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  • Carnitine  (1)
  • Immune competence  (1)
  • Key words Bladder cancer  (1)
  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: Key words Bladder cancer ; Fluorescent photodetection ; Photodynamic diagnosis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Objective: In an open study, the local and systemic side effects and pharmacokinetics of 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) and the fluorescent metabolite protoporphyrin IX (PPIX) were investigated after intravesical administration for the fluorescent photodetection of superficial bladder carcinoma. Patients and methods: In 20 patients with confirmed bladder carcinoma, 5-ALA was introduced into the bladder 2 h (15 patients) and 4 h (5 patients) before an elective endoscopic resection. The 5-ALA and PPIX levels in the plasma were determined before and up to 10 h after application, and in the urine 2 h or 4 h after application. Results: The plasma level of 5-ALA rose rapidly, the maximal concentration (340 ng/ml) being reached in 0.55 h (2 h) or 0.62 h (4 h). The elimination half-life of 5-ALA amounted to 0.74 h (2 h) or 0.79 h (4 h). In five of the patients, there was a measurable plasma concentration which ranged from the detection limit of 4.3 ng/ml to 14 ng/ml between 2 h and 5 h after application, and then fell below the detection limit after 9 h. Absorption of 5-ALA by the bladder was low, i.e. less than 1% of the total amount applied. During a period of observation of 96 h, no 5-ALA-specific side effects appeared. Conclusion: Because of the small quantity of 5-ALA resorbed following its intravesical administration, only minimal concentrations of PPIX that are responsible for producing side effects can be metabolised in the plasma. Therefore, no systemic side effects are to be expected after the intravesical administration of 5-ALA.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Urological research 14 (1986), S. 241-246 
    ISSN: 1434-0879
    Keywords: Seminal fluid ; Biochemical analysis ; Citrate ; Fructose ; Carnitine
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The measurement of biochemical markers in human seminal plasma is important in the evaluation of male infertility. We recommend the measurement of one representative substance for each organ involved in seminal fluid production as a routine diagnostic tool: The initial fructose level for seminal vesicular function, citrate or acid phosphatase for the prostate gland and free carnitine as an index of epididymal function. A biochemical analysis of seminal fluid enables us to detect disturbances of the male adnexal organs and may lead to more exact therapy.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-1335
    Keywords: Whole blood cell cultures ; Cytokine production ; Urogenital carcinomas ; Immune competence
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The production of the cytokines interferon γ (IFN γ), interleukin-1 α (IL-1 α) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF α) was investigated in the mitogen-stimulated whole blood cell culture media from 51 patients with urinary bladder carcinomas, 52 patients with renal carcinomas, 31 patients with prostatic carcinomas and 360 healthy controls. The cytokines were measured 4 days after induction by a sensitive enzymo-immunological assay. In the blood cell culture supernatants of the patients with urinary bladder carcinomas significancy lower levels of IFN γ (P≤0.001), IL-2 (P≤0.001) and TNFα (P≤0.05) were found as compared to the controls. Blood cells of patients with renal carcinomas had lower production of IFN γ (P≤0.01), IL-2 (P≤0.001) and IL-1α (P≤0.01), whereas the values of the total group of patients with prostatic carcinomas were not significantly different from those of the controls. Lymphocyte and monocyte counts were almost identical in the control and all tumor patient groups. When the patients with renal carcinomas and prostatic carcinomas were analyzed according to their different clinical stages we could show a gradual depression of the IFN-γ levels, which was related to tumor burden.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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