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  • emulsion liquid membrane  (2)
  • DNA probe assay  (1)
  • Key words:Female – Gout – Transplantation  (1)
  • 1
    ISSN: 1436-5073
    Keywords: electrogenerated Chemiluminescence ; Ru(bpy) 3 2+ ; detector ; flow injection analysis ; HPLC ; biosensing ; immunoassay ; DNA probe assay
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract Ru(bpy) 3 2+ electrogenerated chemiluminescence (CL) has rapidly gained importance as a sensitive and selective detection method in analytical science. The Ru(bpy) 3 2+ ECL is observed when Ru(bpy) 3 3+ reacts with Ru(bpy) 3 + and yields an excited state Ru(bpy) 3 2+* . ECL emission can also be obtained when a variety of oxidants and reductants react with the reduced or oxidized forms of Ru(bpy) 3 2+ . Either the reductant or the oxidant can be treated as an analyte. The Ru(bpy) 3 2+ ECL is used as a detection method for the determination of oxalate and a variety of amine-containing analytes without derivatization in flowing streams such as flow injection and HPLC. When the ECL format is used as a detector for HPLC, unstable post-column reagent addition can often be eliminated and, the problems of both sample dilution and band broadening can be avoided because the Ru(bpy) 3 3+ species are generatedin situ in the reaction/observation flow cell. Since NADH is sensitively detected with the Ru(bpy) 3 2+ ECL, many clinically important analytes can be detected by coupling them to dehydrogenase enzymes that utilize β-nicotinamide adenine cofactors to convert NAD+ to NADH. Ru(bpy) 3 2+ -derivatives are used as CL labels for immunoassay and PCR assay with Ru(bpy) 3 2+ /tripropylamine ECL system. The Ru(bpy) 3 2+ ECL label can be sensitively determined at subpicomolar concentrations, along with an extremely wide dynamic range of greater than six orders of magnitude. Furthermore, it can eliminate disposal and lifetime problems inherent in radio immunoassays. In this paper, basic principles of the Ru(bpy) 3 2+ ECL are discussed. In addition, analytical applications of the Ru(bpy) 3 2+ ECL are illustrated with examples.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0268-2575
    Keywords: penicillin G ; emulsion liquid membrane ; decomposition ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: To confirm the applicability for the extraction of penicillin G by an emulsion liquid membrane (ELM), the degree of decomposition of penicillin G during extraction was theoretically calculated. Decomposition was less than 1% provided that the initial sodium carbonate concentration in the internal phase was correctly determined, which proved the applicability of the ELM process. The procedure to determine the initial carbonate concentration in the internal phase was also described in order that the pH in the internal phase should be within the relatively stable range for penicillin G at the end of the extraction.
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0268-2575
    Keywords: penicillin G ; emulsion liquid membrane ; optimum extraction conditions ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Penicillin G extraction by an emulsion liquid membrane (ELM) was investigated. The effects of surfactants, diluents, and carrier mixtures, together with their combined effects on the initial extraction rate and the emulsion stability were examined. Surfactants, diluents, and carriers used were Span80 (sorbitan monooleate)/ECA4360J (nonionic polyamine), n-butyl acetate/kerosene, and DOA (dioctylamine)/Amberlite LA-2 (secondary amine), respectively. The optimum extraction conditions were found to be 20% (v/v) of Span80 in ECA4360J as a surfactant, kerosene as a diluent and Amberlite LA-2 as a carrier.
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1434-9949
    Keywords: Key words:Female – Gout – Transplantation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: In an endeavor to analyse the clinical characteristics of female gout, we reviewed 36 women with gout. Twenty-seven (75%) developed the first symptomatic episode of gout after the onset of the menopause. The mean age at onset of gout was 54.3 years (range 15–87 years). Twenty-two patients (61%) had hypertension, 17 (47%) had renal insufficiency, 13 (36%) used diuretics and 10 (28%) were taking cyclosporine for a renal allograft. Tophaceous gout occurred in 10 patients (27%) and polyarticular involvement was seen in 16 (44%) at initial presentation. Five of nine premenopausal patients were taking cyclosporine and four had renal insufficiency. A comparison with a control group of 72 randomly selected male patients with gout showed that the female patients were frequently receiving diuretics at the time of the attack and had significantly lower mean uric acid excretion, whereas significantly more male patients showed heavy alcohol consumption and precipitating events for an acute attack compared with the female patients. There were no significant differences between the sexes for onset age, hypertension, renal insufficiency, distribution of joint involvement, tophi and mean serum uric acid concentration. The female patients in this study had a lower mean age at onset of gout than in previous studies, which was attributed to the inclusion of renal transplantation patients. Transplantation gout patients receiving cyclosporine lower the mean age at onset of female gout and this is an emerging problem in female gout.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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