxy-2,3-benzoxazolinone), a conversion product of 2-o-glucosyl-7-methoxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one, a hydroxamic acid in living wheat plants, inhibited germination and radicle and hypocotyl length of clover and morning glory. 6-MBOA, however, was not detected in wheat debris, stubble, or soil extracts. Total phenolic acids (FC) in extracts were determined with Folin and Ciocalteu's phenol reagent. Levels of FC in wheat-conventionaltill soil extracts were not related to germination or radicle and hypocotyl length of either species. Levels of FC in wheat-no-till soil extracts were also not related to germination of clover or morning glory, but were inversely related to radicle and hypocotyl length of clover and morning glory. FC values, solute potential, and acidity of wheat-no-till soil extracts appeared to be independent (additive) in action on clover radicle and hypocotyl length. Radicle and hypocotyl length of clover was inversely related to increasing FC and solute potential and directly related to decreasing acidity. Biological activity of extracts was determined best from slopes of radicle and hypocotyl length obtained from bioassays of extract dilutions. Thus, data derived from the water-autoclave extraction procedure, FC analysis, and slope analysis for extract activity in conjunction with data on extract pH and solute potential can be used to estimate allelopathic activity of wheat-no-till soils
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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