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  • Chemistry  (1)
  • Dextran-modified poly(methyl methacrylate) latex particles  (1)
  • Key words Colloidal stability  (1)
  • Key words Emulsion polymerization  (1)
  • (Acremonian)
  • 1995-1999  (4)
  • 1
    ISSN: 1435-1536
    Keywords: Key words Colloidal stability ; dextran-modified latex particles ; concanavalin A ; electrostatic/steric stabilization ; charge neutralization
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: Abstract The colloidal stability of the dextran-modified poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) latex particles toward adsorption of a carbohydrate-binding protein, concanavalin A (Con A), is primarily controlled by the charge neutralization mechanism. Formation of a crosslinked network structure via the specific affinity interactions between the dimeric Con A molecules and the dextran molecules anchored onto different latex particles may also have an impact on the coagulation kinetics. Judging from the data of coagulation kinetics, the colloidal stability of the latex particles toward added Con A in the decreasing order is: latex particles without dextran modification〉latex particles with a dextran content of 2.15%〉latex particles with a dex-tran content of 1.24% based on total polymer weight (PMMA+grafted dextran). The coagulation mechanisms involved in the adsorption of Con A onto the latex particles have been proposed to explain these experimental data. Charge neutralization of the negatively charged latex particles by adsorption of the positively charged Con A is the predominant destabilization mechanism. The ratio of the number of dextran active sites to that of Con A molecules plays an important role in the formation of the crosslinked network structure. The electrolytes in water cause a reduction in the electrostatic repulsion force among the interactive latex particles, but this ionic strength effect is not significant in comparison with charge neutralization.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1435-1536
    Keywords: Key words Isothermal equilibrium adsorption ; Concanavalin A ; Dextran-modified poly(methyl methacrylate) latex particles ; Electrostatic/affinity interactions
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: Abstract Isothermal equilibrium adsorption experiments were carried out to study the adsorption of concanavalin A (Con A) on dextran-modified poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) latex particles. Three PMMA particles with various levels of dextran modification were selected for study: 0% (designated as D0), 1.24% (D20), and 2.45% (D75) based on total polymer weight. The Langmuir model is applicable to both D0 and D20 systems, although the data for the D20 system are somewhat scattered. On the other hand, the amount of Con A adsorbed per gram polymer particles (q*) versus the Con A concentration in water (c*) curve for the D75 system cannot be described by the Langmuir model. The deviation is attributed to the formation of a crosslinked network structure, caused by specific binding of the dimeric Con A molecules onto two neighboring particles with grafted dextran. The ratio of the initial number of Con A molecules to the initial number of active binding sites on the dextran-modified particle surface plays an important role in determining the structure of flocs formed. The maximum amount of Con A adsorbed on the particle surface (q max) is of the order of 10−1 μmol per gram particles and q max in decreasing order is D75 〉 D20 〉 D0. The dissociation constant of the Con A-D20 (or Con A-D75) pair is of the order of 10−1 μmol dm−3 which is 1 order of magnitude smaller than that of the Con A-D0 pair. Thus, the electrostatic interaction between Con A and D0 is much weaker than the affinity interaction between Con A and D20 (or D75). An empirical model is proposed to qualitatively explain the q* versus c* data.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1435-1536
    Keywords: Key words Emulsion polymerization ; poly(methyl methacrylate) ; dextranstabilizer ; concanavalin A ; affinity purification ; colloidal stability
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: Abstract  Stable poly(methyl methacrylate) latex particles (220–360 nm in diameter) using dextran as the protective colloid were prepared and characterized in this study. Such an emulsion polymerization system follows Smith–Ewart Case III kinetics (i.e., the average number of free radicals per particle is greater than 0.5) due to the relatively large latex particle size. The carbohydrate content of these dextran modified emulsion polymers shows a maximum around 5% dextran based on total monomer weight. The latex stability during polymerization is closely related to the carbohydrate content of these latex particles, and it is controlled by the ratio of the thickness of the dextran adsorption layer to that of the electric double layer of the latex particles. The critical flocculation concentration (CFC) of the latex products correlates well with the latex stability during polymerization. The greater the total scrap produced during polymerization (i.e., the stronger the bridging flocculation), the lower is the CFC of the latex products. The affinity precipitation of concanavalin A (a model lectin used in this study) by the dextran modified PMMA latex particles is also illustrated in this study. The specifically adsorbed concanavalin A increases with the carbohydrate content of the dextran modified latex particles.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0142-2421
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Thin (750 Å) plasma-polymerized films of acetylene were deposited onto polished steel substrates in an inductively coupled r.f. reactor. The films were characterized by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) immediately after deposition and after aging in the atmosphere. The FTIR spectra of the as-deposited films were characterized by bands related to mono- and disubstituted acetylene groups and by bands related to methyl and methylene groups. During exposure to the atmosphere, bands related to acetylenic groups decreased in intensity while new bands due to carbonyl groups appeared. When XPS spectra were obtained from films that were exposed to the atmosphere, new components assigned to oxidation products were observed in the C 1s spectra that were not observed for as-deposited films, verifying that oxidation had occurred. Numerous peaks related to aromatic structures were observed in positive SIMS spectra of as-deposited films. Results obtained from AES showed that the plasma-polymerized films were continuous and that the oxide on the substrate surface was partially reduced during deposition.Plasma-polymerized acetylene films were excellent primers for rubber-to-steel bonding. Miniature lap joints were prepared by using rubber as an ‘adhesive’ to bond together pairs of polished steel adherends primed with plasma-polymerized acetylene films. The force required to break the as-prepared joints was ∼2000 N for a bonded area of 64 mm2 and failure was 100% cohesive in the rubber. Similar results were obtained for joints prepared using polished brass substrates.Because of the complexity of reactions between rubber and the plasma-polymerized primer, a model ‘rubber’ consisting of a mixture of squalene, zinc oxide, carbon black, sulfur, stearic acid, cobalt naphthenate, N,N-dicyclohexylbenzothiazole sulfenamide and diaryl-p-diphenyleneamine was used to simulate the cross-linking reaction. The results obtained using XPS, SIMS, AES and FTIR showed that sulfur diffused through the primer to form a layer of sulfide at the primer/substrate interface. Zinc and cobalt sulfides and perthiomercaptides, which formed at the interface between squalene and the plasma-polymerized acetylene primer, catalyzed the reaction between squalene and the primer. Cross-links between squalene and the primer were mostly mono-sulfidic, although some evidence for di- and trisulfidic cross-links was observed.
    Additional Material: 17 Ill.
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