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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-2048
    Keywords: Key words: Callose ; Cellobiohydrolase ; Cellulose ; Nicotiana (pollen tube) ; Pollen grain ; Pollen tube
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract. The distribution of cellulose and callose in the walls of pollen tubes and grains of Nicotiana tabacum L. was examined by electron microscopy using gold-labelled cellobiohydrolase for cellulose and a (1,3)-β-D-glucan-specific monoclonal antibody for callose. These probes provided the first direct evidence that cellulose co-locates with callose in the inner, electron-lucent layer of the pollen-tube wall, while both polymers are absent from the outer, fibrillar layer. Neither cellulose nor callose are present in the wall at the pollen-tube tip or in cytoplasmic vesicles. Cellulose is first detected approximately 5–15 μm behind the growing tube tip, just before a visible inner wall layer commences, whereas callose is first observed in the inner wall layer approximately 30 μm behind the tip. Callose was present throughout transverse plugs, whereas cellulose was most abundant towards the outer regions of these plugs. This same distribution of cellulose and callose was also observed in pollen-tube walls of N. alata Link et Otto, Brassica campestris L. and Lilium longiflorum Thunb. In pollen grains of N. tabacum, cellulose is present in the intine layer of the wall throughout germination, but no callose is present. Callose appears in grains by 4 h after germination, increasing in amount over at least the first 18 h, and is located at the interface between the intine and the plasma membrane. This differential distribution of cellulose and callose in both pollen tubes and grains has implications for the nature of the β-glucan biosynthetic machinery.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-2048
    Keywords: Key words: Callose ; Callose synthase ; Nicotiana ; Plasma membrane ; Pollen tube ; Product entrapment
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract. The callose synthase (UDP-glucose: 1,3-β-d-glucan 3-β-d-glucosyl transferase; EC 2.4.1.34) enzyme (CalS) from pollen tubes of Nicotiana alata Link et Otto is responsible for developmentally regulated deposition of the cell wall polysaccharide callose. Membrane preparations from N. alata pollen tubes grown in liquid culture were fractionated by density-gradient centrifugation. The CalS activity sedimented to the denser regions of the gradient, approximately 1.18 g · ml−1, away from markers for Golgi, endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria, and into fractions enriched in ATPase activity and in membranes staining with phosphotungstic acid at low pH. This suggests that pollen-tube CalS is localised in the plasma membrane. Callose synthase activity from membranes enriched by downward centrifugation was solubilised with digitonin, which gave a 3- to 4-fold increase in enzyme activity, and the solubilised activity was then enriched a further 10-fold by product entrapment. The complete procedure gave final CalS specific activities up to 1000-fold higher than those of pollen-tube homogenates. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed that several polypeptides co-fractionated with CalS activity through purification, with a polypeptide of 190 kDa being enriched in product-entrapment pellets.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-2048
    Keywords: Key words: Callose ; Callose synthase ; Cell wall ; Nicotiana alata ; Pollen tube ; Zymogen
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract. The callose synthase (CalS) activity of membrane preparations from cultured Nicotiana alata Link & Otto pollen tubes is increased several-fold by treatment with trypsin in the presence of digitonin, possibly due to activation of an inactive (zymogen) form of the enzyme. Active and inactive forms of CalS are also present in stylar-grown tubes. Callose deposition was first detected immediately after germination of pollen grains in liquid medium, at the rim of the germination aperture. During tube growth the 3-linked glucan backbone of callose was deposited at an increasing rate, reaching a maximum of 65 mg h−1 in tubes grown from 1 g pollen. Callose synthase activity was first detected immediately after germination, and then also increased substantially during tube growth. Trypsin caused activation of CalS throughout a 30-h time course of tube growth, but the degree of activation was higher for younger pollen tubes. Over a 10-fold range of callose deposition rates, the assayed CalS activity was sufficient to account for the rate of callose deposition without trypsin activation, implying that the form of CalS active in isolated membranes is responsible for callose deposition in intact pollen tubes. Sucrose-density-gradient centrifugation separated a lighter, intracellular membrane fraction containing only inactive CalS from a heavier, plasma-membrane fraction containing both active and inactive CalS, with younger pollen tubes containing relatively more of the inactive intracellular enzyme. The increasing rate of callose deposition during pollen-tube growth may thus be caused by the transport of inactive forms of CalS from intracellular membranes to the plasma membrane, followed by the regulated activation of these inactive forms in this final location.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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